CREATED BYJOYOSON MATHAI -30SM SHETTY COLLEGEPOWAITYBMS
Introduction and Nature of Indians to Enjoy Festivals.Indian Festivals, celebrated by varied cultures and through their special rituals, add to the colours of the Indian Heritage. Some festivals welcome the seasons of the year, the harvest, the rains, or the full moon. Others celebrate religious occasions, the birthdays of divine beings, saints, and gurus (revered teachers), or the advent of the New Year.Many festivals celebrate the various harvests; commemorate great historical figures and events, while many express devotion to the deities of different religions.
The emphasis laid on the different festivals differs in different parts of the country. For instance, Navaratri is celebrated with maximum fervour in West Bengal as compared to that in other parts of the country.There are also a few regional festivals like Pongal in Tamil Nadu; Onam in Kerala and the various other temple festivals devoted to the specific patron Gods and Goddesses of the temples, which are celebrated exclusively in those areas, which may be limited to one or a few villages.
DURGA PUJACelebrated in autumn, mainly inBengaL The Divine Mother (good) isrepresented as trampling underfootthe demon Mahishasur (evil) whoterrorized the earth until he wasslain by her. Her image everywhereis surrounded by the images of herchildren Ganesha ( god of wisdom and the bestower of success), Kartikeya (god of war), SaraSwati(goddess of learning and the arts) and Lakshmi (goddess of wealth and beauty). People wear new clothes and exchange gifts of new clothes.
DASEHRACelebrated in tandem.(at the sametime) with Durga Puja, throughoutnorthern India. It is devoted to thememory of the great hero Rama, wholived a million and three hundredthousand years ago, from one of Indiasgreatest epics the Ramayana.The festival lasts ten days and tales aretold with great pomp and drama aboutthe triumph of Rama (good) overRavana(evil) who was a wicked kingwhom Rama vanquished.
DIWALICelebrated mainly by merchants inautumn, after Dasehra, chiefly innorthern India. The word diwali comesftom the Hindi word deepavali whichmeans "row of lights."It lasts fur two days. On the first dayfamilies light "diye" in the hope thatLakshmi the goddess of prosperity willvisit their homes. They also pray toGanesha, god of wisdom and goodluck.On the second night, familiespray, feast and set off fireworks toward off eviL.
KALIPUJACelebrated in Bengal at thesame time as Diwali. Durgasincarnation Kali isworshiped, and the form offestivities is much the same asthat of Diwali.Lakshmi and Ganesh are notworshiped at this festivalhowever.
RAKSHA BANDHANA brother-sister custom which iscelebrated during a full moon towardthe end of July. Sisters bind theirbrothers wrists with rakhi‘, oramulets consisting of silk threads, orsilver or gold wires corals, strings ofpearls or even precious jewels!This tradition dates back more than500 years, when sisters tied rakhis ontheir brother’s wrists to protect themon the battlefield.
BHAIPHOTACelebrated in Bengal. few daysafter Kali Puja.This is also abrother-sister festival in whichthe sister applies a spot or"phota”on her brothersforehead and recites a prayerfor his strength andimmortality (well-being).Gifts are exchanged betweenbrothers and sisters ,sisterscook good food for theirbrothers.
JANMASHTAMIKrishna"s birth is celebrated during summerthroughout India by Hindus.In the homes aspace is cleared to represent the birth-room, where the image of the baby Krishna(eight incarnation of Vishnu, thePreserver, came to earth to save mankind castin Gold, brass or plaster, is surrounded by allthe other people in his infancy.Krishna as a child was very fond of milk, manyvarieties of dairy dishes are prepared on thisholiday. Children are given sweets, especiallysince the child Krishna is worshipped.
HOLICelebrated in February or March onthe day after the full-moon. InBengal, this festival is called“DoL”.Everyone robs coloredpowder on each other and alsodrench each other with coloredliquid.There are two ancient legends thatexplain the origin of HoIi. One isabout Krishna and Radha and theother is about Prahlad and HoIikathe demon ogress. The name Holi isderived fom Holika.
EID UL-FITRCelebrated after the ninthlunar month, calledRamadan, by the Muslims.They avoid food and drinkbetween sunrise and sunsetduring Ramadan. Then theycelebrate the end of thisperiod of fasting with Eidul-Fitr, a joyous festivaI offeasting that lasts for threedays.
BAISHAKHIThe Bengali New Year, calledBaishakhi, is celebrated in April. It is aharvest festival.The highlight of the celebration is theBaisbakhi mela or fair, withamusement-park rides and rows ofstalls selling everything imaginable Atone minute past midnight on NewYears Day, Bengalis set off string afterstring of firecrackers.On New Years Day, people line thestreets to watch the long processionof musicians and dancers perform.
INDEPENDENCE DAYCelebrated on August 15, whichis the anniversary of the day in1947 when independence wasformally granted at midnight toIndia. Prior to this the British hadruled India for over 200 years. There is a flag hoistingceremony in schools, institutionsand homes where the nationalanthem (written byRabindranath Tagore) is sung.
