UNCLASSIFIED  Ballistic Missile Defense:Overview and Implications for        Naval Planners                Naval War Colle...
UNCLASSIFIED    THIS PRESENTATION IS     UNCLASSIFIEDPlease Keep the Discussion At That Level                      All Mat...
UNCLASSIFIED                       OVERVIEW•! Ballistic Missile Basics   •! Essential Lexicon   •! Threat•! BMD Fundamenta...
UNCLASSIFIED          Part IBallistic Missile Basics          UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIED          Essential Ballistic Missile LexiconBallistic Missile Class                          Max. Range (km) ...
UNCLASSIFIEDBallistic Missile Composition SIMPLE DESIGN:                                COMPLEX DESIGNS:   SCUD variant   ...
UNCLASSIFIED                               Ballistic Missiles:                               Propellant Types             ...
UNCLASSIFIED                          Ballistic Missiles:                         Basing Mode - FixedBallistic missiles ar...
UNCLASSIFIED                           Ballistic Missiles:                         Basing Mode - MobileBallistic missiles ...
UNCLASSIFIED       Ballistic Missiles Defined•! Guided only during boost phase   of flight•! Once powered flight is comple...
UNCLASSIFIED             Ballistic Missiles Defined:                       RealityIn reality, ballistic missiles are not “...
UNCLASSIFIED                            Endo-Atmospheric                               ManeuversBooster Mounted•! Uses aer...
UNCLASSIFIED         Boost-Phase ManeuveringGeneralized Energy Management Steering (GEMS)•! Many solid propellant missiles...
UNCLASSIFIED                         Exo-Atmospheric                           ManeuversPost-Boost Vehicles (PBVs)•! Use a...
UNCLASSIFIED              Ballistic Missile Threat•!   Ballistic missile threat will continue to     proliferate and grow ...
UNCLASSIFIEDWorldwide Ballistic Missile   Proliferation: 1990           UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIEDWorldwide Ballistic Missile   Proliferation: 2009           UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIED                   Ballistic Missile Threat:                         North Korea•! Nation “of the greatest con...
UNCLASSIFIED          Ballistic Missile Threat: Iran•! Active indigenous program 2nd only to China in   size/scope; nuclea...
UNCLASSIFIED                 Ballistic Missile Threat:                           China•!Largest, most active and diverse b...
UNCLASSIFIED                      Ballistic Missile Threat:                           Other Notables•! India: Ballistic mi...
UNCLASSIFIED     Part IIBMD Fundamentals       UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIEDBMD Timeline    UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIED                                      BMD Doctrine                                                            ...
UNCLASSIFIED             BMD: Attack Operations         “…to prevent the launch of enemy . . . missiles by destroying them...
UNCLASSIFIED               BMD: Passive Defense“…all measures, other than active AMD, taken to minimize the effectiveness ...
UNCLASSIFIED                    BMD: Active Defense“…direct defensive action taken to destroy, nullify, or reduce the effe...
UNCLASSIFIED                 BMD: Intercept Phases                                                             Apogee     ...
UNCLASSIFIED         BMD By Flight Phase: Boost•!In theory – most vulnerable part of flight   •!Missile thrusting to gain ...
UNCLASSIFIED                        BMD By Flight Phase:                             AscentASCENT PHASE: begins right afte...
UNCLASSIFIED                     BMD By Flight Phase:                         Midcourse•! Offers longest decision space ov...
UNCLASSIFIED                  BMD By Flight Phase:                      Terminal•!Missile re-enters atmosphere•!Atmosphere...
UNCLASSIFIED                BMDS: System of Sensors                    and ShootersThe Ballistic Missile DefenseSystem is ...
UNCLASSIFIED                                  Ground-Based:                                 Midcourse Defense•! GMD: “Enga...
UNCLASSIFIED             Ground-Based: TerminalTerminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD): a globallytransportable, rapid...
UNCLASSIFIED                                 Sea-Based BMD:                                   Aegis BMD•! Aegis BMD: Descr...
UNCLASSIFIED   Sea-Based BMD:      Ship Mods                                       NFIC-CA has critical role in IAMD (crui...
