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TM Research

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Research on TM

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TM Research

  1. 1. Transcendental Meditation technique An evidence-based approach to mind-body balance © 2014, TM Health Professionals Program
  2. 2. Meta-Analysis of Trait Anxiety Selection Criteria: • Journals/ dissertations • Random assignment • Authors neutral or negative toward TM. • 143 studies in all Effect sizes are treatments compared to non-treated controls, means and standard errors. Reference: Eppley K, Abrams A, Shear J. Differential effects of relaxation techniques on trait anxiety: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology 1989 45(6):957-974 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Progressive Relaxation All Relaxation Transcendental Meditation Other Meditation StandardDifferenceinMeans(d)
  3. 3. Effects of TM on Trait Anxiety High Anxiety Patients Moderate Anxiety Patients AnxietyGreaterthanthis %ofGeneralPopulation 40% Before TM After TM Orme-Johnson D, Barnes V. (2013) Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Technique on Trait Anxiety: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine; doi:10.1089/acm.2013.0204 90% 80% 70% 60% 50%
  4. 4. Reduced Rates of Death, Heart Attack and Stroke with Transcendental Meditation 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Schneider RH, Grim CE, Rainforth MA, Kotchen TA, et al. Stress reduction in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: Randomized controlled trial of Transcendental Meditation and health education in Blacks. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. 5(6):750-8, 2012. RiskofEvents(ExpectedNumberofEvents perYearper1000Event-freePersons) Health Education Transcendental Meditation 48% lower rate in Transcendental Meditation practitioners over 5 years follow-up (p =.025)
  5. 5. Effect of Transcendental Meditation on Carotid Atherosclerosis INTIMA-MEDIAL THICKNESS Adjusted mean changes in millimeters - 0.1 + 0.1 + 0.05 - 0.05 TM Health Education p < .038 0 This 8-month randomized controlled trial showed that the Transcendental Meditation program significantly reduced carotid artery atherosclerosis in high risk subjects. Castillo-Richmond AB, Schneider RH,et al. Effects of Stress Reduction on Carotid Atherosclerosis in Hypertensive African Americans. Stroke, 2000: 31; 568-573.
  6. 6. Decreased Insulin Resistance through Transcendental Meditation This randomized controlled clinical trial among individuals with stable coronary heart disease found that 16 weeks of practice of the Transcendental Meditation Program, in contrast to participation in a health education program, led to a significant reduction in insulin resistance based on a ratio of glucose to insulin. Reference: Archives of Internal Medicine 166: 1218-1224, 2006. 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 Homeostasismodelassessment ofinsulineresistance Transcendental Meditation Health Education p=.01
  7. 7. Effects of Mindfulness, TM and Other Meditation on Trait Anxiety A meta-analysis of three categories of meditation found that the TM technique produced a greater reduction in trait anxiety than Mindfulness or other meditation techniques (30 studies). Sedlmeier, P., Eberth, J., Schwarz, M., Zimmermann, D., & Haarig, F. (2012). The psychological effects of meditation: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 138(6), 1139- 1171. -0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 Mindfulness Other TM EffectSize(r,95%CI)
  8. 8. Comparison of Three Types of Meditation on Psychological Variables 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 Mindfulness Other TM CompositeIndex:EffectSize(r) Comparison of TM with other types of meditation on a composite index of beneficial changes in trait anxiety, negative emotion, neuroticism, perception, self-concept, and self-realization: a meta-analysis. Orme-Johnson DW & Dillbeck MC. Methodological Concerns for Meta-Analyses of Meditation: Comment on Sedlmeier et al. Psychological Bulletin 2014; 140(2):610-16.
  9. 9. Transcendental Meditation and PTSD Decreased PTSD through TM in Congolese Refugees : a randomized controlled trial War refugees with severe PTSD demonstrated marked reduction of PTS symptoms after 30 days of TM practice. Rees B, Travis F, Shapiro D, Chant R. Reduction in post traumatic stress symptoms in Congolese refugees practicing Transcendental Meditation. Journal of Traumatic Stress. 2013:26(2):295-8. 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 65 69 73 77 81 85 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 PTSDSymptoms(PCL-C) Days TM Controls
  10. 10. Reduced Symptoms of PTSD Transcendental Meditation -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 Brooks, 1985 Rosenthal, 2011 Rees, 2014 Rees, 2013 EffectSize(d) Mindfulness Meditation -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 Kearney, 2013 Bremmer, 2011 Kearney, 2012 King, 2013 EffectSize(d) Brooks, 1985. Journal of Counseling and Development 64: 212-15. Rosenthal, 2011. Military Medicine 176, no. 6 : 626. Rees, 2014. Journal of Traumatic Stress 27, no. 1: 112-15. Rees, 2013. Journal of Traumatic Stress 26: 295-98. Kearney, 2013. Journal of Clinical Psychology 69, no. 1 : 14-27. Bremmer, 2011. American Psychosomatic Society Conference, San Antonio, Texas. Kearney, 2012. Journal of Clinical Psychology 68, no. 1: 212-15. King, 2013. Depression and Anxiety 30, no. 7 : 638-45. Orme-Johnson, 2014. Meta-analysis of meditation and PTSD, manuscript.
  11. 11. Reduced Symptoms of PTSD -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 Mindfulness TM StandardizedDifferenceinMeans(d) Meta-Analysis of Eight Studies p = .0004 Orme-Johnson DW. The effects of Transcendental Meditation and Mindfulness on PTSD: A meta-analysis. 2014.
  12. 12. “…the Transcendental Meditation technique is the only meditation practice that has been shown to lower blood pressure… all other meditation techniques, including MBSR (Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction), received a 'Class III, no benefit, Level of Evidence C' recommendation and are not recommended in clinical practice to lower blood pressure at this time.” Brook, R. D., Appel, L. J., Rubenfire, M., et al (2013). Beyond medications and diet: Alternative approaches to lowering blood pressure : A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension: Journal of the American Heart Association(61) American Heart Association® Learn and Live
  13. 13. Lower blood pressure through Transcendental Meditation practice is also associated with substantially reduced rates of death, heart attack and stroke. American Heart Association® Learn and Live Brook et al., Beyond Medications and Diet: Alternative Approaches to Lowering Blood Pressure. A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension, 61: 1360-1383, 2013.
  14. 14. Recommended Reference: Transcendence: Healing and Transformation through Transcendental Meditation by Norman Rosenthal, MD Clinical Professor of Psychiatry Georgetown University School of Medicine Tarcher Penguin Books (2012) A New York Times bestselling book

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