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Medieval period powerpoint

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Medieval period powerpoint

  1. 1. English Literature The Medieval Period (Old English and Middle English)
  2. 2. England before the English • When the Romans arrived, they found the land inhabited by ―Britons.‖ – known as the Celts • Stonehenge • no written language • absorbed into the Latin speaking Roman society • Romans withdraw, leaving the Britons/Celts behind • Invasions from the Northern Europe – Anglo-Saxon bring Germanic languages
  3. 3. • By 600, Anglo-Saxons conquer the Britons – language becomes more Germanic • still retains some Latin • The Anglo-Saxons’ two urgings--war and wandering become part of the oral tradition – Beowulf is an example of an Anglo-Saxon hero tale Beowulf battles Grendel’s mother
  4. 4. • By 700, Christian missionaries arrive to convert the pagans – Latin (the language of the Church) returns • King Alfred – the Britons become organized – first true king of the Britons – period of prosperity King Alfred brings an age of prosperity
  5. 5. • In 1066, the Normans (French speaking people from Normandy), led by William the Conqueror attack and defeat the Britains (a blend of the Britons and Anglo-Saxons) at the Battle of Hastings • the 3rd language is introduced--French – French culture and French literature arrives
  6. 6. Welcome to England and the English… an island of peoples, languages, and divisions... Latin -- church, schools French -- court, castle English -- commoners The White Tower in London… part of William’s legacyChartres Cathedral
  7. 7. What was it like to live in the Middle Ages?
  8. 8. The 3 Estates in the Middle Ages • The idea of estates, or orders, was encouraged during the Age, but this ordering was breaking down. – Clergy • Latin chiefly spoken, those who pray, purpose was to save everyone’s soul – Nobles • French chiefly spoken, those who fight, purpose was to protect—allow for all to work in peace—and provide justice – Commoners • English spoken, those who work, purpose was to feed and clothe all above them
  9. 9. feudalism • The economic system of much of the Middle Ages (800-1100) • Commoners (peasants) lived on a feudal manor. The lord of the manor gave his vassals (the peasants) land to farm. • In return, the vassals received protection from roving bandits. Yet they were taxed and had to surrender a portion of their crops to the lord. – it was better to be a lord than a vassal! • Feudalism is important as it created ties of obedience and fostered a sense of loyalty between the vassals and their lord. A tenant (vassal) renews his oath of fealty to his lord
  10. 10. Chivalry • A product of feudalism, chivalry was an idealized system of manners and morals – Restricted to nobility • The Medieval knight was bound to the chivalric code to be loyal to… – God – his lord – his lady • Chivalric ideals include... – benevolence – brotherly love – politeness • Sir Gawain is an example
  11. 11. T h e ―H ig h ‖ M id d le A g e s (b e g in 1 0 9 5 ) • B e g in w ith th e F irst C r u sa d e (1 0 9 5 )--re c la im Je ru sa le m fro m th e in fid e ls – O p e n tr a d e r o u te s – P e a sa n ts (th e v a ssa ls) a r e lib e r a te d fr o m th e ir lo r d s to fig h t, a n d d ie , in th e H o ly L a n d s – C itie s sp r in g u p a lo n g th e c r u sa d e r o u te s – F e u d a lis m d ie s o u t – th e tr a n sitio n to th e R en a issa n c e b e g in s
  12. 12. T h e ― H ig h ‖ M id d le A g e s • B e fo re , in th e D a rk A g e s, th e C h u rc h p ro v id e d stru c tu re to so c ie ty, n o t o n ly w ith re lig io n , b u t b y p ro v id in g e d u c a tio n , a s w e ll. • S a d ly, w ith th e C ru sa d e s, th e C h u r c h b e c o m e s in c r e d ib ly c o r r u p t. – P o p e s fig h t fo r p o litica l p o w e r – G r e e d is r a m p a n t • se llin g o f in d u lg e n c e s • C r u sa d e s fo r $ • lo o k f o r th is in th e T a le s
  13. 13. With the Crusades comes The Black Death • spreads along trade routes • kills much of the population • the plague outbreaks occur through the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance • Paradoxically, the Plague provides for continued growth in cities – Afterwards, hundreds of new jobs available – Many debts ―died off‖ with creditors • also contributed to society’s culture
  14. 14. Literature During the Medieval Period
  15. 15. Languages • Latin was the language of the Roman Catholic Church, which dominated Europe • The Church was the only source of education • Thus, Latin was a common language for Medieval writings.
  16. 16. Types of Literature • Troubadour Poetry (Bernart de Ventadorn) – Arthurian Legends – Epic Romances/Quests (Dante Alighieri, Sir Gawain) – Courtly Love • Religious Poetry (Julian of Norwich) • Fabliaux (Geoffrey Chaucer) • Sonnets (Petrarch) • Sestinas (Arnaut Daniel)
  17. 17. Characteristics of Medieval Literature • Heroism – from both Germanic and Christian traditions, sometimes mingled • Beowulf • Sir Gawain and the Green Knight • Presentations of idealized behavior – literature as moral lesson • loyalty to king • chivalry • use of kennings (especially in Beowulf) – Hyphenated expression, representing a single noun. For example, the epic Beowulf uses the two-word term whale-road to refer to the sea or ocean.
  18. 18. The Ideal of Courtly Love • This relationship was modeled on the feudal relationship between a knight and his liege lord. • The knight serves his courtly lady with the same obedience and loyalty which he owes to his liege lord. • She is in complete control; he owes her obedience and submission
  19. 19. The knight's love for the lady inspires him to do great deeds, in order to be worthy of her love or to win her favor.
  20. 20. • “Courtly love" was not between husband and wife because it was an idealized sort of relationship that could not exist within the context of "real life" medieval marriages. • In the middle ages, marriages amongst the nobility were typically based on practical and dynastic concerns rather than on love.
  21. 21. The lady is typically older, married, and of higher social status than the knight because she was modeled on the wife of the feudal lord, who might naturally become the focus of the young, unmarried knights' desire.
  22. 22. The literary model of courtly love may have been invented to provide young men with a model for appropriate behavior. It taught them to sublimate their desires and to channel their energy into socially useful behavior (love service rather than wandering around the countryside, stealing or raping women.
  23. 23. The "symptoms" of love were described as as if it were a sickness. The "lovesick" knight’s typical symptoms: sighing, turning pale, turning red, fever, inability to sleep, eat or drink.
  24. 24. The Quest • In addition to the theme of Courtly Love, the Quest was highly important: the code of conduct observed by a knight errant who is wandering in search of deeds of chivalry. This knight is bound by a code of behavior - a set of conventional principles and expectations

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