Learningmatrix learning theories

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Learningmatrix learning theories

  1. 1. Learning Theories and Instructional Design By Christy Case Walden University EDUC 6115 Prof. Dr. Shirley Weaver April 16, 2011 Go to Learning Matrix
  2. 2. Questions Behaviorism Cognitivism Constructivism Social Learning Connectivism Adult Learning InteractionsHow does learning Stimulus/Resp Transforming/Roccur? Self-led with Networking Self-directed onse ehearsing surroundings Prior Social IndividualWhat factors Feedback/Rein Attention/Perce Language/Cultinfluence learning? knowledge/envi networks/techn goals/life forcement ption ure ronmental ology impacts Habitual viaWhat is the role of Self- Social Varies bymemory? stimulus/respo Rehearsal Networking constructed Interaction learner choices nse Respect ofHow does transfer Stimulus/Resp Socialoccur? Repetition Participation Network nodes designers/educ onse Interaction atorsWhat types oflearning are best Knowledge/Ap Application/Ana Application/Ana Analysis/Synthexplained by this Knowledge All plication lysis/Synthesis lysis/Synthesis esistheory? Screensharing/gHow is technology Live meeting Quia, Hot Social roup Social Online/print/auused for learning in virtual Potato, networks/compayour industry? learning/online Networking dio/visual platforms Articulate ny website self-study Learning Theories Matrix Click on the Theory to See More Detail References
  3. 3. Behaviorism - How Does Learning Occur?• Learners relate to physical/visible stimuli and responses (Ormrod, 2011)• Learned habits (Standridge, 2001)
  4. 4. Behaviorism - What Factors Influence Learning?• Sequencing• Feedback/Reinforcem ent (Standridge, 2001)
  5. 5. Behaviorism - What is the Role of Memory?• Mind remembers responses to stimuli which encourages or discourages behaviors until the habit is formed
  6. 6. Behaviorism - How Does Transfer Occur? • Through stimulus and response
  7. 7. Behaviorism - What Types of Learning are Best Explained? • Knowledge and application - forming habits allows for easy recall (remembering/knowledg e) and for ease of application
  8. 8. Behaviorism - How isTechnology Used for Learning in My Industry?• In design, focusing on objectives to start the design process is key to a strong program• Objectives are presented throughout materials but are reinforced through instructors through a virtual learning platform of live online meetings• Examples of live platforms that could be used are Adobe Connect Pro, Centra, Windows Live Meeting, Web Ex, Elluminate, Go To Training/Meeting Go to Learning Matrix
  9. 9. Cognitivism - How Does Learning Occur?• Connecting to what is already known• Mental organization• Transforming and rehearsing• Internal mental processes; the mental process between stimuli and response (Ormrod, 2009)
  10. 10. Cognitivism - What Factors Influence Learning? • Attention • Perception • Mental Processes
  11. 11. Cognitivism - What is the Role of Memory?• Many theories of how memory works within cognitivism exist: two- store, levels of processing, activation level, to name a few• All theories associated with cognitivism agree that rehearsal is the key to remembering starting with encoding, storage, and then retrieval
  12. 12. Cognitivism - How Does Transfer Occur?• Through repetition, knowledge transfers to long-term memory and the learner is able to recall those memories
  13. 13. Cognitivism - What Types of Learning are Best Explained? • Knowledge (remembering information) is very well explained by cognitivism - repetition increases learners ability to recall (remember)
  14. 14. Cognitivism - How is Technology Used for Learning in My Industry?• Various programs assist with development of learning games that help connect prior knowledge to current application• Examples: Quia (online learning game program), Hot Potato (creates flash games that can be loaded to various virtual learning platforms), Articulate (create flash presentations with learning games embedded) Go to Learning Matrix
  15. 15. Constructivism- How Does Learning Occur?• Learning is self-led• Learners construct theories of knowledge and know truths only by what they construct through their self-led instruction guided by their theories (Ormrod, 2009)
  16. 16. Constructivism - WhatFactors Influence Learning?• Exogenous - world influences - exposure to various experiences• Endogenous - previously acquired knowledge• Dialectical - interactions with environment
  17. 17. Constructivism - What is the Role of Memory?• Learners tend to remember more if they construct the knowledge themselves• Memory is produced by mixing prior knowledge with current context
