SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 18
Download to read offline
We are living in a knowledge society. Knowledge empowers
people in their everyday lives and facilitates good governance
and the development of democratic societies. Knowing your legal
rights as a citizen, being well informed about a medical condition
or having access to the latest travel, weather or leisure
information enables people to take control, make informed
decisions and to exercise choice. It encourages innovation,
creativity and a competitive economy.
Libraries organize, collect and preserve all types of information,
knowledge, cultural and learning resources for the purposes of
making them available to library patrons and the general public
of today and tomorrow.
- EIFL Handbook on Copyright and Related Issues for
Libraries-
• Gifts and IRS
Gifts represent an important component of the collection-building activities of
libraries. Libraries should develop guidelines as to what gifts will be accepted and
what gifts will not be accepted into their collections, based on their collection
development policy. Libraries will want to state that they accept gift material to add to
their collections that meet the same standards or selection criteria used for materials
purchased for the collections. It is often easier to say what will not be accepted rather
than what will be accepted. For example, materials in poor physical condition,
material with out-of-date information or long runs of popular periodicals will not be
accepted.
*One of the IRS regulation relevant to the libraries has to do with the gifts and
donations to a library or not-for-profit information center. Any libraries, or its
parent institution ,that receives a gift-in-kind with an appraised value of $5,000 or
more must report the gift to the IRS.
*A second regulation forbids the receiving party to provide an estimated value for
gift-in-kind .
What is IRS?
The internal revenue service (IRS) is the revenue service of the united states
federal government. The government agency is a bureau of the department of the
treasury, and is under the immediate direction of the commissioner of internal
revenue. The IRS is responsible for collecting taxes and the administration of the
internal revenue code. It has also overseen various benefit programs, and
enforces portions of the affordable care act.
the first income tax was assessed in 1862 to raise funds for the american civil war,
with a rate of 3%. Today the IRS collects over $2.4 trillion each tax year. It
processes around 234 million tax returns annually.
What is inventory?
Inventory is:
* a standard business procedure
* a survey of goods and materials in stock
In a library this primarily involves checking the library collection on the shelves
against the catalogue records, but it could also involve an equipment and
supplies inventory.
What is Inventory Control?
Inventory control systems are the systems employed in order to insure that
inventories are kept at the minimum level consistent with maintaining continuity
of supply to meet the needs of external customers and users within the business.
Why do libraries conduct inventories?
1. To ensure the accuracy of their catalogue records
2. To estimate loss rates and costs in order to evaluate the success of current
security systems and procedures, and if necessary, to make a business case for a
new security system
3. To replace or withdraw all missing items and to indicate such information on
the catalogue record by withdrawing or flagging the record to alert the patron
4. To evaluate the condition of materials on the shelves
5. To evaluate the quality of the cataloguing record
6. To analyze a collection's strengths and weaknesses
Copyrights Laws and Libraries
Copyright is a legal right created by the law of a country that grants the
creator of an original work exclusive rights for its use and distribution. This
is usually only for a limited time. The exclusive rights are not absolute but
limited by limitations and exceptions to copyright law, including fair use.
The term copyright originated from the law’s first purpose, which was to
protect against unauthorized printing and selling of a work.
*PENALTIES OF COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT
By reproducing, republishing or redistributing the work of a copyright holder
without permission, you may be violating or infringing on his or her rights under
the copyright act. If the copyright holder has registered the work with the U.S.
Copyright office prior to the infringement, the copyright holder may sue for
compensation. Court-ordered compensation may include damages such as lost
profits from the infringing activity or statutory damages ranging from $250 to
$150,000, plus attorneys' fees, for each infringing copy.
You may also be criminally liable if you willfully copy a work for profit or financial
