Mindfulness coaching model


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Mindfulness coaching model

  1. 1. MINDFULNESS COACHING MODEL Student No: 7932298 Efthymios Varenzakis October 2011
  2. 2. MINDFULNESS COACHING MODEL1. Assumptions Underpinning the ModelT he history and roots of mindfulness is based on Eastern philosophy and religion, such as Buddhism, Zen, Taoism and similar contemplative traditions where conscious attention and awareness is cultivated (Brown and Ryan 2003). Brown and Ryan (2003: 822) definemindfulness as “the state of being attentive to and aware of what is taking place in the present”.Mindfulness can be defined as bringing an individual‟s complete attention to an experienceoccurring in the present moment, in a non judgmental, non reactive and a totally aware manner.(Brown and Ryan 2003;Kabat-Zinn1990).Nisbett (2003) observed that western science andphilosophy is learning from eastern science and philosophy and spiritual and health practices. Canthis be true with business and the coaching profession? The eastern practices and philosophies, fitcomfortably with the Mindfulness Coaching Model, where the theory and literature reviewedstrongly link and infer the above assertion.The positive effects and significance of mindfulness practices and techniques in alternative health,healing, integrative medicine, sports and well being disciplines are well documented. Healthresearchers have established that mindfulness practices are significant in managing chronic pain,health conditions and stress levels, as measured and observed by quantifiable elements such ascortisol, dopamine and serotonin levels (Kabat-Zinn, Lipworth, Burney 1985; Kabat-Zinn 1990;Kabat-Zinn, Massion, Kristeller, Peterson, Fletcher, Pbert, Lenderking and Santorelli 1992; Berger2002; Brown, Ryan 2003; Braham 2006; Tang, Ma, Wang, Fan, Feng, Lu Yusui, Rothbart and Fan2007; Tang and Posner 2008).The Mindfulness Coaching Model further promulgates the abovefindings by applying these principles not only to health practices and well being but to the field ofcoaching .The Mindfulness Coaching Framework is based on a social constructivist approach. This approachwould suggest that the world is to be invented by individuals and “ordinary people”(Putman 2009),and not discovered objectively by the quantifiable limitations placed on by a logical positivistconstruct. The field of Neuroleadership and social cognitive neuroscience also supports the socialconstructivist and postmodernist paradigm (Rock and Page 2009; Rock 2009; Ringleb and Rock2009; Rock, Tang and Dixon 2009; Blakemore, Winston and Frith 2004).The Mindfulness Coaching Framework has linkages to quantum theory,neuroscience, and theinterdisciplinary field ofNeuroleadership, Seligman‟s Positive Psychology and Daniel Siegel‟sInterpersonal Neurobiology(Mindsight).These scientific linkages and connections are academically 2|Page
  3. 3. and theoretically supportive of each other, and facilitate a platform for the Mindfulness CoachingModel and paradigm to be created, which harnesses holistic and systemic principles.Love and Maloney (2009)suggest the idea that mindfulness is at “the threshold of leadership‟snext wave”. Their view states that leaders can move from a continuum of; unconscious, self aware,self-regulating and systemic leaders, once the transition past the “mindfulness threshold “hasoccurred.Figure 1: (Love and Maloney 2008:98)With the MindfulnessCoaching Model the coaching professional will access mindfulness practicesand techniques as tools to enhance the coaching experience and coachees will tap into thesemethodologies of which some have been available for thousands of years, particularly in theeastern philosophy and culture.2. Mindfulness Coaching ModelThe coaching framework focuses on the following four key modalities; Mind, Body, Cognition andEmotion. These are the cornerstones of “integration”(Siegel, 2010). Once the four modalitiesareintegrated, with the influence of The Mindfulness Wheel, “positive change” or “dynamic stability”may be facilitated. This change and stability is created by the process of Neuroplasticity (Rock andPage, 2009). The current coaching model has formulated the Mindfulness Wheel, which includesthe “ingredients” that are necessary for integration and for “positive change” to be facilitated. 3|Page