  18. 18. Constructivism - How Does Transfer Occur?• The learner strives to acquire knowledge and through asking questions of their own knowledge, increases knowledge• Assisted with group and individual projects that are not necessarily instructor led
  19. 19. Constructivism - What Types of Learning are Best Explained? • Application, Analysis, and Synthesis can be explained by constructivism • Topics that are vague and social in nature are explained well with constructivist theories
  20. 20. Constructivism - How isTechnology Used for Learning in My Industry?• Screensharing capabilities (allow learners to control screen to apply instruction)• Small groups (available in various virtual learning platforms)• Self-study via online courses (various LMS systems available for this - Facebook can be used as an LMS as well) Go to Learning Matrix
  21. 21. Social Learning - How Does Learning Occur?• Through interactions with other people, cultures, and individual experience per Vygotsky (Ormrod, 2009)
  22. 22. Social Learning - WhatFactors Influence Learning?• Language• Cultural institutions• Cultural objects
  23. 23. Social Learning - What is the Role of Memory?• Memories are more easily recalled if connected to a social interaction
  24. 24. Social Learning - How Does Transfer Occur?• Social interactions with tools, objects, people, adult/child, etc.
  25. 25. Social Learning - What Types of Learning are Best Explained? • Like Constructivism: Application, Analysis, and Synthesis • Topics that are vague and social in nature are explained well with constructivist theories
  26. 26. Social Learning - How isTechnology Used for Learning in My Industry?• Social Networking (Ning, Facebook, Twitter)• Blogging• LMS forums• Company forums Go to Learning Matrix
  27. 27. Connectivism - How Does Learning Occur?• Via networking - receiving and sharing alike• Technology and visualization
  28. 28. Connectivism - What Factors Influence Learning?• Social networks and diversity of opinions without those networks• Technologies• Overall learning environment (Siemens, 2011)
  29. 29. Connectivism - What is the Role of Memory?• Memory is defined by connection of nodes - networking• Patterning• Memory may be non-human - stored in an appliance (Davis, 2008)
  30. 30. Connectivism - How Does Transfer Occur?• Connections to nodes within the learners network (Davis, 2008)
  31. 31. Connectivism - What Types of Learning are Best Explained? • Analysis and synthesis • More complex topics • Topics that are rapidly changing like the technology that defines the theory (Davis, 2008)
  32. 32. Connectivism - How isTechnology Used for Learning in My Industry?• Social Networking (i.e. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn)• LMS Forums• Company website Go to Learning Matrix
  33. 33. Adult Learning - How Does Learning Occur?•Self-directed•Through participation starting with determiningtopics through final results•(Lieb, 1991)
  34. 34. Adult Learning - WhatFactors Influence Learning?• Educational goals• Work goals• Life impact
  35. 35. Adult Learning - What is the Role of Memory?• Memories are developed using a variety of skills based on learners choices
  36. 36. Adult Learning - How Does Transfer Occur?• Via respect from instructors and designers regarding learners desire to learn
  37. 37. Adult Learning - What Types of Learning are Best Explained? • All types of learning can be associated with adult learning.
  38. 38. Adult Learning - How isTechnology Used for Learning in My Industry?• Online LMS• Social Learning (i.e. Facebook, Twitter, blogs, forums)• Audiobooks• Videos• Print (offered online also as PDF) Go to Learning Matrix
  39. 39. References• Davis, C., Edmunds, E., & Kelly-Bateman, V. (2008). Connectivism. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved on April 16, 2011 from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Connectivism• Kerr, Bill. (2001). _isms a filter, not a blinker. Bill Kerr Blog. Retrieved on April 16, 2011 from http://billkerr2.blogspot.com/2007/01/isms-as-filter-not-blinker.html• Lieb, Stephen. (1991). Principles of Adult Learning. VISION. Retrieved on April 16, 2011 from http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/adults-2.htm.• Ormrod, Jeanne. (2011). Behaviorism and Instructional Design. Video for Walden University.• Ormrod, J., Schunk, D., & Gredler, M. (2009). Learning theories and instruction (Laureate custom edition). New York: Pearson.• Siemens, George. (2011). Connectivism. Video for Walden University.• Standridge, M. (2001). Behaviorism. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved on April 16, 2011 from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Behaviorism

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