UNCLASSIFIED             Sea-Based BMD: SBTSea-based Terminal: Provides a sea-based, endo-atmospheric interceptcapability ...
UNCLASSIFIED    Part IIIBMD Planning and  Execution      UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIED                           Navy BMD PedigreeNational guidance and policy:           22 July 1999:             ...
UNCLASSIFIED         The Ballistic Missile Defense              Review (BMDR)The BMDR - Congressionally mandated and guide...
UNCLASSIFIED          Defense of the Homeland“The United States will…”•! Maintain readiness…develop capabilities at Fort  ...
UNCLASSIFIED             Phased Adaptive Approach“A key objective (for regional defense) is to leverage recentsuccesses in...
UNCLASSIFIED             PAA Implemented: EuropeSep 2009 decision followed SECDEF/JCS recommendation torevise Sept 2007 de...
UNCLASSIFIED                       BMD:             International Participation “The U.S. is committed to working intensiv...
UNCLASSIFIED              BMD Planning Lexicon•! Defended Area (DA): Defended area is the portion of the territory protect...
UNCLASSIFIED           BMD Planning Lexicon                                                     Point Defense             ...
UNCLASSIFIED           BMD & Joint Doctrine for              C2 Architecture•!The JFACC / Area Air Defense Commander (AADC...
UNCLASSIFIED                      Navy C2 Architecture                        Planning Factors•! JFMCC is the persistent m...
UNCLASSIFIED               Integrated Air & Missile                     Defense C2                                        ...
UNCLASSIFIEDIAMD C2 Vision:  The Reality     UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIED        TF Integrated Air & Missile                 Defense•!JFMCC conducts operations at the Operational leve...
UNCLASSIFIED            What This Means For The               Joint Community•!Joint Force Commanders have a consistent  p...
UNCLASSIFIED                     BMD ChallengesCountermeasures •!PENAIDS: Chaff, decoys •!Terminal maneuvers •!Multiple wa...
UNCLASSIFIEDBREAK UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIEDDiscussion   UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIEDBackups  UNCLASSIFIED
UNCLASSIFIED             BMD: Tracking and Cueing                                                                  Vz     ...
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Ballistic missile defense_overview_for_nwc_jmo_final-ver1-3_24_jan2012-u

  1. 1. UNCLASSIFIED Ballistic Missile Defense:Overview and Implications for Naval Planners Naval War College Non-Resident Seminar: Joint Maritime Operations 30-31 Jan 2012 UNCLASSIFIED
  2. 2. UNCLASSIFIED THIS PRESENTATION IS UNCLASSIFIEDPlease Keep the Discussion At That Level All Material is drawn from public/open sources Program Information is Drawn From MDA’s Public Website (www.mda.mil) UNCLASSIFIED
  3. 3. UNCLASSIFIED OVERVIEW•! Ballistic Missile Basics •! Essential Lexicon •! Threat•! BMD Fundamentals •! History/Background •! Doctrine & “Three Pillars” •! BMD Phases of Intercept •! BMD Elements•! BMD Planning and Execution •! BMDR •! Homeland Defense and PAA •! BMD Planning Lexicon •! BMD Ops in the Joint/Maritime EnvironmentBreak•! Discussion UNCLASSIFIED
  4. 4. UNCLASSIFIED Part IBallistic Missile Basics UNCLASSIFIED
  5. 5. UNCLASSIFIED Essential Ballistic Missile LexiconBallistic Missile Class Max. Range (km) Relevant International ConventionsShort Range Ballistic Missile SRBM <1000Medium Range Ballistic Missile MRBM 1,000 – 3,000 INF Treaty MTCR (Bi-lateral; US-RU)Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile IRBM 3,000 – 5,500 (Multi-lateral)Intercontinental Ballistic Missile ICBM >5,500 START Treaty (Bi-lateral; US-RU)Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile SLBM Varies UNCLASSIFIED
  6. 6. UNCLASSIFIEDBallistic Missile Composition SIMPLE DESIGN: COMPLEX DESIGNS: SCUD variant MaRV MIRV PBV Warhead/RV Tankage: Oxidizer & Propellant Airframe Guidance Multiple Stages with Separating Warhead Motor UNCLASSIFIED
