The PowerFree and Open Source Software for PNGto Change Prof. Dr. Victor van Reijswoud Divine Word University Anglo Paciﬁc Research and Strategy
ICT 4 Development“ Information and Communication Technologies are a key input for economic development and growth. They offer opportunities for global integration while retaining the identity of the traditional societies. ICT can increase the economic and social well-being of poor people, and can empower individuals and communities. Finally ICT can enhance the effectiveness, efﬁciency and transparency ofthe public sector, including the delivery of social services.” (World Bank, 2002)
The Digital Divide! The developing world had 4 times fewer mobile subscribers per 100 people than the developed world! The developed world still had 8 times (was 73 in 1994) the Internet user penetration rate of the developing world! There are roughly around the same total number of Internet users in the G8 countries as in the whole rest of the world combined! The G8 countries are home to just 15% of the world’s population - but almost 50% of the world’s total Internet users! The top 20 countries in terms of Internet bandwidth are home to roughly 80% of all Internet users worldwide.
Some figures Computer Use Internet Use (per 100 people) (per 100 people) Developing Countries 2.5 2.6 Least Developed Countries 0.3 0.2 Arab States 2.1 1.6 East Asia and the Paciﬁc 3.3 4.1 Latin America and the Caribbean 5.9 4.9 South Asia 0.8 0.6 Sub-Saharan Africa 1.2 0.8 Central & Eastern Europe & CIS 5.5 4.3 OECD 36.3 33.2 High-income OECD 43.7 40Computer and internet use in different regions (UNDP, 2006)
More figures Rank Country Access index Connectivity ICT diffusion index index 175 Solomon Islands 0.341 0.016 0.115 151 Papua New Guinea 0.393 0.021 0.207 135 Vanuatu 0.444 0.023 0.233 103 Fiji 0.521 0.078 0.299 15 New Zealand 0.832 0.478 0.655 9 Australia 0.807 0.589 0.698Index for ICT Diffusion in the Asia-Paciﬁc region United Nations 2007
The challenge for PNG! Connect to the rest of the world! Provide affordable access to ICT for all! Build an ICT infrastructure with limited funds! Keep recurrent costs as low as possible! Have local ICT capacity available! Support local culture
To get the financial picture Price of WinXP expressed in GDP/cap Months United States 0.19 European Union 0.32 Oceania 0.48 Caribbean 1.47 Latin America 1.55 Middle East 2.51 Asia 3.16 Africa 10.31Papua New Guinea 11.93 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 GDP/cap Months Ghosh, R.A., License Fees and GDP Per Capita: The Case for Open Source in Developing Countries, First Monday, Issue 8-12, 2003.
Free and Open Source SoftwareThe Free and Open Source Software movement began taking serious shape in the early 90s. It shares the following fundamentals: – Free redistribution of software – Source code availability and distribution. To allow easy evolution and adaptation of programs – Explicit permission to modify the software and further redistribute derived works under the same license terms. – No discrimination against any group or persons. The USA has restrictions on certain cryptographic software.
Some examples - desktopTask Application Website Platfo rmOfﬁce productivity suite Open Ofﬁce www.openofﬁce.org W/LWeb browser Firefox www.mozilla.org W/LEmail reader Thunderbird www.mozilla.org W/LPersonal Information Chandler chandlerproject.org W/LManagement (calendars, Evolution www.gnome.org Ltasks, addresses, emails etc) Kontact www.kontact.org LImage Editing GIMP www.gimp.org W/LDesktop publishing Scribus www.scribus.net W/LMedia player VLC www.videolan.org W/LPersonal Database OOo Base www.openofﬁce.org W/LAccounting GnuCash www.gnucash.org W/L
Recommendation of the ACS...“open source software has the potential to increase competition, innovation and stimulate the Australian software development industry. It can represent a cost effective alternative to proprietary software and private and public sector procurement and evaluation processes should include assessment of both proprietary and open source alternatives.”
Hindrances for adoption! Lack of information – There is no or little active promotion – Lack of awareness by educators! Software availability – Not in the shops (except Boroko Foodworld) – Downloads are expensive! Role models and examples – Who got rich of FOSS? – Where is it implemented?
Time for a change of policy! Papua New Guinea needs a fundamental reorientation if it really wants to leapfrog development – Take a long term perspective – Develop locally driven ICT industry – Promote FOSS software solutions – Stop software piracy – Make internet accessible and affordable 4all
Stakeholders in the FOSS arena Donor community Softw industry Emphasise Softw industry ICT & global proprietary partnerships FOSS Use my Use my technology technology Government Central / Local Provide Civil society Train our access to young people ICT Open up Invest in ICT Education development global Local business secondary / tertiary economy community Local ICT industry
Some recommendations! Government – Establish committee to investigate role of FOSS – Promote and use FOSS! Donor community – Educate and guide computer users – Employ knowledgeable appropriate ICT advisors! Education – Use FOSS – Educate awareness among new users
Questions?For a free electronic copy of the book:Free and Open Source Software for Development: exploring expectations, achievements and the future send email to: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org