  4. 4. MIND BODY COGNITION EMOTION Figure 2: Mindfulness Coaching ModelFigure 2 represents the Mindfulness Coaching Model, with the four modalities (mind, body,cognition and emotion) represented at each corner of the square. The centre of the MindfulnessWheel represents the state of “positive change” or “dynamic stability” that occurs once thecoaching tools and techniques of the Mindfulness Wheel are implemented by the coachee. Thereare six mindfulness coaching tools and techniques on the Mindfulness Wheel that a coachee willimplement in the coaching process. The proceeding paragraphs will discuss “positive change”,plasticity and the four modalities, and then present the Mindfulness Wheel.2.1. POSITIVE CHANGE,DYNAMIC STABILITY AND PLASTICITYNeuroplasticity refers to the brain‟s capacity for change beyond childhood and adolescence. Thebrain and more particularly neurons in the brain are not hardwired permanently, in neurologicalpathways that are established in early childhood. Through focused attention, and repetition theneural pathways of the brain have some plasticity and ability to change (Restak 2004; Rock andPage 2009). 4|Page
  5. 5. Neuroplasticity facilitates positive change in a system, allowing it to evolve and develop, and notremain static and inflexible to change. The Schwartz-Rock Dynamic Stability formula is amathematical expression of positive change and in understanding neuroplasticity (Rock and Page2009: 171-190).Dynamic Stability- this is known as the Schwartz–Rock formula for dynamic stability (Rock andPage 2009, 171-190) Expressed as follows: DS= (exptn + exprnce) x AD+ x VP DS= Dynamic Stability or positive “change” and exptn = expectancy and exprnce= experience AD+= attention density VP= veto powerAnd described as follows By Rock and Page (2009:171)“….dynamic stability equals a combination of expectation and experience multiplied by positiveattention density multiplied by veto power. Dynamic stability is another way of saying “positivechange,” change that allows a system to adapt and develop, rather than remaining inflexible andunable to respond, and to do this without becoming overwhelmed by chaos.In the above formula expectation(associated with placebo) plus experience can be likened tomindfulness techniques that use imagery, heightened levels of suggestibility such as inhypnogogic states , hypnosis and visualization techniques .Furthermore the coaching question“What do you want” often repeated makes clear and triggers the coachee‟s desires and intentions,and the coach allows the client to „expect‟ a good outcome (Rock and Page 2009,176).The nextvariable in the Schwartz–Rock formula is “attention density”, which can be described as exertingfocused and conscious energy. By applying this focused energy, the higher the “attention density”,there is a multiplier effect to the dynamic stability formula, and this may establish new neuralpathways and facilitate for a “potentiating brain” and a “mind creating brain” effect. Mindfulnesspractices such as meditation, contemplation, introspection often deploy high levels of focusedenergy, which can be conceptualized as creating or facilitating the “attention density” variable ofthe above formula. 5|Page
  6. 6. Finally “veto power” in the formula has also got a multiplier effect to the dynamic stability outcome.In mindfulness practices self-regulation particularly in managing emotional, cognitive and evenphysical states have been clinically tested and observed (Refer further to Kabat-Zinn1994; Kabat-Zinn 2003; Kabat-Zinn 2010 ; Langer 2009;). So in fact “veto power” may be conceptualised as theself-regulatory benefits of mindfulness practices. Mindfulness practices or techniques such asmeditation, tai chi, yoga, qigong, practices which all require focused attention equivalent to“attention density”, and areassociated with self regulatory outcomes which may be represented by“veto power”.2.2. MINDDaniel Siegel (2010) in collaboration with a UCLA interdepartmental peer group formulated adefinition of the Mind in 1992. Siegel defined the mind as follows:“The human mind is a relationalembodied process that regulates the flow of energy and information.”Breaking down this definition Siegel(2010:52) commences the analysis by explaining that energyis the “capacity to carry out an action”- this