  7. 7. UNCLASSIFIED Ballistic Missiles: Propellant Types Propellant = Fuel + Oxidizer which produces Thrust Solid Propellant Liquid Propellant•! Basically – combustion chamber tubes •! Combines separately stored liquid chemicals, packed with a propellant that contains a fuel and an oxidizer, to produce thrust. both fuel and oxidizer blended together •! May be either cryogenic or hypergolic: uniformly. For example Shuttle SRBs: •! Cryogenic Propellant : very cold, liquefied •! Oxidizer -- ammonium perchlorate gases as fuel and oxidizer; Typical uses: (69.93%) SLV •! Fuel – Powdered aluminum (16%) •! Hypergolic Propellant: fuel and oxidizer ignite on contact with each other. No spark •! Catalyzer -- Iron oxidizer powder is needed. (0.07%) •! SCUD B/Shahab/No Dong: Inhibited •! Remainder is an epoxy binder that Red Fuming Nitric Acid (IRFNA) also burns (oxidizer) + Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine (UDMH)(fuel)•! Shape of chamber controls burn via exposed propellant surface •! Advantages: highest energy per unit of fuel mass, variable thrust, and a restart capability•! Advantages: Stable, storable; simple – •! Disadvantages: Complex storage/plumbing; enables mobility; Precise injection metering; High capacity•! Disadvantages: Low tolerance for error pumps; Limited mobility and long term in manufacture, cannot shut down & storage; HIGHLY TOXIC (hypergolics) restart UNCLASSIFIED
  8. 8. UNCLASSIFIED Ballistic Missiles: Basing Mode - FixedBallistic missiles are deployed from either fixed or mobile bases•! Silo: Hardened, underground shelter for security and protection from elements •! Not immune to attack, difficult for liquid propellant missiles for long term storage•! Elevate to Launch: Semi-buried, better access to service missile, useful when terrain does not permit deeply buried facilities •! More vulnerable to attack•! Roll-out to Launch: Missiles stored in hard/deeply buried facility, rolled out to pre-surveyed launch pad for launch •! Missiles vulnerable until launch or returned to facility; gives away intentions (aids opponent I&W) and may lead to preemptive strike. UNCLASSIFIED
  9. 9. UNCLASSIFIED Ballistic Missiles: Basing Mode - MobileBallistic missiles are deployed from either fixed or mobile bases•! Rail: Permits dispersal across broad area; organic support; deployment of “heavy” missiles •! Unique identifiers of train set, maintenance shelters a weak point, costly infrastructure to build/maintain•! TEL/MEL: Most mobile of land-based modes, self-sufficient for solid propellant missiles; easier for CCDD •! Limitations on size/weight of missile and supporting road infrastructure/terrain•! SHIP-BASED: Asymmetric threat concept but on the margins •! Vessel size/stability vs. sea state directly impacts ability to successfully elevate, service, launch missile•! SLBM: Most survivable, assured 2nd strike. Employed by US, Russia, with China and India in development •! Very expensive to develop, build and operate•! ALBM: Allows launch closer to threat territory decreasing flight and warning times •! Limited by carrier aircraft size UNCLASSIFIED
  10. 10. UNCLASSIFIED Ballistic Missiles Defined•! Guided only during boost phase of flight•! Once powered flight is complete, only gravity affects remainder of trajectory •! Plus a little drag on reentry•! “Guided” has historically implied a relatively gentle means of controlling the state vector at thrust termination (Vbo) •! To a static target UNCLASSIFIED
  11. 11. UNCLASSIFIED Ballistic Missiles Defined: RealityIn reality, ballistic missiles are not “ballistic” . . . there are many ways to change trajectory during and after boost •! Endo-atmospheric maneuvers •! Maneuvers in the atmosphere using aerodynamic surfaces on the booster or RV •! Used during boost, after boost or both •! Exo-atmospheric maneuvers •! Maneuvers outside the atmosphere using small liquid propellant thrusters or solid propellant motors •! Used after boost •! Generalized energy management system maneuvers •! Used on boosters that allow all stages to burn to depletion (i.e., solid fuel); missile pitches and yaws during boost phase to waste energy to control range •! Can result in a much less “gentle” guidance during boost phase Complicates Missile Warning And BMD Missions UNCLASSIFIED
