There are four main sects within Hinduism: Shaivism, in which Shiva is worshipped as the main god; Vaishnavism, in which Vishnu is the main god; Shaktism, in which the female aspect of god is primarily worshipped; and Smartism, in which six main gods are worshipped: Shiva, Vishnu, Shakti, Ganesh, Murugan and Surya.
OBJECTIVES:(EAST INDIAN CULTURE)Traditional way of life.Socio-cultural influence of thegroup.Education past and present.The impact of education on theway of life.The influence of school in the areaon the way of life.The impact of religion.The impact of the family on theway of life.
Cultural heritage Transmission of Culture Beliefs Creative art forms Ideas Drawings Photographs Religion Paintings Music Sculpture Dance Architecture Art Story-telling Dress Music Song Norms Drama and dance Values Technologies Ideas and Values
Came in 1858 to British Honduras when the British Parliament decided to bring over a thousand Indian mutineers with their wives and families after the suppression of the Indian mutiny in India However Some were already in the west Indies since 1838 as indentured workers to fill in for the freed slaves. They were given contracts for up to 5 years after which they were free to go back or remain.
Most of the East Indian workers brought to British Honduras were from Jamaica. They settled in Toledo where they worked at the sugar estates owned by rich Americans. By the 20th century, many had also settled in Corozal working on their own farms.
Extended Family Arranged Marriages (Inter-racial- no courtship) Patrilocal residence Monogamy is widely practiced Patriarchal authority Matriarchal household Patrilineal Male were primary breadwinners Gender divide
SOCIALIZING Language The namaste is the traditional greeting used. The early East Indians It is performed by pressing the palms used to speak mainly together (fingers up) below the chin, and Gujariti and Marathi saying “Namaste” but parents were To greet superiors or to show respect, a ashamed of speaking it slight bow is added. to their children and it “Hello” and “Hi” are also acceptable was lost. greetings. Out of respect for a woman’s privacy, East Indian men do not usually English is now most shake hands with or touch women in widely spoken. formal or informal gatherings. East Indian men will, however, shake hands with Westerners, and educated women may do so as a courtesy. It is polite to use titles such as Shri for a man, Shreemati for a married woman, Kumari for an unmarried woman, or the suffix -ji with a last name to show respect.
Legal Social Libidinal Tying the knot Emotional Economic Spiritual Religious
Arranged marriages were widely practiced and accepted. After marriage the woman would wear a red dot on her forehead called a Mati but today it is called a bindi (vermillion – sindoor). Interracial marriages were originally not allowed.
They believe the spirits can harm relatives so the younger children and family are passed across the coffin three times. On the ninth day a puja, ceremony for the dead, is held where seven men take food to the grave and upon their return they would eat drink and sing until daybreak.
After working on the sugar plantations they began growing rice as well. There were several mills in the Toledo district but after sugar prices fell, most Americans abandoned the estates. Some continued to produce sugar but on a small scale. Rice became the much better crop because of the soil and rainfall in Toledo.
East Indian food is aromatic and traditional, employing flavorings such as Tacari made from yellow ginger or curry powder. Cohune Cabbage and Dahl Roti are used as festival foods. Many of the early East Indians were vegetarians and ate leaves such as Maka, meranga, serosee and greens like siembi and yard beans. They also make Parsad, made out of flour and suger, considered holy food that is shared during worship
Dress The Early East Indians would wear more traditional clothing but have now become more westernized. The female would wear a long skirt, a long sleeve blouse with a large headscarf coming across her shoulders.
Dress Chemise – long slop and a pair of long breeches. Sari – which is a single piece of cloth about six or seven yards long, which is wrapped around the waist and thrown around the shoulder. Bindi - Traditionally it is a dot of red color applied in the center of the forehead close to the eyebrows, but it can also consist of a sign or piece of jewelry worn at this location
Dress The men dress in western clothing, but a hat is usually worn to protect them from the sun. For men the bindi is known as the tilak Menwear it on auspicious occasions such as Puja (ritual worship), or marriage.
The early East Indians had a popular dance called the “Whose me se” which was performed on special occasions.Another dance is the Hussein-Hassan, which referred to thedeadly combat between two brothers of the same name. Here in Belize, they decorate a temple made frombamboo, coconut palm and brightly colored paper. Two menimpersonating Hussein and Hassan would dance and fight withsticks, then they would use machetes and it would end whenHussein pretended to kill Hassan. The music is normally played on drums cymbals andtambourines.
Early east Indians found it difficult to maintain their original culture. Themore recent immigrants have been able to retain some of their culture and worship in Hindu temples. Thebelieve in many gods including the protector and preserver, the destroyer, goddess of love, beauty and wealth.
Vishnu Shiva Brahma The Destroyer / The Preserver The Creator Transformer Vehicle: garuda (bird) Vehicle: swan Vehicle: bull has 4 arms, a blueishhas 4 heads, 4 arms, and a complexion, and rests on a has matted hair, a third reddish complexion snake eye, a blue throat and anot commonly worshipped was incarnated (born as an trident in his hand not to be confused with animal or human) nine times with one more still to come often worshipped in theBrahman (the ground of all being) or the Brahmin is the main god of featureless lingam form (priestly caste) Vaishnavism is the main god of Saivism
Parvati Saraswati Lakshmi The Divine Mother Goddess of Goddess of wealth Vehicle: lionknowledge, music, and prosperity the reincarnation of and the arts Vehicle: owl Shivas first wife has many forms, such as Vehicle: swan wife of Vishnu the popular Durga and wife of Brahma usually shown Kali (see below); often sits on a white bestowing coins shown together with lotus playing a and flanked by Saraswati and Lakshmi veena elephants as the tridevi (triple goddess)
KALI DURGA Goddess of time and A fiercer form of Parvati death Vehicle: tiger has ten arms holding many Vehicle: donkey weapons usually portrayed as dark and violent Ganesh MURUGAN God of the intellect God of war and the remover of Vehicle: peacock obstacles son of Shiva & Parvati Vehicle: mouse popular in Tamil areasson of Shiva & Parvati also known as Skandahas an elephants head KRISHNA The 8th avatar (incarnation) SURYA RAMA The 7th avatar (incarnation) of of Vishnu God of the Sun Vishnu usually portrayed as a child pulled on a chariot bythe central figure in the epic story and a prankster; often horses Ramayana shown playing the flute
Inthe 1800s very few children were attending school so it was made compulsory for children up to the age of 14. The East Indians opposed these movements because most schools were Christian and they feared their children would be converted. Another reason for opposing was that it removed children from working on the estates which helped to increase family earnings.
POSITIVES Opened up the doors of the knowledge Highlighted evil practices Attracted attention of social reformers Realization of the worth of liberty and freedom Opened doors of education for all Given birth to National movement
NEGATIVES Disintegration Rise to unhealthy competition Marginalization of males Masses remained illiterate Discredited traditional occupations More stress on rights Breakdown of family values