Accept that there are differences!                    Digital Divide                  ICT and Education                 De...
Outline1.Our Challenges2.Consequences for Information Technology    Appropriate Technology for ICT    Some Examples3.Conse...
Our Challenge“ Information and Communication Technologies are a key input for economic development and    growth. They off...
Our Challenge“ Information and Communication Technologies are a key input for economic development and    growth. They off...
Our moral responsibility✔   Connect to the rest of the world✔   Provide affordable access to ICT for all✔   Build an ICT i...
Digital Divide
Some Figures                                                              Computer Use      Internet Use                  ...
Experience the digital divide●   Browse the internet at African connection    speeds: http://wireless.ictp.it/simulator/●
Dream  vs.Reality
Consequences for Technology      Appropriate ICT
Definition Appropriate ICT “The integrated and participatory approach that   results in tools and processes for establishi...
The A-ICT Framework
3 focus areas●   Hardware●   Software●   MethodologiesIn the context of the system development life cycle    ●   Definitio...
The A-ICT Check listThe Appropriate ICT Framework results in a check-list with questions that guides to: 1.Selection of ap...
Appropriate Technology - 11. It should be possible to implement/ realize technological   solutions with limited financial ...
Appropriate Technology - 26. The technology must result into economic and/or social   progress.7. The technology must be f...
Appropriate ICT  Examples
AppropriateHardware●   Durable●   Strong and dust/damp resistant●   Easy to maintain – no special tools●   Easy to upgrade...
One-Laptop-per-Child project - 1To create educational opportunities for the worldspoorest children by providing each child...
One-Laptop-per-Child project - 2The XO is a potent learning tooldesigned and built especially forchildren in developing co...
Making two (ten) of onehttp://www2.userful.com/A simple and free way to transformyour dual-monitor linux PC into adual-sta...
Linux Terminal Server Project●   The Linux Terminal Server Project adds thin-    client support to Linux servers. LTSP is ...
This is also nice(but still too expensive for most of us)
Appropriate Software                          Affordable / free                                Easy to use    Usable on ol...
Free and Open Source Software●   Free redistribution of software●   Source code availability and distribution. To allow   ...
Ubuntu Light●   Recommended    configuration:    ●   Pentium 2 or        better    ●   96MB of RAM or        better    ●  ...
No cost solution●   Small and medium size organisations can    automate at zero software cost:    ●   IP cop gateway    ● ...
Appropriate Methodologies●   Addressing limited understanding of the users●   User requirements driven (not vendor-driven)...
Consequences for EducationAppropriate ICT Education
Preparing Africa
ICT and Education●   Primary education    ●   Low penetration and low skills for students and        teaching staff●   Sec...
Challenges for Universities                     Staff              Knowledge development                Societal awareness...
Appropriate Curriculum             Development●   Focus on the needs of the region / country    ●   Technological and econ...
Changing attitudes         South                   North●   Develop awareness   ●   Recognize●   Aim local               u...
Conclusions●   ICT is developing countries is often not    heading in an appropriate direction●   Dreamers and clever busi...
Way Forward●   Government (North and South) should promote    appropriate ICT solutions●   All large ICT projects need to ...
10Q 10Q  More information:Prof. Victor van Reijswoud victor@virtualuni.ac.ug
Ict4 d novi 7 march 2012
Ict4 d novi 7 march 2012
Ict4 d novi 7 march 2012
Ict4 d novi 7 march 2012
Ict4 d novi 7 march 2012
Ict4 d novi 7 march 2012
Ict4 d novi 7 march 2012
Ict4 d novi 7 march 2012
Ict4 d novi 7 march 2012
Ict4 d novi 7 march 2012
Ict4 d novi 7 march 2012
Ict4 d novi 7 march 2012
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Ict4 d novi 7 march 2012

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Presentation on appropriate ICT, ICT4D and ICT4E.

