Psychology & Social Media Research Tatiana Indina, PhD for Newmediacenter, NES April 2013
Mass media was agame-changer,bringinginformation,images, and cultureto a broadersegment of societyand the world.Tatiana A. IndinaNES talkPsychological Researchof Social Media
Psychological research on social media• The Impact of Social Media On:• Personality• Self-Presentation and Self-Image• Cognitive and Emotional processes• Human Relationships• Learning and development across the lifespan• Psychological aspects of using technology• New arenas for expression and social modelingof new attitudes, skills, social roles, andpersonal identity
Why people use social media?Stefan Hofmann, Boston University,Journal of Personality and Individual Differences 2012• Facebook satisfies 2 major needs:• the need to belong• the need for self-presentation.
Building social capital : Click to connectKennon Sheldon, PhD, of the University of Missouri.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2011• Spending a lot of time on Facebook correlated at the sametime with high levels of feeling connected to other people• and with high levels of disconnection.• 2 different processes motivate Facebook use:• People who are lonely and disconnected spend time onFacebook to cope with their loneliness.• People who arent lonely also spend time on Facebook tomaintain social connections, leading them to spend evenmore time online.
Facebook ego boostAmy Gonzales, PhD, and Jeffrey Hancock, PhD, Cornell UniversityCyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 2011• Students who were asked to look at their ownFacebook page for just three minutes showed a boostin self-esteem• compared with control groups who either looked in amirror or simply sat in a room for three minutes.• The ego lift is connected with self-select of theinformation in our Facebook profiles. Looking at thatPhotoshopped version of ourselves—reinforces the version of ourselves whowe want to be and can havea positive effect on our self-esteem.
Facebook use and narcissismChris Carpenter, PhD, of Western Illinois UniversityPersonality and Individual Differences,2012• People who updated their Facebook statusfrequently, tagged themselves often in photosand had many Facebook friends — includingpeople whom they didnt know in real life —scored higher on a narcissistic personalityinventory than people who used the site morejudiciously.• Those "socially disruptive" narcissists may expecttime, attention and support from others, butdont reciprocate it themselves.
Social Networking’s Good and Bad Impacts on KidsLarry D. Rosen, PhD, Dominguez Hills, California State University,• Teens who use Facebook more often show more narcissistic tendencies whileyoung adults who have a strong Facebook presence show more signs of otherpsychological disorders, including antisocial behaviors, mania and aggressivetendencies.• Daily overuse of media and technology has a negative effect on the health of allchildren, preteens and teenagers by making them more prone to anxiety,depression, and other psychological disorders, as well as by making them moresusceptible to future health problems.• Facebook can be distracting and can negatively impact learning. Studies foundthat middle school, high school and college students who checked Facebook atleast once during a 15-minute study period achieved lower grades.• “+” Young adults who spend more time on Facebook arebetter at showing “virtual empathy” to their online friends.• Online social networking can help introverted adolescentslearn how to socialize behind the safety of various screens.• At the same time Social networking can provide tools forteaching in compelling ways that engage young students.
Electronic Harassment and CyberstalkingElizabeth Carll, Dr. Yeo Ju Chung (APA)• People who are cyberstalked or harassed online experiencehigher levels of stress and trauma than people who arestalked or harassed in person• Emotional responses to the stress and trauma experiencedby victims may include high levels of ongoing stress,anxiety, fear, nightmares, shock and disbelief, helplessness,hyper-vigilance, changes in eating, and sleeping difficulties• Сyberbullying makes students socially anxious, lonely,frustrated, sad and helpless• Students reported that they were more negatively affectedby cyberbullying when it was anonymous and in “one-sidedsites such as blogs and cyber boards
Blogging May Help Teens Dealing with Social DistressMeyran Boniel-Nissim, PhD, of the University of Haifa, Israel.• Writing a personal diary and other forms ofexpressive writing are a great way to releaseemotional distress and just feel better• Blogging enables free expression and easycommunication with others• Self-esteem, social anxiety, emotional distressand the number of positive social behaviorsimproved significantly for the bloggers whencompared to the teens who did nothing andthose who wrote private diariesThe Therapeutic Value of Adolescents’Blogging About Social-EmotionalDifficulties,” Meyran Boniel-Nissim, PhD, andAzy Barak, PhD, University of Haifa;Psychological Services, Online Dec. 21
Jealousy in FacebookEszter Hargittai, PhD, Northwestern University• Socioeconomic status, race and ethnicitycorrelate with which social media site aperson is most likely to use. (Journal ofComputer-Mediated Communication, 2007)Spending time on Facebookcan increase jealousy inromantic relationships, evenamong people notpredisposed to becomejealous (CyberPsychology &Behavior. 2009)
Predicting personality with FacebookMicrosoft ResearchUniversity of Cambridge• Personality traits can be predictedfrom the public information theyshare on Facebook.• Big Five personality inventoryscales has shown significantcorrelations with the patterns ofonline behavior (Openness,Extraversion, Neuroticism,Agreeableness, Consciousness)
Big Five, shyness, narcissism,loneliness and Facebook usage• An investigation done by Tracii Ryan and SopiaXenos, studied 1400+ Australian internet usersbetween the ages of 18 and 44 and came tosome interesting conclusions.• Facebook nonusers tend to be shyer, moreconscientious and socially lonely thanFacebook users. These people have smallersocial networks and therefore have lessincentive to join Facebook.