  12. 12. UNCLASSIFIED Endo-Atmospheric ManeuversBooster Mounted•! Uses aerodynamic surfaces for lift Booster •! Takes advantage of atmosphere and missile’s velocity to “fly” further down range •! Can increase range by 100s of km over “basic” ballistic missileRV Mounted (MaRV)•! Ballistic missile performance and accuracy decrease as MaRV ranges >500 km if payload remains attached to booster •! Booster needs to be strengthened for re-entry •! Easier to separate payload after boost•! To make a MaRV, add moveable fins to separating payload •! Then maneuver in atmosphere during re-entry to: Avoid defenses; aero range extensions; add terminal guidance maneuvers•! All at large ranges UNCLASSIFIED
  13. 13. UNCLASSIFIED Boost-Phase ManeuveringGeneralized Energy Management Steering (GEMS)•! Many solid propellant missiles don’t shut down to control range, instead their motors burn to depletion•! Since thrust is constant, boosters pitch/yaw during powered flight to “waste” energy as required to make planned range. •! Examples: Trident I C4 SLBM and THAAD•! May be as simple as corkscrews or more complex maneuvers This is an example of GEMS …and this is not (THAAD launch) (failed BULAVA SLBM launch) UNCLASSIFIED
  14. 14. UNCLASSIFIED Exo-Atmospheric ManeuversPost-Boost Vehicles (PBVs)•! Use a small (typically restartable liquid propellant) upper stage motor •! Deploy MIRVs from a single booster •! Targets may be 100s of kms apart •! Deploy BMD countermeasures •! Correct boost phase errors during mid- course flight Inflatable decoy for Minuteman III UNCLASSIFIED
  15. 15. UNCLASSIFIED Ballistic Missile Threat•! Ballistic missile threat will continue to proliferate and grow in capacity and capability•! Increasingly seen as both an asymmetric threat and economical log-range/deep strike alternative to manned aircraft•! Threat countries are pursuing WMD warheads despite international sanctions and counter-proliferation efforts•! Future systems will incorporate active and passive countermeasures and a reduced logistical footprint•! Mobility and underground facilities will protect deployed missiles•! Growing mobile force using deception and denial Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures which complicate I&W and counter- targeting UNCLASSIFIED
  16. 16. UNCLASSIFIEDWorldwide Ballistic Missile Proliferation: 1990 UNCLASSIFIED
  17. 17. UNCLASSIFIEDWorldwide Ballistic Missile Proliferation: 2009 UNCLASSIFIED
  18. 18. UNCLASSIFIED Ballistic Missile Threat: North Korea•! Nation “of the greatest concern” according to 2010 BMDR •! Nuclear ambitions + long-range missiles •! Nuclear tests Oct 2006 and May 2009•! Three attempted space launches, none successful •! 1998, 2006, 2009 •! 2006: Simultaneous with 6 x SRBM & MRBM launches •! 2009: Closest to success; demonstrated potential ICBM capabilities in 3-stage variant to reach CONUS•! Mobile IRBM under development and may be operational•! Extensive hardened/deeply buried supporting infrastructure and garrisons complicate I&W•! “Serial proliferator” of nuclear and ballistic missile technology and whole systems Toksa SCUD No Dong Musudan Musudan Taepo B/C ER Dong 2 120- 300- 1300 km 3000 – 4000 km (est) 15000 km 140 km 500 km (3-stage) UNCLASSIFIED
  19. 19. UNCLASSIFIED Ballistic Missile Threat: Iran•! Active indigenous program 2nd only to China in size/scope; nuclear program strongly condemned in 2011 IAEA report•! Majority of inventory – liquid propellant SRBMs •! Mobile force supported by growing hardened/ deeply buried infrastructure•! Aggressive solid propellant effort •! Fateh-110 SRBM and Ashura MRBM•! Two ASBM development programs •! Recently demonstrated as part of naval exercise•! Safir SLV – 2 successful on-orbit deliveries in three attempts •! Knowledge and technology developed would aid IR/ICBM program•! “Serial proliferator” – to other state and non-state actors SCUD Shahab-3 Ashura/ Safir Fateh-110 Shahab-3 BM-25 A/B/C ER Sejil (SLV) 300- 200 km 1300 km 2000 km 2500 km 2000 km 600 km UNCLASSIFIED