gain, or if the copied work has a value of more than $1,000. In these cases,
penalties can include a one-year jail sentence plus fines. If the value is more than
$2,500, you may be sentenced to five years in jail plus fines. Criminal penalties
generally apply to large-scale commercial piracy.
"International" copyright
There is no such thing as an "international" copyright that automatically protects a
work throughout the world. However, the most widely-adopted copyright treaty, the
Berne convention, states that once a work is protected in one of the convention
member countries, it is protected by copyright in all of them. As of mid-2004, 156
countries, including the U.S., Belong to the Berne convention. The Berne Convention
further states that the scope and limitations of any copyright are based upon the
laws of the country where the misuse of the copyright-protected work takes place
(rather than the country where the work originated).
LIBRARIES AND LAWS
How is copyright an issue in collection development? There are at least five
significant areas where the law and library intersect:
1. fair use
2. photocopying/ scanning
3. interlibrary loan
4. performance
5. out-of-print status
FAIR USE
Fair use is a legal doctrine that permits limited use of copyrighted material
without acquiring permission from the rights holders. While often thought of as
an affirmative defense.
The copyright act at 17 U.S.C. § 108 and the code of federal regulations at 37
C.F.R. § 201.14 provide protections for libraries with regard to copying for
library patrons.
Library Copying After 75 Years
In 1998, the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act extended
the period of copyright protection for an additional 20 years. As
part of the Act, Congress provided that, during the last 20 years of
any term of copyright of a published work, a library or archives
may reproduce a copy of the work for purposes of preservation,
scholarship, or research provided that the work was not being
distributed commercially, the work cannot be obtained at a
reasonable price, or the copyright owner or its agent provides
notice that either of the above conditions applies.
DIGITAL MILLENNIUM COPYRIGHT ACT (DMCA)
Digital millennium copyright act (DMCA) is a united states copyright law that implements
two 1996 treaties of the world intellectual property organization (WIPO). It criminalizes
production and dissemination of technology, devices, or services intended to circumvent
measures (commonly known as digital rights management or DRM) that control access to
copyrighted works. It also criminalizes the act of circumventing an access control,
whether or not there is actual infringement of copyright itself. In addition, the DMCA
heightens the penalties for copyright infringement on the internet, passed on October 12,
1998, by a unanimous vote in the united states senate and signed into law by president
bill clinton on October 28, 1998, the DMCA amended title 17 of the united states code to
extend the reach of copyright, while limiting the liability of the providers of online
services for copyright infringement by their users.
DMCA AND TECHNOLOGY ISSUES
ENFORCEMENT
Copyright holders are quick to enforce their rights. In Singapore, criminal offences under
copyright law include the following:
manufacture of infringing copies for sale;
sale of infringing copies;
possession or importation of infringing copies for the purposes of sale, hire, or
distribution for trade or for any other purpose to an extent that will affect the copyright
owner prejudicially;
distribution of infringing copies for trade or for any other purposes to such an extent as to
affect the copyright owner prejudicially.
CONTRACTUAL COMPLIANCE
The ccc (copyright clearance center) is a not for profit service designed for right
holders ,libraries and others users of copyrighted material by providing a central
source from which to secure necessary permissions and to pay the required fee.
It is a licensing system :ccc does not copy documents but function as a
clearinghouse for both print and online content.
DISAPPEARANCE OF MATERIALS
LICENSES AND CONTRACTS
What is the difference between a contract and a license?
A contract is a voluntary, deliberate and legally binding agreement between two or more
competent parties…..Each party to a contract acquires rights and duties relative to the
duties and rights of other parties.
A license on the other hand means a revocable written or implied agreement by an
authority or proprietor not to assert his or her right period and under specified to prevent
another party from engaging in certain activity that is normally forbidden.
THE ART OF NEGOTIATION
Negotiation is about resolving a matter in such a way that all parties involved achieved
some gain rather than all or nothing.