Social Network use and Need for CognitionBu Zhong, Marie Hardin and Tao SunNorth American university• Need for Cognition Scale (NFC)• NFC students spend less time on social mediaand tend to add fewer friends to theirnetworks• While their low NFC peers tended to be heavyusers of social media.
LIMITS AND EXTENSIONS OF EMOTIONALCONTAGIONAdam D. I. Kramer, Facebook, Inc. SPSP 2012• Study devoted to understanding of “emotionalcontagion,” the phenomenon via whichpeople “catch” the emotions experienced bytheir communication partners, including:• whether contagion require nonverbal cues;whether different emotions are contracteddifferently;• who contracts which emotions;• and how emotions “spread” via social media.
RIPPLES IN THE OCEAN: EMOTIONAL CONTAGION ON FACEBOOKAdam D. I. Kramer; Facebook, Inc.• Emotions can be contracted via entirely verbal• (text-based) cues. As such, I describe two large-scale (N > 1m) computational• text analysis studies of Facebook status updates to address two• arguments against emotional contagion:• 1) Status updates are “undirected”• and distal, meaning that there is no social requirement to “mirror”• another’s emotional state (which could modify emotion via other• processes; Strack, 1988).• 2) Via a three-day “lagged control” method, we• account for “common causes,” in which the cause of an actor’s emotional• state is instrumentally emotion-invoking in the observer. With thesecontrols,• I still find evidence for emotional contagion:• When a friend’s update contains positive words, subjects’ own updatescontained more positive (and fewer negative) words even three days later.• Friends’ use of negative words predicted more use of negativerepresentation on subjects Facebook page.
A FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF FACEBOOK: PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIALNEEDSJason D. Ferrell Brittany M. Riggin, Ashley Montgomery, AliciaLimke; University of Texas at Austin, University of Central Oklahoma• The purpose was to determine motivations touse Facebook.• Psychological and social needs predictconcrete, observable Facebook behaviors.• Socially excluded individuals login to Facebookfaster than non-socially-excluded individuals.
PERSONALITY SHAPES REAL-WORLD AND ONLINE SOCIAL NETWORKSBenjamin Crosier1, Gregory Webster1, David Stillwell2, Michal Kosinski2,Tatiana Orozco Schember1, Corinne Novell1; 1Department of Psychology,University of Florida, 2The Psychometrics Centre, University of CambridgeExamined the relationship between Big Fivepersonality and social network structure inuniversity Students.• Personality influences the positionpeople occupy in their egocentric socialnetworks.• Extraversion and conscientiousness emerged aspowerful predictors of transitivity (links amongtriads of friends), brokerage (connectingdifferent cliques), network density, and networkcentrality (importance or influence).
FACEBOOK: FRIENDS WITH BENEFITS?Ronald Laye1, Tim Walters1, AsliKucukbumin1, Kelly Wong1, Aviva Laye-Gindhu2; 1University of theFraser Valley, 2University of British Columbia• Examined the relationship betweenpersonality and number of Facebook friendsto investigate if the larger numbers ofFacebook friends >200) provide benefit.• Participants with greater than 200 Facebookfriends were higher in extraversion and self-esteem and lower in loneliness, social anxietyand neuroticism.
FACEBOOK STALKING: A DISCREET WAY FOR ANXIOUSLY ATTACHEDINDIVIDUALS TO MONITOR THEIR ROMANTIC PARTNERSJennifer C. Pink1, Lorne Campbell1; 1University of Western Ontario• Examined whether anxiously attachedindividuals use Facebook to gatherrelationship-relevant information.• Found that highly anxious individualswere more likely to report they useFacebook both as a source of partner-relevant information• and to engage in electronic surveillanceof their partners’ online and offlinebehavior.
