Cibernetica, modelli computazionali e tecnologie informatiche

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Cibernetica, modelli computazionali e tecnologie informatiche per lo studio dei processi di cognizione sociale

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Cibernetica, modelli computazionali e tecnologie informatiche

  1. 1. Cibernetica, modelli computazionali e tecnologie informatiche per lo studio dei processi di cognizione sociale Nature, Nurture and Future 8 Dicembre 2009 Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science12/01/2013 University of Siena, Italy 1
  2. 2. Overview• Cibernetica• Knowledge Engineering• Biomedical Engineering• Neuronal Machine Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 2 Siena, Italy
  3. 3. Cibernetica La cibernetica è la scienza che studia i fenomeni di autoregolazione (controlli automatici e controlli adattativi) e comunicazione (teoria dellinformazione - IT), sia negli organismi naturali quanto nei sistemi artificiali. Norbert Wiener Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 3 Siena, Italy
  4. 4. Knowledge Engineering Example Data … --- … Information SOS Knowledge emergency alert • Biomedical System Data • Telecomunication System • Storage System • Storage System Information • Data Mining & Search Engine • Image , Signal Processing Knowledge • Knowledge Based Storage • Automatic, Adaptive, Complex Control Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 4 Siena, Italy
  5. 5. Ingegneria Biomedica (una volta Bio Ingegneria) Estrarre dati Costruire (sistemi sistemi biomedici) Produrre Emulare Informazione sistemi (Signal & naturali Image Processing) Modellare sistemi naturali Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 5 Siena, Italy
  6. 6. Biomedical System Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 6 Siena, Italy
  7. 7. fMRI Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 7 Siena, Italy
  8. 8. Eye TrackingEOG Pupil Tracking Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 8 Siena, Italy
  9. 9. EEG & Evocated PotentialSignal Decomposition EEG Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 9 Siena, Italy
  10. 10. Active SystemtDCS TMS Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 10 Siena, Italy
  11. 11. IT & LIFE Data 2 Information Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 11 Siena, Italy
  12. 12. Search Engine – Patent DB Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 12 Siena, Italy
  13. 13. Tele Riabilitazione : Eracle ProjectIn loco rehabilitation Tele-rehabilitation Remote help desk Social Area Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 13 Siena, Italy
  14. 14. Decision Making - NeuroEconomic• Game Theory• The subject was asked to choose between two sign according to previous chooses – Overconfident – Bayesian [Innocenti & Rufa 2010]1/12/2013 EVA – EYE TRACKING - STIMULUS INTEGRATED SEMI AUTOMATIC CASE BASE SYSTEM 14
  15. 15. Knowlede Management nelle Scienze della Vita Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 15 Siena, Italy
  16. 16. Algoritmi per la Diagnosi • Ipertensione endocranica idiopatica[Tornese 2007] Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of 12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 16 Siena, Italy
  17. 17. Biomedical System• “More 60% of our Barin works on vision …”: – Image Processing – Attention – Working memory – Memory – Visual-Spatial exploration – Eye Movement – Intention The focus of attention is jointly determined by stimulus salience and – Decision top-down control signals. IOR is implemented by a mechanism that reduces the salience of stimuli at recently explored spatial locations. Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of 12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 17 Siena, Italy
  18. 18. EVA – EYE TRACKING - STIMULUS INTEGRATED SEMI AUTOMATIC CASE BASESYSTEM • Test the cognitive system by multi- stimulus • Diagnosis by Case Base Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 18 Siena, Italy
  19. 19. EVA – EYE TRACKING - STIMULUS INTEGRATED SEMI AUTOMATIC CASE BASESYSTEM Case Base University of Siena Patent Analysis (Indicators) DiagnosisVision Cognitive Task Rehabilitation STIMULUS INTEGRATED SEMI AUTOMATIC CASE BASE SYSTEM Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 19 Siena, Italy
  20. 20. Mean Sequence• Diagnosis SCA2• Vp=Vmax (1 – exp(A/C)) [Leigh 2004] Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 20 Siena, Italy