  20. 20. UNCLASSIFIED Ballistic Missile Threat: China•!Largest, most active and diverse ballistic missile program in the world•!Ballistic missile force developed and deployed for range of missions from nuclear deterrence to conventional precision strike •!Key part of A2/AD capabilities ICW large Taiwan Strait SAM & SRBM ASCM/LACM force Coverage. This map depicts notional coverage based on the•!2010 BMDR notes an imbalance of forces range of land and sea based missile systems, including advanced SAMs across Taiwan Straits primarily because of that China would likely employ in numbers of SRBM/MRBM deployed a Taiwan conflict. •! Est. 1,000 – 1200•!ASBM in development or early deployment specifically to counter US CVBGs•!Non-signatory to MTCR but verbal pledge to some provisions UNCLASSIFIED
  21. 21. UNCLASSIFIED Ballistic Missile Threat: Other Notables•! India: Ballistic missiles & nuclear weapons •! Active, indigenous program to build/deploy a range of ballistic missiles •! Ranges cover all of Pakistan and eventually all of China•! Pakistan: Ballistic missiles & nuclear weapons •! Not nearly as extensive as India – requires significant outside help •! Focused primarily on India•! Israel: Ballistic missiles & nuclear weapons (undeclared) •! SRBM to IRBM (Jericho II/III) •! Focused on Iran but able to range other regional threats•! Syria: Ballistic missiles & WMD program •! Primarily SRBM from Russia, North Korea and/or Iran •! Reports of sharing weapons and training with Hezbollah•! Russia: Treaty limited (INF) to weapons of 500km or less; party to MTCR which limits transfer of technology, materials, systems and knowledge •! Broad hints and statements since 2002 over possibly breaking with INF Treaty •! Extensive use of SRBMs in Georgian conflict (2008) UNCLASSIFIED
  22. 22. UNCLASSIFIED Part IIBMD Fundamentals UNCLASSIFIED
  23. 23. UNCLASSIFIEDBMD Timeline UNCLASSIFIED
  24. 24. UNCLASSIFIED BMD Doctrine UNDER RE-WRITEGuiding Pub: “Countering Air and Missile Threats” (JP 3-01, 5 Feb 2007)BMD included under Counterair Mission:!! “The counterair mission integrates both offensive and defensive operations, by all capable joint force components, to counter the air and missile threat by attaining and maintaining air superiority” (Chp 1)!! Counterair mission consists of Offensive Counterair (OCA) and Defensive Counterair (DCA) missions. !! Offensive Counterair: “The goal of OCA operations is to prevent the launch of enemy aircraft and missiles by destroying them and their overall supporting infrastructure prior to employment. This could mean preemptive action against an adversary” !! As applied to BMD – Attack Operations to include “attacks on missile sites,…,command and control (and) infrastructure” !! Defensive Counterair: “(A)ll defensive measures designed to detect, identify, intercept, and destroy or negate enemy forces attempting to penetrate or attack through friendly airspace” Includes active and passive measures !! As applied to BMD: !! Active Defense: “…direct defensive action taken to destroy, nullify, or reduce the effectiveness of air and missile threats against friendly forces and assets. It includes the use of aircraft, air defense weapons, missile defense weapons, electronic warfare (EW), sensors, and other available weapons/capabilities.” !! Passive Defense: “…all measures, other than active AMD, taken to minimize the effectiveness of hostile air and missile threats against friendly forces and assets. These measures include detection, warning, camouflage, concealment, deception, dispersion, and the use of protective construction.” Sometimes Referred To As “The Three Pillars of Missile Defense UNCLASSIFIED