THE NEW INTERNET VIRUS -FACEBOOK DEPRESSION?: THE ROLE OFGENDER AND FACEBOOK SOCIAL COMPARISON ON DEPRESSIVESYMPTOMSMai-Ly Nguyen1, Robert E. Wickham2, Linda K. Acitelli3;1University of Houston• Revealed an association between time• spent on Facebook and depressive symptomsfor men and women.• Results demonstrated that, for men only,making social comparisons on Facebookmediated the link between time spent onFacebook and depressive symptoms.
EGOTISM FROM THE INTERNET: USE OF FACEBOOK CAN PROMOTENARCISSISMRobert Horton1, Josh Miracle1; 1Wabash College• Study investigated whether socialnetworking websites facilitate narcissism.• Ninety men performed Agentic actions onFacebook, performed Communal actions onFacebook, or perused ESPN.com.• Participants who engaged in AgenticFacebook activity scored higher on NPIsuperiority and entitlement• than did participants in the other twoconditions.
PERSONALITY AND FACEBOOK POSTING BEHAVIORSGwendolyn Seidman1; 1Albright College• The study explored how the content Facebook• users regularly post is related to the Big 5personality traits.• Results suggest that neurotic individuals use• Facebook as a way to connect with, learnabout, and express themselves to others• and conscientious individuals use Facebookmore cautiously.
PARENTING PERFECTIONISM, ATTACHMENT, AND NEW MOTHERSFACEBOOK USEMitchell Bartholomew1, Meghan Lee1, Sarah Schoppe-Sullivan1, Claire Kamp Dush1; 1The Ohio State University• The study examined how parentingperfectionism and attachment style wereassociated with the Facebook use experiences.• Facebook provides an opportunity for newmothers to maintain and forge socialconnections, and to share photos andinformation about their children.• Facebook enables parental perfectionism.
THE ALCOHOL IDENTITY IMPLICIT ASSOCIATIONS TEST (AI-IAT) AND ITSCONVERGENCE WITH A FACEBOOK PHOTO MEASURE OF ALCOHOLIDENTITYBrittany Bannon1, Heather Gray2, Debi LaPlante2, Nalini Ambady1;1Tufts University, 2Cambridge Health Alliance: Harvard Medical SchoolA study of implicit measure of alcoholidentity, measured by The Alcohol-IdentityImplicit Associations Test (AI-IAT) on Collegestudents who filled AI-IAT and risky drinkingpractice questionnaires.• The baseline AI-IAT predicted the presence ofalcohol in students’ Facebook photographs 18months later.
"CREEPING" OR JUST INFORMATION SEEKING?: GENDER ANDRESPONSES TO JEALOUSY TRIGGERS ON FACEBOOKAmy Muise1, Emily Christofides2, Serge Desmarais2; 1University of Toronto,2University of Guelph• — In an experiment, we tested whether exposureto jealousy triggers leads to more informationseeking on Facebook.• Women spent the most time searching in thehighest jealousy condition, whereas men• spent the least time searching.• The findings describe gender differences injealousy responses and a relational impact ofFacebook use.
YOUR FACEBOOK IS MY HOMEPAGE: AN ANALYSIS OF FACEBOOK USE ANDJEALOUSY WITHIN ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPSLindsay Rice1, Nicole L. Muscanell1, Rosanna E. Guadagno1, Shannon Q. Murphy1;1University of Alabama• The study examines whether photos onFacebook can cause romantic jealousy.• Results indicated that the amount of photos• and photo privacy settings can cause jealousy.• Women reported more jealousy than men andit seems that there is an importance for womento appear on their romantic partner’s Facebookprofile
LOOK WHAT I BOUGHT: AN EXPLORATION OF STATUS CONSUMPTION OFLIFE EXPERIENCESQian Jiang1, Grant Donnelly1, Ryan T. Howell1; 1SanFrancisco State University• Examined the social media intensions of• materialistic and experiential buyers.• Participants listed a purchase they intended to make inthe next two weeks and forecasted if they would sharethat purchase through social media.• Experiential buyers intended to share their experientialpurchases;• Materialistic buyers intended share their• material purchases.• Relation to their values
‘LIKE’ WHAT I BOUGHT? THE LINK BETWEEN COMPULSIVE BUYING AND SOCIALMEDIA USEAmy Harrison Sanchez1, Grant Donnelly1, Vicky Jiang1,Ryan T. Howell1; 1San Francisco State University• The study examined the relationship betweencompulsive buying and social media use.• Compulsive buying was positively related toincreased posting about purchases and to howmuch participants valued receiving feedbackon those posts.• Social media provides a new way forcompulsive buyers to display and receivepositive feedback on purchases.