  21. 21. Nauronal Machine Model of Brain and …. Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 21 Siena, Italy
  22. 22. Working Memory & Visual Search• Working memory : – is a theoretical construct that refers to the structures and processes used for temporarily storing and manipulating information.• Visual Search – memory maintains the information in order to allow past experience to guide future behaviors Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of 12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 22 Siena, Italy
  23. 23. Early Model of saccade System Neural network Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 23 Siena, Italy
  24. 24. Cerebellum as adaptive control [Ito 2008] [2007 T. Yamazaki] Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 24 Siena, Italy
  25. 25. A real-time spiking cerebellum model for learning robot control[Carrillo 2008] Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of 12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 25 Siena, Italy
  26. 26. Visual Search Planning fixations Priority map Frontal area Internal intention [Itti 2000] Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 26 Siena, Italy
  27. 27. Eye Movements & Attention• Eye movements – Sequences of fixation and saccade – The sequences of saccade- and-fixation enable humans to receive a continuous flow Peripheral attention of information from the Saccadic eye movements world. Overlapped region• Attention – Attention is the process of selecting a few relevant perceptive stimuli by filtering of negligible aspect of the environment Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 27 Siena, Italy
  28. 28. Break Away from Fixations Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 28 Siena, Italy
  29. 29. Break Away from Fixations Model[Veneri 2010] 100 100 200 200 300 300 400 400 500 500 600 600 700 700 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 29 Siena, Italy
  30. 30. Decisione Making• Decision making: – can be regarded as an outcome of mental processes (cognitive process) leading to the selection of a course Basic connectivity framework. Dotted arrows represent external of action among inputs to the model. Abbreviations: 5-HT, dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons; ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; AMYG, amygdala; DA, several alternatives. midbrain dopaminergic neurons; DLPFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; OFC, orbitofrontal cortex; VS, ventral striatum. Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 30 Siena, Italy
  31. 31. References• Carrillo R, Ros E, Boucheny C, Coenen O. A real-time spiking • 1975 – Engel - Visual cospicuity, visual search and fixation cerebellum model for learning robot control. Biosystems. tendencies of the eye – Vision 2008;94(1-2):18-27. Available at: • 1976 – Banks et al – Configurational effects in visual information http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0303264708001226. processing. Perception & Psycophysics• Ito M. Control of mental activities by internal models in the • 1993- Fischer, B., Biscaldi, M., and Otto. Saccadic eye movements cerebellum. Nature. (Box 1). of dyslexic adults. Neuropsychologia, Vol. 31, No 9, pp. 887-906.• Karl E. Misulis, Toufic Fakhoury (2001), Spehlmanns Evoked • Zhaoping Li 2002, A Saliency Map in Primary Visual Cortex (2002), Potential Primer, Butterworth-heinemann Trends in neuroscience • W. Wolwer 2003 – Trait Characteristic id Impaired Visuomotor Integration during Trail-Making Test B Performance in Schozophrenia – Neuropsycobiology • 2004 E.Davis – Visual search attention – Spatial Vision • 2004 R.Leigh – Using saccades as a research tool in clinical neurosciences – Brain • 2005 B. Machner – cerebellar infarction affects visual search - Neuroreport • 2006 – Administration and interpretation of the Trail Making Test – Nature Protocols • 2006 – H. Ojanpaa - Visual search and eye movements in patients with chronic solvent-induced toxic enecelophaty – NeuroToxicology • 2007 – T. Yamazaki,Shigeru Tanaka - The cerebellum as a liquid state machine – Neural Network • 2008 G. Jacobson, et Al.- A model of the olivo-cerebellar system as a temporal pattern generator • 2008 M. Ito - Cerebellar circuitry as a neuronal machine – Nat neuroscience Eye tracking & Vision Applications Lab (EVA Lab) Department of12/01/2013 Neurological Neurosurgical and Behavioral Science University of 31 Siena, Italy

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