Published on


Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Glimpses of the Mind<br />Mind – Body <br />
  2. 2. The power of the mind<br />Does the mind have powers that we hardly suspect? Are there forms of mental access to information outside the normal realm of physical signs, signals and channels of communication.<br />Look at a card without seeing it and using the power of your mind try to visualise the colour.<br />‘First thought, best thought’ Jack Kerouac (1922-1969)<br />Watch and discuss <br />1. Daniel Tammet<br />2. Rain Man<br /><br />
  3. 3. The interior life of the individual<br />There is an interior theatre of thoughts and feelings, sights and sounds that each of us experience in solitude.<br />But we can touch and be touched. In our souls. Not just in our bodies.<br />We can reach out from our interior and make things happen in our world.<br />Other minds can be linked to ours.<br />
  4. 4. Philosophical Views of the Person<br />There are various philosophical views on what a person is but we are interested in two<br />1. Monism<br />2. Dualism<br />We will be looking at each and exploring the problems that arise <br />
  5. 5. Monism<br />Monists are philosophers who believe that all of reality, everything that exists, falls into one and only one basic category of being. There is, according to monism, only one fundamental sort of substance in existence. In contemporary physics, string theory is the most recent version of monism. The idea that everything is ultimately composed of one-dimensional strings of energy – whatever exactly that means.<br /><br /><br />
  6. 6. Two main forms of monism – 1. Materialism 2. Idealism<br />Materialism – The view that all that exists is matter, configured into material objects. On the materialist view, there are no minds or souls or immaterial spirits. Physical matter is all that exists.<br />Idealism – Is the view that all that exists are minds and ideas in minds. According to the idealist, matter is an illusion projected by our minds. All of the physical universe is just bundles of ideas, a virtual reality, perhaps produced by the mind of God. Bishop George Berkeley (1685-1753) is the greatest of all the idealists. Although not popular today it is a very difficult theory to refute and has become increasingly popular today as a result of developments in physics.<br /><br />
  7. 7. The Idealism of Berkeley<br />All that exists are minds and their ideas<br />There is no such thing as matter<br />There are no material objects, just ideas of them<br />‘To be, is to be perceived.’<br />The chair on which you sit is just a bundle of perceptions in your mind<br />The room and all its contents cease to exist when we all go home in the evening<br />Everything in your field of vision ceases to exist the moment you close your eyes<br />For Berkeley this is really the case. However, everything exists in the mind of God and that is what keeps everything in existence<br />
  8. 8. Food for thought - Solipsism<br />The weird and wonderful philosophical view that ‘Only I really exist’. <br />
  9. 9. Solipsism explained<br />Solipsism is the philosophical idea that one&apos;s own mind is all that exists. Solipsism is an epistemologicalposition that knowledgeof anything outside the mind is unjustified. The external worldand other minds cannot be known and might not exist. In the history of philosophy, solipsism has served as a sceptical hypothesis.<br />
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Interesting video clips dealing with the issue of mind/brain/humanity/solipsism<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
  13. 13. What problems does idealism pose?<br />What does all this say about me, about you, as entities in the world?<br />What are we?<br />Are we minds?<br />Are we bodies?<br />Are we both?<br />What is it to be a person?<br />
  14. 14. Materialism<br />Materialism, as a view of human beings, is just the claim that we are our bodies and nothing more. There are no non-material minds or souls, or thoughts, or sensations. Everything that exists in a human being is a material entity or material process involving only matter and its functions.<br />
  15. 15. Four types of materialism<br />1. Eliminative Materialism<br />2. REDUCTIVE mATERIALISM<br />There are no such things as thoughts and pains and itches.<br />There are just brains and neural events.<br />3. ANALYTICAL BEHAVIOURISM<br />Thoughts and sensations exist but they are reduced to or identified with neural events, states, and processes.<br />4. IDENTITY THEORY<br />Although there are different types of materialism, it is enough to grasp the fundamental materialist claim that we are all just hunks of meat. Interesting and complex meat, but meat only.<br /> – They’re made out of meat by Terry Bisson<br />
  16. 16. Dualism<br />Dualists believe that there are two kinds of substance in existence. There are minds as well as bodies. There is spiritual stuff as well as material stuff.<br />Dualist philosophers like Descartes believed matter or physical substance to be characterized by such properties as extension and mass. Mental substance is characterized very differently. Minds are in time ut they are not in space. They do not have extension (length, height, breadth) or mass. They have no 3 dimensional spread or solidity. They essentially think. That is their nature. A very different sort of reality from any physical object.<br />
  17. 17. Dualism and Human Beings<br />We are all composed of mental and material stuff.<br />Human beings are two-fold being both mind and matter.<br />Reality is also two-fold and made up of both material and mental substance.<br />This is why Descartes teaching on dualism fits nicely into the dominant teachings of the church back in the 17thCentury<br />There are 3 versions of dualism<br />Interactionism<br />Epiphenomenalism<br />Parallelism<br />
  18. 18. Interactionism – The most common type of dualism<br />Most dualists are interactionists<br />The mind and body exists as separate entities but they can and do causally interact with each other<br />Some bodily events cause mental events<br />Some mental events cause bodily events<br />I can decide to kick you in the shin, and that mental event – the decision- can cause a physical act, the kick.<br />Likewise, the physical event consisting in the kick, will cause the mental event – of pain.<br />
  19. 19. Epiphenomenalism<br />Another version of dualism<br />The mind is a by product of the mind – an epiphenomenon<br />It plays no causal role in initiating any bodily events whatsoever<br />Bodily events can cause mental events but mental events cannot cause bodily events<br />Therefore, if I kick you it will cause the mental event of pain but it wasn’t a mental or non-physical decision that brought about the kick.<br />It was neural events of the brain which brought about the decision to kick <br />The inner decision or feeling of intention to kick is just a by product of physical processes consisting of one set of neural events producing another set<br />
  20. 20. Parallelism<br />Mental events cannot cause bodily events<br />Bodily events cannot cause mental events<br />The mind and body are complete cut off from one another and exist parallel to each other without any causal interaction<br />Parallelists deny light waves cause visual imagery and sound waves cause sounds<br />The harmony that exists between both mind and body in this view is because of a divine power – God<br />God allows for mind stuff to be separate from physical stuff and yet enables them to function in harmony<br />