“PSSSST, IS MY PERSONALITY SHOWING?” EXPLORING FACEBOOKAND PERSONALITYBritni Brewer1; 1High Point University• The study examines the relationship betweenpersonality and Facebook behaviors.• The results indicate self-reported behavior• may not present the same relationships asseen with more objective measures.• Does Facebook activity represent ones’activity in real world?
EFFECTS OF ONLINE SELF-DISCLOSURE ON INTIMACY ANDSATISFACTION WITHIN ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPSCollin Baffa1, Omri Gillath2, Melanie Canterberry3, Emily Berman4;1University of Kansas• — The study examined the effect of socialmedia self-disclosure on romantic intimacyand satisfaction.• Online self-disclosure was found to benegatively associated with intimacy andsatisfaction experienced by the discloser andhis or her romantic partner’s intimacy.
WHY PEOPLE USE SOCIAL MEDIA: HOW ONLINE SOCIAL IDENTITYAND MOTIVATIONS INFLUENCE THE EXPERIENCE OF BEINGCONNECTEDDonna Hoffman1, Thomas Novak1; 1University of California, Riverside— People use social media to pursue both socialand content goals.Different goals lead to different levels ofrelatedness, further moderatedby motivational orientation and the importanceof one’s social graphs to self-concept.
Some Benefits of Being an Activist: Measuring Activism and Its Rolein Psychological Well-BeingMalte Klar1, Tim Kasser2• Do activists lead happier and more fulfilled lives than the averageperson? Two online surveys using a sample of college students(N = 341) and a national sample of activists matched with a controlgroup (N = 718) demonstrated that several indicators of activismwere positively associated with measures of hedonic, eudaimonic,and social well-being.• Furthermore, in both studies, activists were more likely to be“flourishing” (Keyes, 2002) than were nonactivists.• A third study of college students (N = 296) explored the possiblecausal role of activism by measuring well-being after subjects eitherengaged in a brief activist behavior, a brief nonactivist behavior, orno behavior.• Although well-being did not differ substantially between these threegroups, the subjects who did the brief activist behavior reportedsignificantly higher levels of subjective vitality than did the subjectswho engaged in the nonactivist behavior.
Use of online media for political purposes in 2008 ElectionLinda J. Skitka and Edward G. SargisDepartment of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois• The study examined college students use of online mediafor political purposes in the 2008 election. Social mediaattention, online expression, and traditional Internetattention were assessed in relation to political self-efficacyand situational political involvement.• Data showed significant positive relationships betweenattention to traditional Internet sources and political self-efficacy and situational political involvement.• Attention to social media was not significantly relatedto political self-efficacy or involvement.• Online expression was significantly related tosituational political involvement but not political self-efficacy.
Online Media and Offline Empowerment in Democratic Transition: Linking Forms ofInternet Use withPolitical Attitudes and Behaviors in Post-Rebellion TunisiaAnita Breuer German Development InsituteJacob Groshek University of Melbourne• Social media are reputed to have played a crucial role in mobilizing citizens againstautocratic governments in the MENA region. In Tunisia, digital activists successfullyused social media to organize the popular protests that ousted President Ben Ali inJanuary 2011.• However, the phase of mobilizing protest to overthrow an established authority isdifferent from constructing apolitical order to replace that authority.• Hence the question arises in what ways social media can contribute to democratictransitions beyond popular rebellion?• The study focuses on the attitudinal factors that lie at the heart of cultural-behavioral approaches to democratization.• A key element in the democratic consolidation of post-autocratic societies is thedevelopment of a participatory political culture which, among other factors,depends on citizens’ perceived political efficacy.• Using data obtained from a web-survey among 610 Tunisian Internet users, we testthe degree to which respondents’ political use of the Internet during the Tunisianuprising influenced their levels of internal political efficacy and whether this shiftin attitudes is positively related to measurable changes in electoral participationfrom authoritarian to post-authoritarian rule.
Online Groups and Political Discourse: Do OnlineDiscussion Spaces Facilitate Exposure to PoliticalDisagreement?Magdalena E. Wojcieszak1,*,Diana C. Mutz2Journal of Communication, 2009•• To what extent do online discussion spaces exposeparticipants to political talk and to cross-cutting politicalviews in particular?• Drawing on a representative national sample of over 1000Americans reporting participation in chat rooms ormessage boards, researchers examined the types of onlinediscussion spaces that create opportunities for cross-cuttingpolitical exchanges.• findings suggest that the potential for deliberation occursprimarily in online groups where politics comes up onlyincidentally, but is not the central purpose of the discussionspace.
