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Circulatory system

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Describe the functions and structures of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

List the features that make red blood cells efficient in the transport of oxygen

List components of the blood plasma

Describe the clotting process

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Circulatory system

  1. 1. BloodJorge Melo
  2. 2. Objectives Describe the functions and structures of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets List the features that make red blood cells efficient in the transport of oxygen List components of the blood plasma Describe the clotting process
  3. 3. Mind map The blood Blood plasma Red blood cells White blood cells Platelets
  4. 4. Introduction Main transport medium in the body. Several other functions. Defends the body against disease. Maintains diffusion gradients.
  5. 5. The Blood It transports respiratory gases to and from the alveoli and it removes absorbed food from the small intestine. It acts as a buffer. Many of the blood proteins are able to neutralise excess acid or alkali and so keep the pH of the blood constant. Pressure for such processes as the formation of tissue fluid and filtration by the kidneys. Heat distribution.
  6. 6. Blood Human body 5 dm3 (5 kg) of blood 2.5 x 1013 Red blood cells (erythrocyets) 5 x 1011 White blood cells 6 x 1012 Platelets
  7. 7. Optical microscope
  8. 8. Group activity  Test you knowledge: Function  3 groups Shape  What do you know about: Sketch  WBCs  RBCs Related disease  Platelets
  9. 9. SEM
  10. 10. Blood Plasma 55% of the blood is liquid 45% is made of cells. The pale yellow liquid Kidneys regulate pH and salt concentration of the plasma Plasma contains:  Plasma proteins, such as albumins (for the osmotic balance of the blood),  antibodies (for immunity)  clotting factors such as fibrinogen.
  11. 11. Blood Plasma Absorbed food molecules, such as glucose, amino acids and fatty acids. Excretory waste products, such as CO2, urea and uric acid. Hormones, salts and heat.
  12. 12. Blood Plasma
  13. 13. White blood cells
  14. 14. White Blood Cells Also called leucocytes and there are at least five different types. What they have in common is that they protect the body form disease-causing organisms as part of the immune system. Bigger than RBC but less abundant
  15. 15. White blood cells Nucleus Spherical or irregular in shape Lymphocytes (produced in the lymph): antibody production Neutrophils (made in red bone marrow): responsible for phagocytosis
  16. 16. White blood cells Phagocytosis Phagein (devour) Kitus (cell) Osis (process) phagocytes
  17. 17. White blood cells
  18. 18. Leukaemia Type of cancer (blood or bone marrow) abnormal increase of immature white blood cells called "blasts“ Genetic mutations
  19. 19. Leukaemia Main symptoms  Lack of platelets  WBC may be supressed or dysfunctional  Infections  Anaemia  Diarrheal  pneumonia
  20. 20. Red blood cells
  21. 21. Red Blood Cells RBCs are also known as erythrocytes. They transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. Haemoglobin which combines with oxygen to give oxyhaemoglobin. Dead RBCs are scavenged by the liver
  22. 22. Red blood cells No nucleus, more room for the haemoglobin Biconcave shape Quite small (7 μm) 120 days cycle
  23. 23. Red Blood Cells Slows down the blood flow Gas exchange more efficient Cells stay there longer
  24. 24. Red Blood Cells Packaging the haemoglobin inside red blood cells rather than dissolving it in the plasma means that the solute potential of the blood is not affected. increases the amount of oxygen that each cell can carry.
  25. 25. Red Blood Cells Large surface area : volume ratio. Lot of membrane over which gas exchange can occur. This means that no molecule of haemoglobin is far from the cell surface membrane and its source of oxygen.
  26. 26. Red Blood Cells In the embryo, red blood cells are made in the liver. This function is taken over by the red bone marrow soon after birth.
  27. 27. Anaemia Most common blood disorder Decrease in RBCs  Excessive blood loss  Excessive blood cell destruction  Deficient red blood production Low number of haemoglobin in the RBC hypoxia (lack of oxygen)
  28. 28. Sickle cell disease Genetic blood disorder Abnormal ,rigid, sickled shape Decreases flexibility 10 to 29 days life spam Bone marrow cannot make new RBCs fast enough to replace the dying ones Block blood flow
  29. 29. Platelets
  30. 30. Platelets small cell fragments consisting of cytoplasm surrounded by the cell surface membrane. No nucleus 3 m in diameter. made in the bone marrow last about 6 or 7 days.
  31. 31. Platelets blood clotting. Injury to the linins of a blood vessel exposes collagen fibres. The platelets stick to these and swell, this releases chemicals called thromboplastins.
  32. 32. Damaged blood vessel and platelets Thromboplastins Clotting factors Ca2+Prothrombin Thrombin Fibrinogen fibrin
  33. 33. Platelets These attract several plasma proteins called clotting factors to the site of the injury. These set off a cascade effect in the presence of calcium ions. The inactive plasma protein prothrombin changes to thrombin.
  34. 34. Platelets Thrombin converts another plasma protein, fibrinogen, to its insoluble form, fibrin. Fibrin forms a mesh of threads, which trap the red blood cells, so helping to block the cut. These dry to form a clot, preventing entry of bacteria and further loss of blood, and allowing the wound to heal.
  35. 35. Haemophilia Hereditary genetic disorder Inability of clotting blood Bleeding X Y X-linked trait X XX XY Xh XhX XhY
  36. 36. Task 2
  37. 37. Objectives Describe the functions and structures of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets List the features that make red blood cells efficient in the transport of oxygen List components of the blood plasma Describe the clotting process

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