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Ict4 d novi 7 march 2012

  1. 1. Accept that there are differences! Digital Divide ICT and Education Developing Countries Dr Victor van ReijswoudProfessor of ICT and eLearning Principal ResearcherVirtual University of Uganda Cordaid – Rwanda UCC - Uganda Zonder vaste woon- of verblijfplaats
  2. 2. Outline1.Our Challenges2.Consequences for Information Technology Appropriate Technology for ICT Some Examples3.Consequences for IT Education4.Our Lessons
  3. 3. Our Challenge“ Information and Communication Technologies are a key input for economic development and growth. They offer opportunities for global integration while retaining the identity of the traditional societies. ICT can increase the economic and social well-being of poor people,and can empower individuals and communities. Finally ICT can enhance the effectiveness,efficiency and transparency of the public sector, including the delivery of social services.” (World Bank, 2002)
  4. 4. Our Challenge“ Information and Communication Technologies are a key input for economic development and growth. They offer opportunities for global integration while retaining the identity of the traditional societies. ICT can increase the economic and social well-being of poor people,and can empower individuals and communities. Finally ICT can enhance the effectiveness,efficiency and transparency of the public sector, including the delivery of social services.” (World Bank, 2002)
  5. 5. Our moral responsibility✔ Connect to the rest of the world✔ Provide affordable access to ICT for all✔ Build an ICT infrastructure with limited funds✔ Keep recurrent costs as low as possible✔ Have local ICT capacity available✔ Support local culture
  6. 6. Digital Divide
  7. 7. Some Figures Computer Use Internet Use (per 100 people) (per 100 people) Developing Countries 2.5 2.6 Least Developed Countries 0.3 0.2 Arab States 2.1 1.6 East Asia and the Pacif i c 3.3 4.1 Latin America and the Caribbean 5.9 4.9 South Asia 0.8 0.6 Sub-Saharan Africa 1.2 0.8 Central & Eastern Europe & CIS 5.5 4.3 OECD 36.3 33.2 High-income OECD 43.7 40Computer and internet use in different regions (UNDP 2006) ,
  8. 8. Experience the digital divide● Browse the internet at African connection speeds: http://wireless.ictp.it/simulator/●
  9. 9. Dream vs.Reality
  10. 10. Consequences for Technology Appropriate ICT
  11. 11. Definition Appropriate ICT “The integrated and participatory approach that results in tools and processes for establishingInformation and Communication Technology (ICT) that is suitable for the cultural, environmental, organisational, economic and political conditions in which it is intended to be used.” In other words: Adapt to the context!
  12. 12. The A-ICT Framework
  13. 13. 3 focus areas● Hardware● Software● MethodologiesIn the context of the system development life cycle ● Definition ● Design ● Construction ● Installation ● Operation / Maintenance
  14. 14. The A-ICT Check listThe Appropriate ICT Framework results in a check-list with questions that guides to: 1.Selection of appropriate ICT hardware 2.Selection of appropriate ICT software 3.Appropriate methodologies for introduction and deployment of ICT
  15. 15. Appropriate Technology - 11. It should be possible to implement/ realize technological solutions with limited financial resources.2. The use of available resources must be emphasized to reduce the costs and to guarantee the supply of resources e.g., for maintenance3. Technologies may be relatively labor-intensive, but must have a higher output than the traditional technologies.4. The technology must be understandable for people without specific or academic training5. Small rural communities should be able to produce and maintain the technology
  16. 16. Appropriate Technology - 26. The technology must result into economic and/or social progress.7. The technology must be fully understandable for the local population, the end-users resulting into possibilities for them to become involved in the possible innovation and extension of the use of the technology8. The technological solutions must be flexible and easily to be adapted to changing circumstances.9. The technology must contribute to the increase of productivity10.The technology should not have a negative impact on the environment.
  17. 17. Appropriate ICT Examples
  18. 18. AppropriateHardware● Durable● Strong and dust/damp resistant● Easy to maintain – no special tools● Easy to upgrade● Parts available
  19. 19. One-Laptop-per-Child project - 1To create educational opportunities for the worldspoorest children by providing each child with arugged, low-cost, low-power, connected laptopwith content and software designed forcollaborative, joyful, self-empowered learning.When children have access to this type of toolthey get engaged in their own education. Theylearn, share, create, and collaborate. Theybecome connected to each other, to the world andto a brighter future.