may be physical or mental action.He further explainsthat this energy can be conceptualized in differing forms such as potential, kinetic,radiant, andneural energies.Information is described as “anything that symbolizes something other thanitself”.The meaning of information is created and defined by the mind.Siegel (2010:53) furtherelaborates that “energy and information go hand in hand in the movement of or minds”. He furtherexplains that the regulatory aspect of the mind allows for monitoring and modification.Theembodied aspect of the mind essentially describes that the mind is encapsulated in the body,neural system and the brain.The relational aspect of the mind describes the fact that the energyand information flow happens in relation to other objects, people or experiences. This definition ofthe mind gave rises to the interdisciplinary study of Interpersonal Neurobiology.2.3. BODYProgressing into the 21st Century the necessary connections and links are made between mentaland physical health and mind and body. Questions we need to ask of ourselves and ourbodiesare(Rock and Page 2009): How do our bodies in harmony with our minds achieve optimal functioning as a whole? How do we develop our bodies to achieve greater potential and experience peak performance? How do we manage greater achievements and minimize stress? What are truly healthy lifestyles for our bodies over the long term? 6|Page
  7. 7. Ratey and Hagerman (2009) in their book Spark, identify that the brain, and the biochemistry ofthe brain are integrally interconnect to the body and the biochemistry of the body. They succinctlyexplain how physical exercise expended by the body can keep the balance between mind, brainand the body.Ratey and Hagerman(2009:4-5) state:To keep our brains at peak performance, ourbodies need to work. In Spark, Ill demonstrate how and why physical activity is crucial to the waywe think and feel. Ill explain the science of how exercise cues the building blocks of learning in thebrain; how it affects mood, anxiety, and attention; how it guards against stress and reverses someof the effects of aging in the brain; and how in women it can help stave off the sometimestumultuous effects of hormonal changes”.According to the historian Sigerist(1961,9), Greek and Indian cultures placed high value on themedicinal and health promoting aspects of physical exercise. Rock and Page(2009) claim thatneuroscience propagates treating the mind and body as a whole, and not as separate andindependent entities. They suggest that this is what has generated interest in coaching with asystemic and whole holistic approach.Rock and Page(2009) further state that individuals who areinvolved in peak performance and wanting to reach their full potential, need to be us physicallyhealthy as possible, so as to push their minds and bodies to the limits without affecting their health.They suggest that a balanced diet, exercise, enough sleep, and manageable levels of stress mayimprove health and life expectancy. Rock and Page(2009:124) also endorses the notion thatmindfulness exercises put people in touch with significant messages from their bodies on how tokeep healthy. In Siegel‟s (2010:11) triangle of well-being the mind, body and attunedrelationshipconnections are clearly identified and the necessary linkages are made with each other.2.4. COGNITIONRock and Page (2009) approach cognition as follows; memory, awareness, mapping andpredicting, dilemma model and finally decision-making and problem solving.Memory use is divided into short-term and long-term memory as reported by Rock and Page(2009). Short-term memory they report according to Miller‟s article at the onset of the cognitiverevolution in the 1950‟s can manage up to seven items. Short-term memory involvesunderstanding by focusing the flow of energy and attention of our minds. Short-term memoryinvolves decision-making and Rock and Page (2009:250) state “Decision-making doubles the flowof energy required to attend to the variables.” Short-term memory is also particularly associatedwith memorizing. Memorizing suggests newly established neural pathways, for recall purposes atlater stage. Rock and Page (2009) state that with memorizing we require to “regulate the flow ofenergy.” Working memory also involves recalling information from long-term memory banks to 7|Page