  25. 25. UNCLASSIFIED BMD: Attack Operations “…to prevent the launch of enemy . . . missiles by destroying them and their overall supporting infrastructure prior to employment. This could mean preemptive action against an adversary”In Theory: Preferred method of countering missile threats by reducing level of threat defensive forces face; AO range throughoutenemy territory, are conducted at initiative of friendly forces, and normally are a high priority.In Practice: Not very successful where ballistic missile forces are concerned:•! Operation CROSSBOW (Dec 43 – Jun 44): Allied bombing campaign against V-1 and V-2 •! >25,000 sorties with > 36,000 tons of bombs dropped against production and support facilities including fixed launch pads •! Net result – V-1 strikes continued and V-2 strikes began against London summer ’44•! Operation DESERT STORM (1992): Dedicated A-10 & SOF assigned to seek/destroy SCUD MEL/TEL •! 1/3 of the 2,000 daily sorties dedicated to SCUD hunting •! Net result – SOF team captured, 0 MEL/TEL struck, launches continued against Israel and single largest US casualty event of DS was via SCUD strikeMajor challenges to AO: ROE and real-time, actionable intelligence. Peenemunde V-2 test site UNCLASSIFIED
  26. 26. UNCLASSIFIED BMD: Passive Defense“…all measures, other than active AMD, taken to minimize the effectiveness of hostile missile threats against friendly forces and assets.”•!Passive BMD improves survivability by reducing the likelihood of detection and targeting of friendly assets and thereby minimizing the potential effects of adversary reconnaissance, surveillance, and attack. •!Passive measures include detection, warning, camouflage, concealment, deception, dispersion, and the use of protective construction. •!Treaties and export control regimes may also be considered a form of passive defense UNCLASSIFIED
  27. 27. UNCLASSIFIED BMD: Active Defense“…direct defensive action taken to destroy, nullify, or reduce the effectiveness of hostile missile threats against friendly forces and assets.” •! Active BMD includes the use of aircraft, air defense weapons, missile defense weapons, electronic warfare sensors, and other available weapons/capabilities. •! Missile defense is defined as “defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy missiles, or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such an attack.” •! Integration of systems enables defense in depth, with the potential for multiple engagements that increase the probability for success. •! AMD assets normally provide overlapping coverage, however, not all anti-air DCA assets have organic capability against BM; likewise, not all anti-BM DCA have anti-air and CM defense capabilities. •! Offensive counterair and defensive counterair operations use many of the same sensors, weapons, and command and control systems. UNCLASSIFIED
  28. 28. UNCLASSIFIED BMD: Intercept Phases Apogee Vbo Mid-Course Phase Boost Phase Terminal PhaseLaunch to V(180-320 s bo ec) Launch to Apogee (< 1,000 se c) Launch to Im pact (times for ICBM flight ( >10,000 km from launch site) (~2,000 sec) UNCLASSIFIED
  29. 29. UNCLASSIFIED BMD By Flight Phase: Boost•!In theory – most vulnerable part of flight •!Missile thrusting to gain acceleration •!Highly visible exhaust plume aids detection/ Note: As of Dec 2011, tracking ALTB to be mothballed •!3-5 minutes travel in Earth’s Atmosphere •! Damage to aerodynamic surfaces or airframe breach may induce fatal aerodynamic loads•! Challenges •!Compressed launch notification to intercept timeline/sensor challenges •!BMOA may be geographically too far to successfully complete endo-atmospheric intercept •!Countermeasures (hardening, counter- intercept platform defenses, GSM, TTP) All Active Boost Phase Intercept Programs are Proof of Concept Only UNCLASSIFIED
  30. 30. UNCLASSIFIED BMD By Flight Phase: AscentASCENT PHASE: begins right after the missile’s poweredflight and ends just prior to apogee. Benefits include: •! Earlier intercept in the battle space •! Optimizes a “shoot-look-shoot” tactic to defeat threat before countermeasure deployment •! Enables debris mitigation •! Reduces number of interceptors required to defeat a raid of threat missiles •! Reduces loading on remainder of BMDS architecture by not eliminating need to track and kill a threat reentry vehicle and associated objects, •! Reduces costs of maintaining significant number of expensive interceptors to destroy advanced countermeasures in a later phase of a threat missile’s flight•! Places a premium on early launch detection and tracking, emphasis on launch/engage on remote and need for longer- range interceptors•! Mostly PPT and paper CONOPS – if funded, capability won’t be fielded until late this decade/early 2020’s •! Significant technical, engineering, C2 and fiscal challenges Boost Phase + Ascent Phase = “Early Intercept” UNCLASSIFIED