  20. 20. One-Laptop-per-Child project - 2The XO is a potent learning tooldesigned and built especially forchildren in developing countries,living in some of the most remoteenvironments. It’s about the sizeof a small textbook. It has built-inwireless and a unique screen thatis readable under direct sunlightfor children who go to schooloutdoors. It’s extremely durable,brilliantly functional, energy-efficient, and fun.
  21. 21. Making two (ten) of onehttp://www2.userful.com/A simple and free way to transformyour dual-monitor linux PC into adual-station PC.Using just one PC youll be able tosupport two independent users. Allyou need is a computer with twomonitors connected and an extraUSB keyboard and mouse.Can be extended to 10 users withpaid version
  22. 22. Linux Terminal Server Project● The Linux Terminal Server Project adds thin- client support to Linux servers. LTSP is a flexible, cost effective solution that is empowering schools, businesses, and organizations all over the world to easily install and deploy desktop workstations.● A growing number of Linux distributions include LTSP out-of-the-box.
  23. 23. This is also nice(but still too expensive for most of us)
  24. 24. Appropriate Software Affordable / free Easy to use Usable on older/second hand hardware Adaptable and scalableNo internet activation / no massive updates Limited file sizes Allowing localization
  25. 25. Free and Open Source Software● Free redistribution of software● Source code availability and distribution. To allow easy evolution and adaptation of programs● Explicit permission to modify the software and further redistribute derived works under the same license terms.FOSS provides low cost alternatives but yetindustry strength solutions ● Desktop ● Server
  26. 26. Ubuntu Light● Recommended configuration: ● Pentium 2 or better ● 96MB of RAM or better ● 4GB Hard Drive or better● www.u-lite.org
  27. 27. No cost solution● Small and medium size organisations can automate at zero software cost: ● IP cop gateway ● SME server as file server ● Ubuntu / Open Office on the desktop ● ClamAV virus protect (for the win machines) ● Email / website through google apps ● Databases with Base. MySQL ● Etc When we only had the right advisers!
  28. 28. Appropriate Methodologies● Addressing limited understanding of the users● User requirements driven (not vendor-driven)● Need to address: ● Environment ● Organisation ● Economical / financial ● Political ● CULTURE● Participative
  29. 29. Consequences for EducationAppropriate ICT Education
  30. 30. Preparing Africa
  31. 31. ICT and Education● Primary education ● Low penetration and low skills for students and teaching staff● Secondary (High school) ● ICT is entering the classroom and has become an exam subject in some countries● Tertiary (University and Vocational) ● A growing number of university courses in ICT ● Training of ICT technicians ● Staff is often poorly trained
  32. 32. Challenges for Universities Staff Knowledge development Societal awareness Curiosity Infrastructure Computer labs Access for all Research Applied Usable
  33. 33. Appropriate Curriculum Development● Focus on the needs of the region / country ● Technological and economical● Do not copy from the West ● Determine the African Way and innovate ● Adapt to local conditions● Use sustainable models and technologies ● Teach Free and Open ● Low Cost technologies● Stronger focus on skills ● Graduates need to solve problems not just talk about them
  34. 34. Changing attitudes South North● Develop awareness ● Recognize● Aim local uniqueness● Support local ● Develop knowledge initiatives in ICT4D area● Develop open ● Use IT experts partnerships ● Train graduates● Show leadership
  35. 35. Conclusions● ICT is developing countries is often not heading in an appropriate direction● Dreamers and clever business men lead the way● This leads to: ● Exclusion of large groups ● Slow ICT adoption ● High levels of software piracy ● White elephants● We have to accept that developing countries have limited resources!!!
  36. 36. Way Forward● Government (North and South) should promote appropriate ICT solutions● All large ICT projects need to be assessed by independent and well qualified ICT experts● Donors need to implement appropriate ICT solutions (no financial legacy after project)● Build up in-country best practices● Support programs for young entrepreneurs nur- turing innovation● A research chair in ICT4D
  37. 37. 10Q 10Q More information:Prof. Victor van Reijswoud victor@virtualuni.ac.ug

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