More Related Content

What's hot

Protecting Your Brand: Trademarks, Copyrights, and the Internet
Protecting Your Brand: Trademarks, Copyrights, and the InternetProtecting Your Brand: Trademarks, Copyrights, and the Internet
Protecting Your Brand: Trademarks, Copyrights, and the Internetventureneer
 
Policy and Technical Solutions for Online Cross-Border Legal Problems in Asia
Policy and Technical Solutions for Online Cross-Border Legal Problems in AsiaPolicy and Technical Solutions for Online Cross-Border Legal Problems in Asia
Policy and Technical Solutions for Online Cross-Border Legal Problems in AsiaAPNIC
 
Laws & acts relating to the media industry
Laws & acts relating to the media industryLaws & acts relating to the media industry
Laws & acts relating to the media industryAdam Grundy
 
Vaughan - Communication Law Powerpoint
Vaughan - Communication Law PowerpointVaughan - Communication Law Powerpoint
Vaughan - Communication Law PowerpointMarti Vaughan
 
#StopSopaIreland, Keyboard Warriors and 86 Questions: Updating Irish Copyrigh...
#StopSopaIreland, Keyboard Warriors and 86 Questions: Updating Irish Copyrigh...#StopSopaIreland, Keyboard Warriors and 86 Questions: Updating Irish Copyrigh...
#StopSopaIreland, Keyboard Warriors and 86 Questions: Updating Irish Copyrigh...Rónán Kennedy
 
SOPA, OPEN, ACTA and parallel copyright reforms in Europe, The right way to t...
SOPA, OPEN, ACTA and parallel copyright reforms in Europe, The right way to t...SOPA, OPEN, ACTA and parallel copyright reforms in Europe, The right way to t...
SOPA, OPEN, ACTA and parallel copyright reforms in Europe, The right way to t...beamatinet
 
Intellectual Property: Presentation on IP in IT : Global Strategy - BananaIP
Intellectual Property: Presentation on IP in IT : Global Strategy - BananaIPIntellectual Property: Presentation on IP in IT : Global Strategy - BananaIP
Intellectual Property: Presentation on IP in IT : Global Strategy - BananaIPBananaIP Counsels
 
Private Shopping Malls - The "Not-So-Private" Private Property
Private Shopping Malls -The "Not-So-Private" Private PropertyPrivate Shopping Malls -The "Not-So-Private" Private Property
Private Shopping Malls - The "Not-So-Private" Private PropertyAllen Matkins
 

What's hot (9)

Protecting Your Brand: Trademarks, Copyrights, and the Internet
Protecting Your Brand: Trademarks, Copyrights, and the InternetProtecting Your Brand: Trademarks, Copyrights, and the Internet
Protecting Your Brand: Trademarks, Copyrights, and the Internet
 
Policy and Technical Solutions for Online Cross-Border Legal Problems in Asia
Policy and Technical Solutions for Online Cross-Border Legal Problems in AsiaPolicy and Technical Solutions for Online Cross-Border Legal Problems in Asia
Policy and Technical Solutions for Online Cross-Border Legal Problems in Asia
 
Laws & acts relating to the media industry
Laws & acts relating to the media industryLaws & acts relating to the media industry
Laws & acts relating to the media industry
 
Vaughan - Communication Law Powerpoint
Vaughan - Communication Law PowerpointVaughan - Communication Law Powerpoint
Vaughan - Communication Law Powerpoint
 
Civil law
Civil lawCivil law
Civil law
 
#StopSopaIreland, Keyboard Warriors and 86 Questions: Updating Irish Copyrigh...
#StopSopaIreland, Keyboard Warriors and 86 Questions: Updating Irish Copyrigh...#StopSopaIreland, Keyboard Warriors and 86 Questions: Updating Irish Copyrigh...
#StopSopaIreland, Keyboard Warriors and 86 Questions: Updating Irish Copyrigh...
 
SOPA, OPEN, ACTA and parallel copyright reforms in Europe, The right way to t...
SOPA, OPEN, ACTA and parallel copyright reforms in Europe, The right way to t...SOPA, OPEN, ACTA and parallel copyright reforms in Europe, The right way to t...
SOPA, OPEN, ACTA and parallel copyright reforms in Europe, The right way to t...
 
Intellectual Property: Presentation on IP in IT : Global Strategy - BananaIP
Intellectual Property: Presentation on IP in IT : Global Strategy - BananaIPIntellectual Property: Presentation on IP in IT : Global Strategy - BananaIP
Intellectual Property: Presentation on IP in IT : Global Strategy - BananaIP
 
Private Shopping Malls - The "Not-So-Private" Private Property
Private Shopping Malls -The "Not-So-Private" Private PropertyPrivate Shopping Malls -The "Not-So-Private" Private Property
Private Shopping Malls - The "Not-So-Private" Private Property
 

Similar to Legal issues

Introduction to Copyright in Academic Libraries
Introduction to Copyright in Academic LibrariesIntroduction to Copyright in Academic Libraries
Introduction to Copyright in Academic LibrariesHVCClibrary
 
Copyright in a Nutshell
Copyright in a NutshellCopyright in a Nutshell
Copyright in a NutshellHVCClibrary
 
Guide to intellectual property law
Guide to intellectual property lawGuide to intellectual property law
Guide to intellectual property lawBCG Attorney Search
 