  31. 31. UNCLASSIFIED BMD By Flight Phase: Midcourse•! Offers longest decision space over course of flight – up to 20 to 30 min for ICBMs•! Missile coasting to apogee•! Exoatmospheric intercept •! Debris mitigation for WMD•! Challenges •! Detection/tracking: •! Non-thrusting cold body presents IR detection/ tracking challenges; •! Radar affected by horizon and position relative to flight path •! Discrimination: warhead(s) obscured by debris cloud and/or deployed PENAIDS •! PBV maneuvering, MiRV •! Salvage fusing effects •! Nuclear weapons effects from an offensive warhead fuzed to detonate when attacked Majority Of Current BMD Effort Focused In This Area UNCLASSIFIED
  32. 32. UNCLASSIFIED BMD By Flight Phase: Terminal•!Missile re-enters atmosphere•!Atmosphere acts as a screen to strip away debris cloud/PENAIDS•!Challenges: •!RV free-falling at extremely high speeds (+22,500 KPH for ICBM RVs) •!High-g maneuvering by MaRVs •!Limited engagement space owing to speeds, fuzing and warhead altitude detonation or dispersion of submunitions •!Lower tier engagements must deal with debris mitigation from upper tier intercepts Most Demanding Environment On BMD Systems And Supporting C2 And C4I Infrastructures UNCLASSIFIED
  33. 33. UNCLASSIFIED BMDS: System of Sensors and ShootersThe Ballistic Missile DefenseSystem is an integrated, “layered”architecture that provides multipleopportunities to destroy missiles andtheir warheads before they can reachtheir targets.The system’s architecture includes:•! Networked sensors and ground- and sea-based radars for target detection and tracking;•! Ground- and sea-based interceptor missiles for destroying a ballistic missile using either the force of a direct collision, called “hit-to-kill” technology, or an explosive blast fragmentation warhead;•! A Command, Control, Battle Management, and Communications Network providing the warfighter with the needed links between the sensors and interceptor missiles. The BMDS Is Designed To Counter Ballistic Missiles Of All Ranges UNCLASSIFIED
  34. 34. UNCLASSIFIED Ground-Based: Midcourse Defense•! GMD: “Engage and destroy limited intermediate- and long-range ballistic missile threats in the midcourse battle space to protect the United States”•! Elements: •! Ground-Based Interceptor (GBI): Three-stage, solid fuel booster with an EKV (Exo-atmospheric Kill Vehicle) •! Ground Systems: Includes redundant fire control nodes, interceptor launch facilities, and a complex communications network for planning, directing and controlling GMD element•! Current Configuration: •! GBIs: emplaced at Fort Greely, Alaska and Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. A total of 30 interceptors were deployed at the end of 2010. •! Fire control, battle management, planning, tasking and threat analysis take place via a dual-node, human-in-control interface located in Fort Greely, Alaska (49th MD Battalion) and Colorado Springs, Colorado (100th MDBE) •! GND C2 via GMD communications network, a secure data and voice communications system using both SATCOM and fiber optic cabling for long-haul communications. Cue & track UNCLASSIFIED
  35. 35. UNCLASSIFIED Ground-Based: TerminalTerminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD): a globallytransportable, rapidly deployable capability to intercept anddestroy ballistic missiles inside or outside the atmosphere duringtheir final, or terminal, phase of flight.•! Land-based, capable of shooting down a ballistic missile inside and just outside the atmosphere w/hit-to-kill technology.•! Procurement: First two Batteries fielded at Fort Bliss, TX. Total hardware for Battery #1 & #2 include: •! 6 Launchers, 2 Fire Control & Communications components, 2 AN/TPY-2 Radars, and 48 Interceptors. Delivery of first production interceptors began in March 2011. Batteries 3 and 4 on contract March 2011 with delivery and fielding to start in 2013. •! Dec 2011: Agreement to sell battery to UAEPATRIOT Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3): Operational andfielded by the U.S. Army.•! Procurement: The Army is responsible for production and further development of the PAC-3 and the Medium Extended Air Defense System; the Missile Defense Agency remains responsible for the Ballistic Missile Defense System and PAC-3 interoperability and integration efforts. UNCLASSIFIED