Political Use and Perceived Effects of theInternet: A Case Study of the Political Election• This study explores the relationship betweenthe political use of the Internet and its perceived effectson political life through a secondary analysis of the Post-Election Tracking Survey 2004 data (Pew Internet andAmerican Life Project, 2004).• The political use of the Internet was measured in threedimensions: using the Internet for political information,deliberation, and participation (Tsagarousianou, 1999).• A structural equation model confirmed the cumulativerelationship among the three dimensions of political use ofthe Internet, and• all these three dimensions ofonline political activities positively predicted the perceivedeffects of the Internet on political life.
Motivated by Change: Political Activism ofYoung Women in the 2008 PresidentialCampaignJane Booth-Tobin, Hahrie Han• Findings suggest that young women activists aremore likely than men to be driven by a sense ofwanting to make change and be part of a largermovement, rather then just being “political”
Digital Renaissance:Young Consumer and Citizen?Claes H. de VreeseAmsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCoR) at theUniversity of Amsterdam• The research explores the relationship between Internet useamong young people, their political consumption, and theirpolitical participation.• The study widens the notion of online civic and politicalengagement and includes measures of active and passiveforms of participation.• The results demonstrate the importance of the Internet forpolitical activities for young people.• They also show that most online activities (ranging fromnews use, peer communication, and consumption to onlineservice use) are positively related to political participation.• The study shows that the young online consumer is alsopolitically active.
The Civic and Political Significance of OnlineParticipatory Cultures among Youth Transitioning toAdulthoodJoseph Kahneab*, Nam-Jin Leec & Jessica T. FeezelldJournal of Information Technology & Politics, 2013• The influence of nonpolitical online activity on civicand political practices.• found that youth engagement in some forms of nonpoliticalonline activity can serve as a gateway to participation in civic andpolitical life, including volunteering, community problem solving,protest activities, and political voice.• find that relationships between participation in nonpolitical onlineparticipatory cultures on the one hand and civicand political participation on the other remain statisticallysignificant for both datasets.• While politically driven online participation is clearly also worthy ofattention, findings indicate that it should not be seen as the onlyrelevant bridge from online activity to civicand political engagement.
Intermedia Agenda-Setting and Political Activism:MoveOn.org and the Presidential Election• This study tested for intermedia agenda-settingeffects among explicitly partisan news mediacoverage and political activist group, citizenactivist, and official campaign advertisements onYouTube—all in support of the same candidate.• Partial correlations revealed that the citizenactivist issue agenda, as articulated in the contestads, was most strongly related to the partisanmedia coverage, rather than to the issuepriorities of the official ads on YouTube.
Collective Action in the Age of theInternetMass Communication and OnlineMobilizationTom Postmes, Suzanne BrunstingUniversity of Exeter University of Amsterdam• This study examines how the Internet transformscollective action.• Empirical evidence from an online survey amongenvironmental activists and nonactivists confirms thatonline action is considered an equivalent alternative tooffline action by activists and nonactivists alike.• However, the Internet may slightly alter the motivesunderlying collective action and thereby alter thenature of collective action and social movements.
Facebook Users Political ParticipationJessica Vitak, Paul Zube, Andrew Smock, Caleb T. Carr, Nicole Ellison,and Cliff Lampe. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking.March 2011, 14(3): 107-114.• Do political activities on Facebook affect political participation amongyoung voters, a group traditionally perceived as apathetic in regard tocivic engagement?• Do these activities represent another example of feel-good participationthat has little real-world impact?• Results from a conducted in the month prior to the election found thatstudents tend to engage in lightweight political participation both onFacebook and in other venues.• Furthermore, two OLS regressions found that political activity onFacebook (e.g., posting a politically oriented status update, becoming a“fan” of a candidate) is a significant predictor of other forms of politicalparticipation (e.g., volunteering for an organizing, signing a paper oronline petition), and that a number of factors—including intensity ofFacebook use and the political activity users see their friends performingon the site—predict political activity on Facebook.
General conclusion• Social media does affect one’s personality,values, motives, behavior, cognition andemotions as well as one’s life satisfactionand well-being, relationships with romanticpartner and friends, economic behavior,social and political participation.• Social media can be a tool for study one’sbehavior and personality.