  8. 8. current attention. This process also suggests a focus flow of energy and attention. Inhibiting is theprocess of filtering information that does not require being stored in the working memory.The three areas of working memory improvement are visualising, chunking and ordering. Theysuggest that seeing something in one‟s mind‟s eye and experiencing it in real life creates the sameeffect. Therefore visualisation techniques have positive outcomes, which can be successfullyutilised in the Mindfulness Coaching Model.What is particularly relevant to cognition and particularly reference to memory is the level ofawareness as described by Rock and Page (2009). They suggest that the level of attention oftenassociated with practicing and activity with a level of focus and attention can “induce brainhardwiring” and they quote Donald Hebb “the neurons that fire together wire together.”The necessary link of cognition and mindfulness as analysed above, is that cognition in generalrequires focused attention, awareness and repeated practice to facilitate insight and “positivechange”. Mindfulness practices generally apply the same principles of attention focus. Often theinsights, as described in esoteric and metaphysical literature are closely related to notions of“enlightenment” and cognition arising from protracted states of contemplation or “thinking aboutthinking” Rock(2006).2.5. EMOTIONSRock and Page (2009:347) state “Emotions are an evolutionary adaptation that motivatesorganisms to respond to environmental changes.” They further suggest that emotions are anintegration of mind, body, brain and social information, which can aptly be described as a “state orframe of mind.” Neurological pathways firing in a particular pattern become hardwired andultimately formulate a human‟s personality. The emotional state of a person will affect the abilityfor a leader (coachee) to act appropriately or otherwise in an organisation and work environment.Mindfulnessstrongly correlates with emotionalawareness(Bishop,Lau,Shapiro,Carlson,Andeson,Carmody,Segal,Abbey,Speca,Velting,Devins 2004) andEmotional Intelligence as conceptualised by Goleman (1995). Brown and Ryan (2003) andHassed (2008) also support this view. Hassed (2008) reports that there is a positive relationshipwith people who rate highly on mindfulness scales and individuals rating highly on EmotionalIntelligence (EI) measures.The converse is said to be true regarding mindlessness, which isdefined as “relative absence of mindfulness” (Brown and Ryan 2003:823)Goleman(1995), in his book Emotional Intelligence, strongly suggests that a human‟s capacity tosucceed in a social or organisational situation is dependent not on the measure of intelligence 8|Page
  9. 9. quotient (IQ), but more so on “emotional intelligence” (EQ). Rock and Page (2009:352-353)describe Goleman‟s “amygdala hijack” as follows: generalisations, reducing metabolism in theprefrontal cortex, erring on the side of pessimism, confusing psychological and physical threats”.A common theme in emotional intelligence and coaching literature (Goleman 1995; Rock 2009;Ringleb and Rock 2008; Rock, Tang and Dixon 2009; Rock and Page2009) is emotional regulation,which can be described as the ability to manage one‟s emotions appropriately, which is a highlydesirable quality in business. Emotional regulation is cultivated in the coaching process and in theNeuroleadership field this quality is defined as “keeping cool under pressure.”The necessary link between emotions and mindfulness is the concept of facilitating or cultivating adesired “state of mind” and emotional regulation. Ideal states of mind are expressed with particularbrainwave activities; Alpha, Beta, Delta and gamma brain waves for the hypnogogic andhypnopompic states. More significantly, gamma waves are associated with deep meditation,indicative of neurons firing rapidly in harmony, and associatedto increased emotional regulation.3. THE MINDFULNESS WHEELThe Mindfulness Coaching Wheel has six coaching tools and techniques to be utilized with thecoachee: Figure 3: The Mindfulness WheelFigure 3 describes The Mindfulness Wheel which involves six recommended coaching tools andtechniques to be implemented by the coachee. These are Relaxation, Meditative Breathing,Visualisation, Contemplation (Thinking about Thinking), Narratives and Metaphors, and AerobicExercise and Nutrition. The six coaching tools and techniques are discussed in further detail in theproceeding paragraphs. 9|Page
