April 19, 1775, British shot eight in Lexington, Mass. Revere had bravely rode the night before as the British moved by land to Lexington and Concord Actually, “The regulars are coming”
First fights in Concord and Lexington (Paul Revere) Militias attack on the way to Boston, inflicting heavy losses
Establishes the name of the confederation as &quot;The United States of America.&quot; Asserts the precedence of the separate states over the confederation government, i.e. &quot; Each state retains its sovereignty , freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated.&quot; Establishes the United States as a league of states united &quot;. . . for their common defense, the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to assist each other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them . . . .&quot; Establishes freedom of movement –anyone can pass freely between states , excluding &quot; paupers , vagabonds , and fugitives from justice.&quot; All people are entitled to the rights established by the state into which he travels. If a crime is committed in one state and the perpetrator flees to another state, he will be extradited to and tried in the state in which the crime was committed. Allocates one vote in the Congress of the Confederation (United States in Congress Assembled) to each state, which was entitled to a delegation of between two and seven members. Members of Congress were appointed by state legislatures; individuals could not serve more than three out of any six years. Only the central government is allowed to conduct foreign relations and to declare war . No states may have navies or standing armies, or engage in war, without permission of Congress (although the state militias are encouraged). When an army is raised for common defense, colonels and military ranks below colonel will be named by the state legislatures. Expenditures by the United States will be paid by funds raised by state legislatures , and apportioned to the states based on the real property values of each. Defines the powers of the central government: to declare war, to set weights and measures (including coins), and for Congress to serve as a final court for disputes between states. Defines a Committee of the States to be a government when Congress is not in session. Requires nine states to approve the admission of a new state into the confederacy; pre-approves Canada , if it applies for membership. Reaffirms that the Confederation accepts war debt incurred by Congress before the Articles. Declares that the Articles are perpetual, and can only be altered by approval of Congress with ratification by all the state legislatures.
Washington crossed the Delaware from Pennsylvania to New Jersey to attack the Hessians (German Mercenaries/private contractors). Undernourished and poorly clothed, living in crowded, damp quarters, the army was ravaged by sickness and disease . Typhus , typhoid , dysentery , and pneumonia were among the killers that felled as many as 2,000 men that winter. Winter 1777-1778.
September - October 19, 1781 Recognizing the 13 colonies to be free, sovereign and independent States, and that his Majesty relinquishes all claims to the Government, propriety, and territorial rights of the same, and every part thereof;  Establishing the boundaries between the United States and British North America (for an account of two strange anomalies resulting from this part of the Treaty, based on inaccuracies in the Mitchell Map , see Northwest Angle and the Republic of Indian Stream ); Granting fishing rights to United States fishermen in the Grand Banks , off the coast of Newfoundland and in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence ; Recognizing the lawful contracted debts to be paid to creditors on either side; The Congress of the Confederation will &quot;earnestly recommend&quot; to state legislatures to recognize the rightful owners of all confiscated lands &quot;provide for the restitution of all estates, rights, and properties, which have been confiscated belonging to real British subjects [Loyalists]&quot;; United States will prevent future confiscations of the property of Loyalists ; Prisoners of war on both sides are to be released and all property left by the British army in the United States unmolested (including slaves); Great Britain and the United States were each to be given perpetual access to the Mississippi River ; Territories captured by Americans subsequent to treaty will be returned without compensation; Ratification of the treaty was to occur within six months from the signing by the contracting parties.
French fell ito debt, leading to the French Revolution of 1789 An estimated 25,000 American Revolutionaries died during active military service. About 8,000 of these deaths were in battle; the other 17,000 deaths were from disease, including about 8,000 who died while prisoners of war.
The Great War For American Independence Part II
The Shot Heard Round the World <ul><ul><li>"By the rude bridge that arched the flood, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their flag to April's breeze unfurled, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Here once the embattled farmers stood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And fired the shot heard round the world." </li></ul></ul><ul><li>-R.W. Emerson </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Revere, William Dawes and others </li></ul><ul><li>“ One if by land, two if by sea” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The British are coming!!!!!!” </li></ul>
War Begins <ul><li>Concord and Lexington </li></ul><ul><li>Brits march to Boston (guerrilla warfare) </li></ul>
Articles of Confederation <ul><li>Governing agreement of the 13 colonies </li></ul><ul><li>First mention of “The United States of America” </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted by the 2 nd Continental Congress, 1777 </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning of the debate between a strong central government and state’s rights. </li></ul>
Battles <ul><li>Battle of Lexington and Concord </li></ul><ul><li>Capture of Fort Ticonderoga </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Bunker Hill </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion of Quebec, Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Long Island </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of White Plains </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Fort Washington </li></ul><ul><li>Washington crosses the Delaware </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Trenton </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Princeton </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Brandywine </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Germantown </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Oriskany </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Bennington </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Saratoga </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Monmouth </li></ul><ul><li>Valley Forge </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Savannah </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Charleston </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Camden </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of King's Mountain </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Cowpens </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Guilford </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Eutaw Springs </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Yorktown </li></ul>