20CS2024 Ethics in Information Technology
20CS2024 Ethics in Information Technology20CS2024 Ethics in Information Technology
20CS2024 Ethics in Information TechnologyKathirvel Ayyaswamy
 
Background TLG has explained to the GC owners that it is vital to u
Background TLG has explained to the GC owners that it is vital to uBackground TLG has explained to the GC owners that it is vital to u
Background TLG has explained to the GC owners that it is vital to ucameroncourtney45
 
Intellectual-Property-Rights (2).pdf
Intellectual-Property-Rights (2).pdfIntellectual-Property-Rights (2).pdf
Intellectual-Property-Rights (2).pdfPradeep Mullangi
 
Intellectual properties presentation
Intellectual properties presentationIntellectual properties presentation
Intellectual properties presentationDarylSavage
 
How International IP Laws Affect PR Practice in the Digital Age
How International IP Laws Affect PR Practice in the Digital AgeHow International IP Laws Affect PR Practice in the Digital Age
How International IP Laws Affect PR Practice in the Digital AgeSarah Jackson
 
Copyright or Copyleft - Creative Commons
Copyright or Copyleft - Creative CommonsCopyright or Copyleft - Creative Commons
Copyright or Copyleft - Creative CommonsMartha Hardy
 
Introduction to intellectual property law
Introduction to intellectual property lawIntroduction to intellectual property law
Introduction to intellectual property lawRajalingam Balakrishnan
 
What is copyright jcholliday=eb
What is copyright jcholliday=ebWhat is copyright jcholliday=eb
What is copyright jcholliday=ebbibliowoman
 
Learning ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you should be ab.docx
Learning ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you should be ab.docxLearning ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you should be ab.docx
Learning ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you should be ab.docxsmile790243
 

Similar to Legal issues (20)

U 5.2_ LBE.pptx
U 5.2_ LBE.pptxU 5.2_ LBE.pptx
U 5.2_ LBE.pptx
 
Introduction to Copyright in Academic Libraries
Introduction to Copyright in Academic LibrariesIntroduction to Copyright in Academic Libraries
Introduction to Copyright in Academic Libraries
 
Patent right
Patent right Patent right
Patent right
 
Interaksi 10
Interaksi 10 Interaksi 10
Interaksi 10
 
Copyright in a Nutshell
Copyright in a NutshellCopyright in a Nutshell
Copyright in a Nutshell
 
Guide to intellectual property law
Guide to intellectual property lawGuide to intellectual property law
Guide to intellectual property law
 
20CS2024 Ethics in Information Technology
20CS2024 Ethics in Information Technology20CS2024 Ethics in Information Technology
20CS2024 Ethics in Information Technology
 
Background TLG has explained to the GC owners that it is vital to u
Background TLG has explained to the GC owners that it is vital to uBackground TLG has explained to the GC owners that it is vital to u
Background TLG has explained to the GC owners that it is vital to u
 
Intellectual-Property-Rights (2).pdf
Intellectual-Property-Rights (2).pdfIntellectual-Property-Rights (2).pdf
Intellectual-Property-Rights (2).pdf
 
Intellectual properties presentation
Intellectual properties presentationIntellectual properties presentation
Intellectual properties presentation
 
Legal factors
Legal factorsLegal factors
Legal factors
 
R Bays - Comparative Patent Registration
R Bays - Comparative Patent Registration R Bays - Comparative Patent Registration
R Bays - Comparative Patent Registration
 
7.2 again
7.2 again7.2 again
7.2 again
 
How International IP Laws Affect PR Practice in the Digital Age
How International IP Laws Affect PR Practice in the Digital AgeHow International IP Laws Affect PR Practice in the Digital Age
How International IP Laws Affect PR Practice in the Digital Age
 
Copyright or Copyleft - Creative Commons
Copyright or Copyleft - Creative CommonsCopyright or Copyleft - Creative Commons
Copyright or Copyleft - Creative Commons
 
Intellectual property rights (2)
Intellectual property rights (2)Intellectual property rights (2)
Intellectual property rights (2)
 
Introduction to intellectual property law
Introduction to intellectual property lawIntroduction to intellectual property law
Introduction to intellectual property law
 
What is copyright jcholliday=eb
What is copyright jcholliday=ebWhat is copyright jcholliday=eb
What is copyright jcholliday=eb
 