  10. 10. 3.1. RELAXATIONSmith (1999) provided the first evidence-based description of relaxation outcomes, anddemonstrated the relationship between personal beliefs and relaxation.He further suggests thatworld religions have offeredexplanations of mental and psychological states claimed to be linkedto relaxation.Various relaxation techniques extend from visualisation, imagery, meditation, prayer to ordinarymuscular relaxation. Smith (1999) states that in the academic literature there are over 200 benefitsin every realm of life that have been documented from relaxation techniques. He further states thatrelaxations is a professional tool that can be utilised extensively by clinical psychologists, sportcoaches, social workers councillors, organisational and industrial consultants.According to Smith (1999) the key to relaxation is sustaining attention while diminishing overtbehaviour and covert cognitive processes.Relaxation techniques include muscle relaxation,breathing, stretching, imagery, and autogenic training.Berger (2002) suggests that hypnosis and relaxation techniques are important ancillary skills forthe suitably qualified coach. These techniques facilitate for the Schwartz Rock Dynamic Stabilityformula variables to create a platform for “positive change” or “Dynamic Stability”3.2. MEDITATIVE BREATHINGAny form of meditative practice that focuses on the breath. This can be a formof movingmeditation such as Tai Chi, Qi Qong, Yoga, alternative-nostril breathing or any other breath basedmeditation. This meditation approximates the Attention Density (AD) and Veto Power(VP)variablein the Schwartz Rock Dynamic Stability formula.Reiner (2009) reports that regular deep meditation changes the brain in positive ways. Meditationseems to be associated with gamma waves, the electromagnetic rhythm of neurons firing veryrapidly in harmony. Neuroscience describes meditation as a series of mental exercises by which aperson strengthens control over the working of their brain and emotional regulation.Studies have described the benefits of evenshort term meditation. Benefits include betterperformance on rapid fire visual tests, Meditation practises are known to increase parasympatheticactivity which has a calming effect on the respiratory system and metabolism. (Berger 2008),Brahan (2006) documents how meditation practices can benefit both the coach and coachee.Tanget al (2007) and Tang and Postner (2008) conducted research to establish body-mind aspectsofmeditation and meditative practices.They established that the beneficial effects are self- 10 | P a g e
  11. 11. regulation, increased attention,and ability to be present in the moment and reduced overall stresslevels.3.3. VISUALISATIONVisualisation techniques focus on coaching outcomes based on the“expectancy” and “experience”variables as described in the Schwartz Rock Dynamic Stability formula.Visualisation techniquesinclude visualising desired positive changes, imagery, and hypnosis. Berger (2002) describes how“transitional visualisation” which includes hypnosis and relaxation theory is a useful tool in thecoaching process, and assists coaches in positive coaching breakthroughs.”TransitionalVisualisation is a process where the coachee visualises the true reality of a situation and thendevelops motivation to move from it to something better. This is a process of transition and“positive change”.3.4. CONTEMPLATION“THINKING ABOUT THINKING”The contemplation process will engage the cognitive processes of the coachee in order to betterunderstand his behaviours and thinking. With the contemplative practices, short term and longterm memories of the coachee are accessed, interpreted, and reinterpreted with narrative storiesand metaphors that may also be co-created. Attention levels and focus is applied to decisionmaking, and problem solving with the contemplation techniques, where oftenvisualization,chunking and ordering exercises are undertaken to achieve desired cognition.Prochaska‟s (1979) transtheoretical analysis and Prochaska,Norcross and DiClemente(1994) thatstudied more than 1000 people who had made permanent and positive changes in their