Washington Crosses the Delaware <ul><li>Christmas 1776 </li></ul><ul><li>Washington kills Hessians = mercenaries = private contractors </li></ul><ul><li>Washington moves to Valley Forge as British loyalists show themselves </li></ul>
Yorktown, 1781 = End of War <ul><li>French support aids victory </li></ul><ul><li>17,000 Franco-American troops force Cornwallis’ surrender </li></ul><ul><li>Britain cedes all land west to the Mississippi – Treaty of Paris, 1783 </li></ul>
Victory! <ul><li>French fell ito debt, leading to the French Revolution of 1789 </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated 25,000 American Revolutionaries died during active military service. About 8,000 of these deaths were in battle; the other 17,000 deaths were from disease, including about 8,000 who died while prisoners of war. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Other voices and perspectives???? </li></ul>
Zinn <ul><li>Social Order: </li></ul><ul><li>“ It was a complex chain of oppression in Virginia. The Indians were plundered by white frontiersmen, who were taxed and controlled by the Jamestown elite. And the whole colony was being exploited by England, which bought the colonists' tobacco at prices it dictated and made 100,000 pounds a year for the King.” </li></ul><ul><li>“… the upper class was getting most of the benefits and monopolized political power. A historian who studied Boston tax lists in 1687 and 1771 found that in 1687 there were, out of a population of six thousand, about one thousand property owners, and that the top 5 percent- 1 percent of the population-consisted of fifty rich individuals who had 25 percent of the wealth. By 1770, the top 1 percent of property owners owned 44 percent of the wealth.” </li></ul><ul><li>Indentured Servants: </li></ul><ul><li>“ During the journey the ship is full of pitiful signs of distress-smells, fumes, horrors, vomiting, various kinds of sea sickness, fever, dysentery, headaches, heat, constipation, boils, scurvy, cancer, mouth-rot, and similar afflictions, all of them caused by the age and the high salted state of the food, especially of the meat, as well as by the very bad and filthy water.. .. Add to all that shortage of food, hunger, thirst, frost, heat, dampness, fear, misery, vexation, and lamentation as well as other troubles.... On board our ship, on a day on which we had a great storm, a woman about to give birth and unable to deliver under the circumstances, was pushed through one of the portholes into the sea....” </li></ul><ul><li>Boston Massacre: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The crowd at the Massacre was described by John Adams, defense attorney for the British soldiers, as "a motley rabble of saucy boys, negroes, and mulattoes, Irish teagues and outlandish jack tarrs." </li></ul>
Creating Support: “ In Virginia, it seemed clear to the educated gentry that something needed to be done to persuade the lower orders to join the revolutionary cause, to deflect their anger against England. …Patrick Henry's oratory in Virginia pointed a way to relieve class tension between upper and lower classes and form a bond against the British. This was to find language inspiring to all classes, specific enough in its listing of grievances to charge people with anger against the British, vague enough to avoid class conflict among the rebels, and stirring enough to build patriotic feeling for the resistance movement. Thomas Paine, Common Sense: "A French bastard landing with an armed Bandits and establishing himself king of England against the consent of the natives, is in plain terms a very paltry rascally original. It certainly hath no divinity in it." – Challenge to divine right of kings Declaration of Independence: To say that the Declaration of Independence, even by its own language, was limited to life, liberty, and happiness for white males is not to denounce the makers and signers of the Declaration for holding the ideas expected of privileged males of the eighteenth century. Reformers and radicals, looking discontentedly at history, are often accused of expecting too much from a past political epoch-and sometimes they do. But the point of noting those outside the arc of human rights in the Declaration is not, centuries late and pointlessly, to lay impossible moral burdens on that time. It is to try to understand the way in which the Declaration functioned to mobilize certain groups of Americans, ignoring others. Surely, inspirational language to create a secure consensus is still used, in our time, to cover up serious conflicts of interest in that consensus, and to cover up, also, the omission of large parts of the human race.
State Constitutions: “ The new constitutions that were drawn up in all states from 1776 to 1780 were not much different from the old ones. Although property qualifications for voting and holding office were lowered in some instances, in Massachusetts they were increased. Only Pennsylvania abolished them totally. The new bills of rights had modifying provisions. North Carolina, providing for religious freedom, added "that nothing herein contained shall be construed to exempt preachers of treasonable or seditious discourses, from legal trial and punishment." Maryland, New York, Georgia, and Massachusetts took similar cautions.” Constitution: “ The inferior position of blacks, the exclusion of Indians from the new society, the establishment of supremacy for the rich and powerful in the new nation-all this was already settled in the colonies by the time of the Revolution. With the English out of the way, it could now be put on paper, solidified, regularized, made legitimate, by the Constitution of the United States, drafted at a convention of Revolutionary leaders in Philadelphia.” “ Thus, [Charles Beard, An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution] Beard found that most of the makers of the Constitution had some direct economic interest in establishing a strong federal government: the manufacturers needed protective tariffs; the moneylenders wanted to stop the use of paper money to pay off debts; the land speculators wanted protection as they invaded Indian lands; slaveowners needed federal security against slave revolts and runaways; bondholders wanted a government able to raise money by nationwide taxation, to pay off those bonds.” “ Four groups, Beard noted, were not represented in the Constitutional Convention: slaves, indentured servants, women, men without property. And so the Constitution did not reflect the interests of those groups.”
Problems with the Articles of Confederation <ul><li>Under the Articles there was only a unicameral legislature so that there was no separation of powers. </li></ul><ul><li>The central government under the Articles was too weak since the majority of the power rested with the states. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress, under the Articles, did not have the power to tax which meant that they could never put their finances in order. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to change or amend the Articles, unanimous approval of the states was required which essentially meant that changes to the Articles were impossible. </li></ul><ul><li>For any major laws to pass they had to be approved by 9 or the 13 states which proved difficult to do so that even the normal business of running a government was difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Under the Articles, Congress did not have the power to regulate commerce which will cause competition between states as well as diplomatic issues. </li></ul>