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Language ireland


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Language ireland

  1. 1. The Linguistic Issue in Ireland
  2. 2. <ul><li>The Celts and the Celtic </li></ul><ul><li>Languages. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Some notes about the </li></ul><ul><li>English language in Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Nationalism, language </li></ul><ul><li>and identity. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Language planning in Ireland. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The celts and the </li></ul><ul><li>celtic Languages. </li></ul>
  4. 4.  One of the main issues considered by Celtic Studies is the meaning of the term “Celtic” itself.  From a scientific point of view, the word “Celtic” is primarily a linguistic term, and it refers to a group of Indoeuropean languages which developped in the European Continent some 5,000 years ago.  Science does not consider, up to now, that the term “Celtic” has something to do with a distinctive culture, a particular ethnic group, a religion or a kind of music.
  5. 5. <ul><li>We do not know wether the Celts invaded Western </li></ul><ul><li>Europe or wether they just exported their languages </li></ul><ul><li>pacifically. </li></ul><ul><li> The origins of the Celts are traditionally situated in a </li></ul><ul><li>region between Switzerland, the South of Germany </li></ul><ul><li>and the North of Italy. </li></ul><ul><li> The Celts disappeared under the pressure of the </li></ul><ul><li>Germans (from the North of Europe) and the Latins </li></ul><ul><li>(from the South). </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li> There are two different groups of Celtic languages: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Continental Celtic (mainly in Northern Spain, </li></ul><ul><li>France and Germany) </li></ul><ul><li>b) Insular Celtic (in Britain and Ireland) </li></ul><ul><li>Continental Celtic totally disappeared, and the only </li></ul><ul><li>Celtic Languages that remain are Insular, including </li></ul><ul><li>Breton. </li></ul><ul><li> Celtic migrations to Armorica and Northern Galicia. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The Celtic Languages today are the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Irish Gaelic. </li></ul><ul><li>Scottish Gaelic. </li></ul><ul><li>Welsh. </li></ul><ul><li>Breton . </li></ul><ul><li> Cornish and Manx disappeared in the 17 th Century </li></ul><ul><li>a nd in the beginning of the 20 th Century respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>They are now dead languages, although several attempts </li></ul><ul><li>t o revive them have been made. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2. Some notes about The english language In ireland
  9. 9. <ul><li>The first time that the Anglo-Normans landed in </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland was in 1169, on the request of a local lord. </li></ul><ul><li>It was in the area around the city of Dublin, known </li></ul><ul><li>as the Pale , where Anglo-Norman was spoken for </li></ul><ul><li>the first time in Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>The first English settlers where quickly assimilated </li></ul><ul><li>by the Irish population and during the 14 th and 15 th </li></ul><ul><li>Centuries, English was not widely spoken in Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>The Battle of Kinsale (Cork, 1601), which forced </li></ul><ul><li>the so-called “Flight of the Earls” in 1607, was a </li></ul><ul><li>turning point in the history of the Irish language. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>During the 16 th century the first plantations took </li></ul><ul><li>place in Ireland, and the first people who moved </li></ul><ul><li>there were soon assimilated by the native population. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Ulster, the plantations were very different, </li></ul><ul><li>since it was common people who moved there, and </li></ul><ul><li>they did consequently not govern, but rather displace </li></ul><ul><li>the native Irish population. </li></ul><ul><li>The plantations later included two forms: </li></ul><ul><li>transplantation and transportation , which were quite </li></ul><ul><li>different from each other and which had very different consequences on the local population. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>During the 18 th and 19 th century, the native </li></ul><ul><li>Irish population was deprived of education. Only </li></ul><ul><li>the hedge schools provided a means of gaining </li></ul><ul><li>access to education. </li></ul><ul><li>The Ascendancy , who used to live in </li></ul><ul><li>Big houses did have a right to be educated. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1840 the Great Famine took place, what </li></ul><ul><li>constituted a turning point for the Irish language. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 3. Nationalism, Language And identity
  13. 13. <ul><li>Man is a social being. Human societies are founded </li></ul><ul><li>on the principle of identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Identity may be based on ethnic group, religion, </li></ul><ul><li>language, gender, etc. and it implies both a personal </li></ul><ul><li>choice and an external acceptance. </li></ul><ul><li>Identity as a multidimensional reality vs. power </li></ul><ul><li>relations. </li></ul><ul><li>The denial of one’s identity. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>The problem of identity in nations without a State </li></ul><ul><li>in modern Europe: frustrated national projects, </li></ul><ul><li>identities and the concept of “Nation-State”. </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism and identity are usually related to power </li></ul><ul><li>relations within a given society: Catalan, Basque and </li></ul><ul><li>Galician nationalisms and identities. The bourgeoisie: </li></ul><ul><li>economical and political power. </li></ul><ul><li> Power relations in Ireland. Religion and language. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Identity as a historical construction. Identity and myth: </li></ul><ul><li>The foundation of a nation and the need for myths. </li></ul><ul><li> Galicia as a Celtic country: discovery or invention? </li></ul><ul><li>Other national myths: Spain and the “Reconquista”. </li></ul><ul><li>The American Dream. The French Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>National identities founded in contrast to European </li></ul><ul><li>State identities: The Catalan and Basque orthography. </li></ul><ul><li>Catholicism in Ireland. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 4. Language planning In Ireland
  17. 17. <ul><li>Language normalisation vs. normativisation. </li></ul><ul><li>The three main fields of language planning </li></ul><ul><li>in which the Irish government operated were: </li></ul><ul><li>Education, the Gaeltacht and the public service. </li></ul><ul><li>Language and education in Ireland: From </li></ul><ul><li>Revivalism to Bilingualism. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar processes in France and Spain.The </li></ul><ul><li>concept of “lengua minorizada” in Spain. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Language promotion and power relations. What </li></ul><ul><li>language will the children speak? The playtime. </li></ul><ul><li>Final reflexion: The future of minority languages </li></ul><ul><li>within a globalised world. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Linguistic Issue in Ireland