lives, withparticular interest to coaching presented the following “contemplative model” for change: Pre –contemplation. There s no intent to take action or change(in the next six months) Contemplation.There is intention to take action within the next six months. Preparation. Prepared to take action within thirty days and behavioural changes are contemplated. Action. Overt behaviour has changed for less than six months. Maintenance.Behaviour has changed for more than six months. Termination.There is a belief that the overt behaviour will never return and there is confidence without fear of relapse.Rock (2006) describes six steps to transforming performance.He states the first step totransforming performance is learning to “think about thinking”.Alternatively stated if a coachee isstruggling to perform at their best they have not mastered “to think their way out of a 11 | P a g e
  12. 12. situation”.Rock(2006) describes this process as “improving not what people are thinking about, butthe way they think” (Rock 2006:35).Rock describes this as “stretching peoples thinking”, and theprocess is closely linked to contemplation.3.5. NARRATIVES AND METAPHORSNarratives and metaphors serve to construct events and to join them together in a timeline. Theymake stories the source of „meaning making‟, coherent and as a result, life makes sense.Coachees are focused on positive expectations even in negative situations. The coachemphasises the elements of success and thereafter, connects stories with an experiential andembodied implicit. i.e. often circumstances hide implicit issues which need to be explored. Thecoach will often ask the coachee to give the story a name. This is deemed according to White(2007), landscapes of consciousness. The coachee is encouraged to enrich the story by relating tovalues and questions of identity and thereafter link the stories to other events. Finally the coacheerequires to re-author his story and build a bridge between the story and the imagined alternativefuture scripts or storylines.Stelter and Law (2010) state that coaching narratives and metaphorscreate a reflective space for the coachee. The three elements relevant to coaching narratives are;focusing on values, giving opportunity to meaning making, creating opportunity for unfoldingnarratives.3.6. AEROBIC EXERCISE AND NUTRITIONCoacheesmust receive a clear bill of health from their medicalprofessional.Thereafterideallycommence on mild intensity aerobic exercise(walking), and increasethe tempo to intermediary(fast walk, slow jog) and higher intensities (fast jogging, running)over a12 week period. Aerobic exercise is recommended to start off at initially 50% to 60% of acoachee‟s maximum heart rate, and to increase intensity to up to 80% of a coachee‟s maximumheart rate (Ratey and Hagerman, 2009). A rule of thumb to calculate maximum heart rate is thenumber 220 and subtract the coachee‟s actual age, and this represents the maximum heart rate.Recommended aerobic exercise includes walking, jogging, running, cycling and swimming, or anyother form of physical exercise that can increase heart rate from as low as 50% to 80% ofmaximum.The coaching model facilitates and encourages the coachee to engage in all the other techniquesto facilitate asuccessful coaching outcomesie visualization, contemplation and introspection,creating narratives and metaphors whilst exercising. Particularly in the low and intermediaryintensity aerobic exercises, the coachee will experience the benefits of visualizing, contemplatingand creating narratives and metaphors of his or her expected or ideal outcomes.The nutritional 12 | P a g e
  13. 13. aspects of the coachee are addressed with a qualified nutrionist to address the nutrionalrequirements of the coachee.Aerobic exercise and nutrition have substantial and quantifiable benefits for the four modalitiesnamely mind,body, cognition and emotion, which require integration for “positive change” and“Dynamic Stability” to occur in the Mindfulness Coaching Model. (Ratey 2003; Ratey andHagerman 2009; Crow and Eckert 2000).Through the ongoing application of the six coaching tools and techniques of the MindfulnessWheel the coachee will experience an integration of the four modalities namely mind, body,cognition and emotion with “positive change” or dynamic stability being facilitated through theprocess of plasticity. 13 | P a g e