Copyright Infringment
Copyright InfringmentCopyright Infringment
Copyright Infringment
 
Learning ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you should be ab.docx
Learning ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you should be ab.docxLearning ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you should be ab.docx
Learning ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you should be ab.docx
 

Recently uploaded

4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptxmary850239
 
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17Celine George
 
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMr Bounab Samir
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationdeepaannamalai16
 
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Celine George
 
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdf
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdfIndexing Structures in Database Management system.pdf
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research DiscourseAnita GoswamiGiri
 
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfDBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxAnupam32727
 
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEPART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEMISSRITIMABIOLOGYEXP
 
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineCeline George
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Osopher
 

Recently uploaded (20)

4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
 
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
 
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
 
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
 
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
 
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdf
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdfIndexing Structures in Database Management system.pdf
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdf
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
 
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfDBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
 
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
 
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFEPART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
PART 1 - CHAPTER 1 - CELL THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
 
Teaching Critical AI Literacies - Maha Bali
Teaching Critical AI Literacies - Maha BaliTeaching Critical AI Literacies - Maha Bali
Teaching Critical AI Literacies - Maha Bali
 
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database ReleaseIsrael Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
 
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
 
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
 

Legal issues

  • 1.
  • 2. We are living in a knowledge society. Knowledge empowers people in their everyday lives and facilitates good governance and the development of democratic societies. Knowing your legal rights as a citizen, being well informed about a medical condition or having access to the latest travel, weather or leisure information enables people to take control, make informed decisions and to exercise choice. It encourages innovation, creativity and a competitive economy. Libraries organize, collect and preserve all types of information, knowledge, cultural and learning resources for the purposes of making them available to library patrons and the general public of today and tomorrow. - EIFL Handbook on Copyright and Related Issues for Libraries-
  • 3. • Gifts and IRS Gifts represent an important component of the collection-building activities of libraries. Libraries should develop guidelines as to what gifts will be accepted and what gifts will not be accepted into their collections, based on their collection development policy. Libraries will want to state that they accept gift material to add to their collections that meet the same standards or selection criteria used for materials purchased for the collections. It is often easier to say what will not be accepted rather than what will be accepted. For example, materials in poor physical condition, material with out-of-date information or long runs of popular periodicals will not be accepted.
  • 4. *One of the IRS regulation relevant to the libraries has to do with the gifts and donations to a library or not-for-profit information center. Any libraries, or its parent institution ,that receives a gift-in-kind with an appraised value of $5,000 or more must report the gift to the IRS. *A second regulation forbids the receiving party to provide an estimated value for gift-in-kind .
  • 5. What is IRS? The internal revenue service (IRS) is the revenue service of the united states federal government. The government agency is a bureau of the department of the treasury, and is under the immediate direction of the commissioner of internal revenue. The IRS is responsible for collecting taxes and the administration of the internal revenue code. It has also overseen various benefit programs, and enforces portions of the affordable care act. the first income tax was assessed in 1862 to raise funds for the american civil war, with a rate of 3%. Today the IRS collects over $2.4 trillion each tax year. It processes around 234 million tax returns annually.
  • 6. What is inventory? Inventory is: * a standard business procedure * a survey of goods and materials in stock In a library this primarily involves checking the library collection on the shelves against the catalogue records, but it could also involve an equipment and supplies inventory. What is Inventory Control? Inventory control systems are the systems employed in order to insure that inventories are kept at the minimum level consistent with maintaining continuity of supply to meet the needs of external customers and users within the business.
  • 7. Why do libraries conduct inventories? 1. To ensure the accuracy of their catalogue records 2. To estimate loss rates and costs in order to evaluate the success of current security systems and procedures, and if necessary, to make a business case for a new security system 3. To replace or withdraw all missing items and to indicate such information on the catalogue record by withdrawing or flagging the record to alert the patron 4. To evaluate the condition of materials on the shelves 5. To evaluate the quality of the cataloguing record 6. To analyze a collection's strengths and weaknesses
