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  2. 2. Structure and Function ∗ Structure of the circulatory system ∗ Includes the blood and lymph that move through the body ∗ Function of the circulatory system ∗ Both blood and lymph are tissues that maintain homeostasis and give the body immunity
  3. 3. Blood ∗ Body contains approximately 4 to 5 liters of blood, making up about 8% of the body’s weight ∗ Functions include: Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and hormones Removing metabolic wastes and carbon dioxide Providing immunity through antibodies Maintaining body temperature and electrolyte balance ∗ Clotting to prevent bleeding from a wound ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗
  4. 4. Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) ∗ Erythrocytes contain a protein called hemoglobin that carries oxygen to all cells and removes carbon dioxide ∗ Each red blood cell lives only 90 to 120 days ∗ New cells are manufactured by the red marrow or myeloid tissue in bones ∗ The liver and spleen remove dead red blood cells
  5. 5. White Blood Cells (Leukocytes) ∗ White blood cells remove foreign particles, fight infection, and help prevent disease ∗ There are fewer white blood cells than red ∗ White blood cells are larger than red ∗ Leukocytes live about 9 days ∗ Pus consists of white blood cells mixed with bacteria
  6. 6. Five Types of White Blood Cells ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ Neutrophils Basophils Eosinophils Lymphocytes Monocytes
  7. 7. Platelets (Thrombocytes) ∗ Smallest blood cells ∗ Platelets promote clotting to prevent blood loss ∗ Platelets can form a plug to seal small vessels by themselves or start the clotting process ∗ Produced in red bone marrow ∗ Live about 5 to 9 days
  8. 8. Plasma ∗ A pale yellow liquid that remains when elements are removed from blood ∗ Whole blood is 55% plasma ∗ Plasma is 90% water and approximately 10% proteins ∗ It contains nutrients, electrolytes, oxygen, enzymes, hormones, and wastes ∗ Helps fight infection and assists in the clotting (coagulation) of blood
  9. 9. Blood Typing ∗ A person’s blood type is an inherited characteristic of the blood ∗ A blood type is determined by the antigens located on the surface of the red blood cell ∗ Clumping of incompatible cells blocks blood vessels and may cause death
  10. 10. Table 11-2 Blood Types
  11. 11. Lymph and Lymphatic Tissue ∗ Two important functions – The process of immunity – Maintaining the body’s fluid balance ∗ Lymph is a watery substance formed from fluid that filters into the body tissue or interstitially ∗ Lymphatic tissues consist of the tonsils, thymus, spleen, nodes, and the lymph vessels
  12. 12. Immunity ∗ Immune response takes on two forms ∗ As a barrier of the skin, mucous membranes, tears, and the leukocytes ∗ In leukocytes antibodies are formed in response to antigens or foreign materials that enter the body ∗ May be a localized or systemic reaction ∗ Acquired and/or inherited immunity
  13. 13. Assessment Techniques ∗ Hemoglobin (Hgb) test measures the amount of oxygen-carrying ability of the blood ∗ Hematocrit (Hct) measures the volume of erythrocytes in the blood ∗ Sedimentation rates measure how long it takes for erythrocytes in the blood to settle to the bottom of a container ∗ Reticulocyte studies measure the number of immature red blood cells
  14. 14. Assessment Techniques (continued) ∗ Red blood cell (RBC) counts determine the number of circulating red blood cells in 1 mm3 of blood ∗ Platelet or thrombocyte counts measure the number of platelets in 1 mm3 of blood to determine clotting ability ∗ Aspiration biopsy cytology (ABC) studies examine bone marrow from the iliac crest of the hip
  15. 15. Disorders of the Circulatory System ∗ Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ∗ Dysfunction of the immune system caused by a virus ∗ Allergy ∗ Hypersensitive response by the immune system to an outside substance ∗ Anemia ∗ The blood has an inadequate amount of hemoglobin, red blood cells, or both
  16. 16. Disorders of the Circulatory System (continued) ∗ Autoimmune ∗ Conditions in which the immune system of the body turns against itself ∗ Elephantiasis ∗ A massive accumulation of lymphatic fluid in body tissues, causing an abnormally large growth of tissue or hypertrophy ∗ Erythroblastosis fetalis ∗ A condition in an unborn baby in which the mother forms antibodies against the antigens in the baby’s blood
  17. 17. Disorders of the Circulatory System (continued) ∗ Hemophilia ∗ A rare sex-linked genetic blood disease in which the blood is missing a clotting factor ∗ Hepatitis ∗ A viral infection of the blood ∗ Hodgkin’s disease ∗ A malignant cancer of the lymph system
  18. 18. Disorders of the Circulatory System (continued) ∗ Leukemia ∗ Also called blood cancer, is an abnormal malignant increase in the number and longevity of white blood cells ∗ Lymphosarcoma ∗ Is a group of malignant cancers of lymph tissues other than Hodgkin's disease ∗ Polycythemia ∗ An abnormal increase in the number of blood cells, making the blood thicker and slower flowing
  19. 19. Disorders of the Circulatory System (continued) ∗ Septicemia ∗ Called blood poisoning, is an infection that occurs when pathogens enter the blood ∗ Sickle cell anemia ∗ A genetic condition that results in malformed red blood cells ∗ Splenomegaly ∗ An enlargement of the spleen caused by an acute infection such as mononucleosis or anemia
  20. 20. Disorders of the Circulatory System (continued) ∗ Thalassemia ∗ One of the most common genetic blood disorders ∗ Thrombocytopenia ∗ A decrease in the number of platelets in the blood ∗ Thrombosis ∗ A condition in which a blood clot, called a thrombus, forms in the blood vessels
  21. 21. Issues and Innovations ∗ Transfusion – Risks – Autologous transfusions – Platelet donations • Interferon – Prevention of viral diseases • Monoclonal antibodies – Used in organ transplants, against autoimmune disease, and to diagnose certain diseases