  14. 14. REFERENCES- Berger, A. (2002) The Use of Hypnosis And Relaxation Therapy In Life skills, An Interdisciplinary Journal Dedicated To Advanced The Inter-Disciplinary, Journal Dedicated To Advance The Art, Sciences And Practice Of Hypnosis,p. 81.- Bishop S.R,Lau M,Shapiro S,Carlson L,Andeson N.D,CarmodyJ,SegalZ.V,Abbey,Speca M,Velting D,Devins G. (2004) :Clinical Psychology:Science and Practice V11 N3 American psychological Association D12- Brown, K.W. and Ryan, R.M. (2003) The Benefits of Being Present: Mindfulness at its Role in Psychological Well-Being, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84,pp. 822-848.- Blakemore, S.J., Winston J. and Frith, U. (2004) Social Cognitive Neuroscience : Where Are We Heading, Trends In Cognitive Sciences, 8, (5), pp. 216 – 212.- Braham, B.J. (2006) Union Institute and University, Executive Coaching and the Worldview of Vipassana Mediators, Academic Department, A Heunstic inquiry.- Crow,S and Eckert,E.D(2000).Videotape and discussion follow-up of the MinnessotaSemistarvation Study participants. Ninth International Conference on Eating Disorders May 4-7,New York City.- Goleman, D. (1995) Emotional Intelligence, Why It Can Matter More Than IQ, Bloomsburg Publishing.- Hassed, C. (2008) NeuroLeadership Journal, Mindfulness, wellbeing and performance, (1), pp53-60.- Kabat-Zinn,J.Lipworth, L. and Burney, R. (1985) Journal of Behavioural Medicine, The Clinical Use Of Mindfulness Meditation For The Self-Regulation Of Chronic Pain, 8,(2), pp. 163-190.- Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990) Full Catastrophe Living, Using The Wisdom Of Your Body And Mind To Face Stress, Pain And Illness, Delta.- Kabat-Zinn, Massion, Kristeller, Peterson, Fletcher, Pbert, Lenderking and Santorelli ,(1992;149:936-943)American Journal of Psychiatry- Kabat-Zinn,J.(1994) The Contemplative Mind in Society, Meeting of the Working Group: Catalysing Movement Toward a More Contemplative/Sacred-Appreciating/Non-Dualistic Society.- Kabat-Zinn,J (2003) American Psychological Association, Mindfulness Based Interventions in Context: Past ,Present , Future.- Kabat-Zinn ,J. (2010) Shambhala Sun March. 14 | P a g e
  15. 15. - Langer, E.J. (2009) Counter-clockwise, Mindful health and the Power of Possibility,(1), The Randon House Pringing Group, United States, New York,pp1-19.- Prochaska,J.O (1979) Systems of Psychotherapy: A transtheoretical analysis. Homewood,IL. Dorsey Press.- Prochaska,J.O. Norcross,J.C. and DiClemente,C.C. (1994). Changing for good: A revolutionary six-stage program for overcoming bad habits and moving yoru life psotively forward. New York, William Morrow.- Putman, A.O. (2009) At A Glance And Out Of Nowhere. How Ordinary People Create the Real World.- Ratey,J(2003). The user’s guide to the brain.London;Abacus.- Ratey, J.J. and Hagerman E. (2009) Spark, The Revolutionary Neuroscience of Exercise and the Brain, New York, Hadette Audio.- Restak, T. (2004) The New Brain, How Modern Age Is Re-Wiring Your Mind, Rodale.- Rock, D (2006) Quiet Leadership. HarperCollins Publishers.- Rock, D. (2009) Strategy+business, Managing with the Brain in Mind, (56).- Rock, D. and Page L.J (2009) Coaching with the Brain in Mind, Foundations for Practice, John Wiley and Sons Incorporated.- Rock, D., Tang, Y. and Dixon, P. (2009) Neuroscience of Engagement, Neuroleadership Journal 2009(2).- Ringleb, A.H. and Rock, D. (2009) NeuroLeadership Journal, NeuroLeadership in 2009, (2), pp2-8.- Siegel, D. (2010) Mindsight, Oneworld Publications.- Sigerist H.E (1961) A history of medicine: Early Greek, Hindu, and Persian medicine Vol. 2 Yale Department of History of Medicine Publication No. 38 New York:Oxford Univeristy Press.- Stetler,R. (2009) International Coaching Psychology Review,Vol .4 No.2- Stetler, R and Law, H (2010) International Coaching Psychology review, Vol 5, No 2 September- Tang, Y., Ma, Y., Wang, J., Fan, Y., Fen, S. Lu, Q, Yu, Q, Sui, D., Rothbart, M.V. and Fan, M. (2007) Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, Short Term Meditation Training Improves Attention And Self Regulation, 104, (3).- Tang, Y. and Posner, M. (2008) NeuroleadershipJournal, The Neuroscience of Mindfulness, (1), pp.33-37.- White, M .(2007)Maps of Narrative Practice. New York,Norton 15 | P a g e