  • 8. Copyrights Laws and Libraries Copyright is a legal right created by the law of a country that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights for its use and distribution. This is usually only for a limited time. The exclusive rights are not absolute but limited by limitations and exceptions to copyright law, including fair use. The term copyright originated from the law’s first purpose, which was to protect against unauthorized printing and selling of a work.
  • 9. *PENALTIES OF COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT By reproducing, republishing or redistributing the work of a copyright holder without permission, you may be violating or infringing on his or her rights under the copyright act. If the copyright holder has registered the work with the U.S. Copyright office prior to the infringement, the copyright holder may sue for compensation. Court-ordered compensation may include damages such as lost profits from the infringing activity or statutory damages ranging from $250 to $150,000, plus attorneys' fees, for each infringing copy. You may also be criminally liable if you willfully copy a work for profit or financial gain, or if the copied work has a value of more than $1,000. In these cases, penalties can include a one-year jail sentence plus fines. If the value is more than $2,500, you may be sentenced to five years in jail plus fines. Criminal penalties generally apply to large-scale commercial piracy.
  • 10. "International" copyright There is no such thing as an "international" copyright that automatically protects a work throughout the world. However, the most widely-adopted copyright treaty, the Berne convention, states that once a work is protected in one of the convention member countries, it is protected by copyright in all of them. As of mid-2004, 156 countries, including the U.S., Belong to the Berne convention. The Berne Convention further states that the scope and limitations of any copyright are based upon the laws of the country where the misuse of the copyright-protected work takes place (rather than the country where the work originated).
  • 11. LIBRARIES AND LAWS How is copyright an issue in collection development? There are at least five significant areas where the law and library intersect: 1. fair use 2. photocopying/ scanning 3. interlibrary loan 4. performance 5. out-of-print status
  • 12. FAIR USE Fair use is a legal doctrine that permits limited use of copyrighted material without acquiring permission from the rights holders. While often thought of as an affirmative defense. The copyright act at 17 U.S.C. § 108 and the code of federal regulations at 37 C.F.R. § 201.14 provide protections for libraries with regard to copying for library patrons.
  • 13. Library Copying After 75 Years In 1998, the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act extended the period of copyright protection for an additional 20 years. As part of the Act, Congress provided that, during the last 20 years of any term of copyright of a published work, a library or archives may reproduce a copy of the work for purposes of preservation, scholarship, or research provided that the work was not being distributed commercially, the work cannot be obtained at a reasonable price, or the copyright owner or its agent provides notice that either of the above conditions applies.
  • 14. DIGITAL MILLENNIUM COPYRIGHT ACT (DMCA) Digital millennium copyright act (DMCA) is a united states copyright law that implements two 1996 treaties of the world intellectual property organization (WIPO). It criminalizes production and dissemination of technology, devices, or services intended to circumvent measures (commonly known as digital rights management or DRM) that control access to copyrighted works. It also criminalizes the act of circumventing an access control, whether or not there is actual infringement of copyright itself. In addition, the DMCA heightens the penalties for copyright infringement on the internet, passed on October 12, 1998, by a unanimous vote in the united states senate and signed into law by president bill clinton on October 28, 1998, the DMCA amended title 17 of the united states code to extend the reach of copyright, while limiting the liability of the providers of online services for copyright infringement by their users.
  • 15. DMCA AND TECHNOLOGY ISSUES ENFORCEMENT Copyright holders are quick to enforce their rights. In Singapore, criminal offences under copyright law include the following: manufacture of infringing copies for sale; sale of infringing copies; possession or importation of infringing copies for the purposes of sale, hire, or distribution for trade or for any other purpose to an extent that will affect the copyright owner prejudicially; distribution of infringing copies for trade or for any other purposes to such an extent as to affect the copyright owner prejudicially.
  • 16. CONTRACTUAL COMPLIANCE The ccc (copyright clearance center) is a not for profit service designed for right holders ,libraries and others users of copyrighted material by providing a central source from which to secure necessary permissions and to pay the required fee. It is a licensing system :ccc does not copy documents but function as a clearinghouse for both print and online content. DISAPPEARANCE OF MATERIALS
  • 17. LICENSES AND CONTRACTS What is the difference between a contract and a license? A contract is a voluntary, deliberate and legally binding agreement between two or more competent parties…..Each party to a contract acquires rights and duties relative to the duties and rights of other parties. A license on the other hand means a revocable written or implied agreement by an authority or proprietor not to assert his or her right period and under specified to prevent another party from engaging in certain activity that is normally forbidden.
  • 18. THE ART OF NEGOTIATION Negotiation is about resolving a matter in such a way that all parties involved achieved some gain rather than all or nothing.