REPUBLIC DAYCelebrated on January 26, which is theanniversary of the day in 1950 whenIndia stood on its own feet, separate atlast from the British, with its own newlywritten constitution and government ofthe peoples own forming elections.India was before a land of many princelystates that was first unified by theBritish, and then came together as aRepublic after its independence fromthe British with a common constitutionand system of government.
GANESH CHATURTHI:Celebrated mainly in Maharashtra, Goa,Tamil Nadu,Karnataka and AndhraPradesh as the birth of Lord Ganeshwho is worshiped bythe Hindus for hisability to remove obstacles and bringgood fortune.The exact time of the festival isdetermined by the lunar cycle and it iscelebrated for ten days, sometime inAugust or September.The deity is worshiped both inprivateand in community sites. At theend of the ten days, the idols areimmersed to the sound of drumbeatsand devotional songs.
CHRISTMASCelebrates and honors the birth ofJesus Christ on the 25th of December.This date is not thought to coincidewith the actual date of birth of Jesusof Nazareth and may have beenchosen because of the fact thatancient Roman solar festivals werecelebrated on that day.Santa Claus is a popular mythologicalfigure and he is associated with thegiving of gifts. Christmas gifts arealso exchanged between familymembers and donations are given tocharity.Christmas is celebrated by theChristians of India but is alsocelebrated by many non-Christians asa secular, cultural festival.
PONGALCelebrated in Tamil Nadu sometimein January or February, at the end ofthe harvesting season for fourdays."Ponga" literallytranslated, means "overflowing", andthe festival is named thus due to thetradition of cooking the new rice inpots until they boil and overflow thepot. This is symbolic of abundanceand prosperity. During Pongal peoplegive their thanksgiving to nature.Pongal people give thanks to thecows and buffaloes and on the lastday people go for a picnic.
ONAMCelebrated in Kerala either in the endof August or at the beginning ofSeptember. It is a harvest festival.Also according to popular belief thespirit of Keralas beloved andlegendary King Mahabali is said tovisit his beloved State(Kerala) at thistime and all preparations are made togive him a royal reception.The Onam carnival lasts ten days andis secular in nature.Folksongs, elaborate dances, energeticgames, elephants and boats are apart of Onam.The Government of India hasrecognized Onam as a dynamic andspectacular festival.
MAHAVIR JAYANTICelebrated by the Jains in lateMarch or early April tocommemorate the birthanniversary of Lord Mahavirawho taught that complete non-violence and the practice ofausterity was the path tospirituality and salvation.Jains visit sacred sites such asancient sites inGujarat, Rajasthan and Bihar.
GURU NANAK JAYANTICelebrated by the Sikhssometime in November as thebirthday of the founder ofSikhism. The celebrations areespecially colorful in Punjab andHaryana. Sikhs do not worshipidols and their festivitiesrevolve around the ten SikhGurus.These Gurus were responsiblefor shaping the beliefs of theSikhs and theirbirthdays, known as Guruparabsare occasions for celebrationand prayer among the Sikhs.
BUDDHA PURNIMACelebrated by Buddhists tocommemorate the birth anniversary ofLord Buddha. Lord Buddha was born on afull moon night in Vaishakh which usuallyfalls in April or May, he attained "nirvana"or enlightenment on this day and he diedon this same day at the age of eighty.Thus Buddha Jayanti or Buddha Purnimacelebrates the three most importantevents in Gautam Buddhas life.Siddhartha, who later became GautamBuddha was born a prince, and lived inthe lap of luxury.Pilgrims from all over the worldcongregate there to participate in theBuddha Purnima or Buddha Jayanti.
IMPORTANCE OF FESTIVALS.Festivals celebration is the the culture we got from our past generations.According to the historythese festivals are celebrated when they achieve something (symbol of victory),or on the occasionswhere they are benefited (crop gain,happy with some gatherings etc).These festival celebrattions have got following advantages:1. Increase the relations among the people2. Create an opportunity to the people of community to share their feeling and exchange their ideasand thoughts.Additional help to discuss their problems also.3.If we consider the families , they gather together and have some fun with all the relatives which isa great mental relaxation and enrich family relations.4.Will help to be happy at least on those festival days (One forgets individual problems )5.Build social relations and social communication which leads to unity among the people.6.It also help us in preserving our culture and heritage .7.The present generation know about our customs and practices during these celebrations.Today,every one is busy and unable to celebrate festivals which is not good with respect to humanrelation building.Due to work and busy schedules people are not in a position to celebrate .These festivals definitely help in building relations among the people.
CONCLUSIONThe festivals are very important to human being irrespective of their geographical arena.* It relieves mental stress* Make people to assemble in a place, renew their relation and friendships.* Also it conveys many message according to the location and habitat of the people.* If we notice the festival celeberating day we can come out of many messages from it.* For example we celeberate Goddess Mariyamman festival during summer season with lotof liquid based foods. These items enables a human being to withstand the hot temperatureby creating chillness in our body. The cool drinks will generate only the temperaturewhereas these things generate cooling within our body.* During the month of october/november most of the hindus will not consume non-veg,because in these months the weather wil be chill and if we consume non-veg it will takemore time to digest, so only our ancestors created different festival for different climates.All these festivals are based upon the careness of our body only