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  1. 1. The Linguistic IssueThe Linguistic Issue in Irelandin Ireland
  2. 2. 1. The Celts and the Celtic Languages. 2. Some notes about the English language in Ireland. 3. Nationalism, language and identity. 4. Language planning in Ireland.
  3. 3. 1. The celts and the celtic Languages.
  4. 4. One of the main issues considered by Celtic Studies is the meaning of the term “Celtic” itself. From a scientific point of view, the word “Celtic” is primarily a linguistic term, and it refers to a group of Indoeuropean languages which developped in the European Continent some 5,000 years ago. Science does not consider, up to now, that the term “Celtic” has something to do with a distinctive culture, a particular ethnic group, a religion or a kind of music.
  5. 5. We do not know wether the Celts invaded Western Europe or wether they just exported their languages pacifically. The origins of the Celts are traditionally situated in a region between Switzerland, the South of Germany and the North of Italy. The Celts disappeared under the pressure of the Germans (from the North of Europe) and the Latins (from the South).
  6. 6. There are two different groups of Celtic languages: a) Continental Celtic (mainly in Northern Spain, France and Germany) b) Insular Celtic (in Britain and Ireland) Continental Celtic totally disappeared, and the only Celtic Languages that remain are Insular, including Breton. Celtic migrations to Armorica and Northern Galicia.
  7. 7. The Celtic Languages today are the following: 1) Irish Gaelic. 2) Scottish Gaelic. 3) Welsh. 4) Breton. Cornish and Manx disappeared in the 17th Century and in the beginning of the 20th Century respectively. They are now dead languages, although several attempts to revive them have been made.
  8. 8. 2. Some notes about The english language In ireland
  9. 9. The first time that the Anglo-Normans landed in Ireland was in 1169, on the request of a local lord. It was in the area around the city of Dublin, known as the Pale, where Anglo-Norman was spoken for the first time in Ireland. The first English settlers where quickly assimilated by the Irish population and during the 14th and 15th Centuries, English was not widely spoken in Ireland. The Battle of Kinsale (Cork, 1601), which forced the so-called “Flight of the Earls” in 1607, was a turning point in the history of the Irish language.
  10. 10. During the 16th century the first plantations took place in Ireland, and the first people who moved there were soon assimilated by the native population. In the Ulster, the plantations were very different, since it was common people who moved there, and they did consequently not govern, but rather displace the native Irish population. The plantations later included two forms: transplantation and transportation, which were quite different from each other and which had very different consequences on the local population.
  11. 11. During the 18th and 19th century, the native Irish population was deprived of education. Only the hedge schools provided a means of gaining access to education. The Ascendancy, who used to live in Big houses did have a right to be educated. In 1840 the Great Famine took place, what constituted a turning point for the Irish language.
  12. 12. 3. Nationalism, Language And identity
  13. 13. Man is a social being. Human societies are founded on the principle of identity. Identity may be based on ethnic group, religion, language, gender, etc. and it implies both a personal choice and an external acceptance. Identity as a multidimensional reality vs. power relations. The denial of one’s identity.
  14. 14. The problem of identity in nations without a State in modern Europe: frustrated national projects, identities and the concept of “Nation-State”. Nationalism and identity are usually related to power relations within a given society: Catalan, Basque and Galician nationalisms and identities. The bourgeoisie: economical and political power. Power relations in Ireland. Religion and language.
  15. 15. Identity as a historical construction. Identity and myth: The foundation of a nation and the need for myths. Galicia as a Celtic country: discovery or invention? Other national myths: Spain and the “Reconquista”. The American Dream. The French Revolution. National identities founded in contrast to European State identities: The Catalan and Basque orthography. Catholicism in Ireland.
  16. 16. 4. Language planning In Ireland
  17. 17. Language normalisation vs. normativisation. The three main fields of language planning in which the Irish government operated were: Education, the Gaeltacht and the public service. Language and education in Ireland: From Revivalism to Bilingualism. Similar processes in France and Spain.The concept of “lengua minorizada” in Spain.
  18. 18. Language promotion and power relations. What language will the children speak? The playtime. Final reflexion: The future of minority languages within a globalised world.
  19. 19. The Linguistic Issue in IrelandThe Linguistic Issue in Ireland