(Lesson 4) controlling flight


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(Lesson 4) controlling flight

  1. 1. Before we begin today’s lesson let’s review air pressure:Let’s also review the angle of attack:http://www.yesmag.ca/focus/flight/flight_science.html
  2. 2. HOW DO WE CONTROL FLIGHT?•Some of you have asked me how we actually control an airplane•To understand that we first need to go back and understand howa bird controls its flight•Why would we do that?Because early scientists looked to birds to understand flight•So let’s take a look at birds and other living things to understandhow they fly:
  3. 3. HOW DO BIRDS GET IN THE AIR?http://wings.avkids.com/Book/Animals/Images/wing_diagram.gif•Speed is the most important part in making lift.•Speed can be greater by increasing the forward speed of the wing itself as it travelsthrough the air.•If you double the speed, the bird gets 4 times the lift. If the bird triples the speed it willget 9 times the lift.•The bird makes its speed by flapping its wings.http://wings.avkids.com/Book/Animals/intermediate/birds-01.html
  4. 4. MEET THE FASTEST BIRD IN THE WORLD•Can anyone name it?peregrine falcon•It flies at 100 mph in level flight.•When it folds its wings against its body, the falcon candive at 200 mph.http://wings.avkids.com/Book/Animals/intermediate/birds-01.html
  5. 5. HOW DO BIRDS STEER?•Birds "bank" as they turn.•They tilt one wing higher than the other.•Banking holds the underside of the wings.••Another way the bird turns is to beat one wing a little faster thanthe other.http://wings.avkids.com/Book/Animals/intermediate/birds-01.html
  6. 6. HOW DO AIRPLANES STEER?http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/UEET/StudentSite/dynamicsofflight.html
  7. 7. HOW DO AIRPLANES STEER?•The ailerons raise and lower the wings.•The pilot controls the roll of the plane by raising one aileron or the other with a controlwheel.•Turning the control wheel clockwise raises the right aileron and lowers the leftaileron, which rolls the aircraft to the right.http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/UEET/StudentSite/dynamicsofflight.html
  8. 8. HOW DO AIRPLANES STEER?•The rudder works to control the yaw of the plane.•The pilot moves rudder left and right, with left and right pedals.•Pressing the right rudder pedal moves the rudder to the right.•This yaws the aircraft to the right. Used together, the rudder and the ailerons are usedto turn the plane.http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/UEET/StudentSite/dynamicsofflight.html
  9. 9. HOW DO AIRPLANES STEER?•The elevators which are on the tail section are used to control the pitch of the plane.•A pilot uses a control wheel to raise and lower the elevators, by moving it forward toback ward.•Lowering the elevators makes the plane nose go down and allows the plane to godown.•By raising the elevators the pilot can make the plane go up.http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/UEET/StudentSite/dynamicsofflight.html
  10. 10. BREAKING THE SPEED OF SOUNDhttp://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/UEET/StudentSite/dynamicsofflight.html• Sound is made up of molecules of air that move.• They push together and gather together to form sound waves.•Sound waves travel at the speed of about 750 mph at sea level.•When a plane travels the speed of sound the air waves gather together and compressthe air in front of the plane to keep it from moving forward.•This compression causes a shockwave to form in front of the plane.