  36. 36. UNCLASSIFIED Sea-Based BMD: Aegis BMD•! Aegis BMD: Describes the entire program of sea-based BMD but primarily focused on the mid-course intercept of SRBMs, MRBMs some IRBMs and in latter versions, a limited capability against certain ICBMs •! Modifications and upgrades to the Aegis Weapons System (sensors, hardware and software – currently ver. 3.6.1) and the SM-3 BLK 1A interceptor. •! 24 Deployed/forward-based CG/DDGs currently configured (includes one developmental ship, USS LAKE ERIE)•! Missions: •! Aegis LRS&T: Forward deployed Long Range Surveillance & Tracking support to GMD for Homeland Defense •! Aegis BMD: Exo-atmospheric, mid-course intercept and endo-atmospheric, terminal intercept •! First Aegis BMD Patrol (EUCOM AOR): 2011 FY FY FY FY FY FY FY FY FY FY 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 •! Aegis Ashore: Shore-based program to support PAA derived from the Aegis BMD ship-based program, using BMD-cap. 23 28 32 36 38 41 42 43 43 43 Ships the SM-3 BLK IIA and a land-based only version for long- range intercept of ICBMs. SM-3 111 129 155 201 263 341 428 500 513 515 Inventory +TBD +TBD +TBD +TBD UNCLASSIFIED
  37. 37. UNCLASSIFIED Sea-Based BMD: Ship Mods NFIC-CA has critical role in IAMD (cruise- and TBM) missionThe caveat: These plans all depend on outcome of major program cuts and revisions DoD-wide UNCLASSIFIED
  38. 38. UNCLASSIFIED Sea-Based BMD: SBTSea-based Terminal: Provides a sea-based, endo-atmospheric interceptcapability for a limited threat set.•!Initially comprised of 72 modified SM-2 Blk IV deployed on BMD configured ships with the Aegis BMD 3.6.1 system. •!Blast frag warhead, not HTK•!Increasingly capable versions of SBT will be fielded beginning with Increment I SBT (IOC 2014) which uses the SM-6 with BMD 5.0 and Increment II SBT (IOC 2018) which will debut with BMD 5.1 SBT: Sea-Based Terminal Kill vs. SRBMs UNCLASSIFIED
  39. 39. UNCLASSIFIED Part IIIBMD Planning and Execution UNCLASSIFIED
  40. 40. UNCLASSIFIED Navy BMD PedigreeNational guidance and policy: 22 July 1999: 16 Dec 2002: March 2006: June 2008: 17 Sept 2009: “Field National Missile NSPD-23 - NSS – “Field NDS – “Missile more of most capable Defense Act of 1999 National Policy BMD to protect defenses can theater MD systems (Public Law 106-38) on Ballistic US from rogue defend against to protect our forces Missile Defense states” attack should and those of allies.” deterrence fail” DIRECTSDOD/JCS guidance: Guide/Influence MDA January 15 March 2007 – 15 Dec 2008 – CHARTER 2002 – Missile Defense NAVY BOD MDA Executive Board Membership Charter (MDEB) Memo 2010 Established 2012Navy guidance: Guide/Influence October 2007: A Sept 2009: CNO Guidance Naval Fleet Cooperative 2010 – “Issue NOC that links Navy Operating TACPRO Strategy for 21st CS21 to operations and force Strategic Concept Century structure with guidance from Guidance Seapower QDR 10 and BMDR 10” PR-11 (NOC) TACMEMOs Classified •! Limit Regional Conflict •! Deterrence“…preventing wars CS-21 •! Deter major Power War CS-21 •! Sea Control is as important as Strategic •! Win our nation’s Wars Core •! Power Projection •! Homeland defense •! Forward Presence winning wars.” Imperatives •! Cooperative Relationships Capabilities •! HA/DR •! Prevent or Contain Local Disruptions •! Maritime Security UNCLASSIFIED
  41. 41. UNCLASSIFIED The Ballistic Missile Defense Review (BMDR)The BMDR - Congressionally mandated and guided byPresidential directive, released in Feb 2010 for thepurpose of conducting a comprehensive review of US BMDpolicies, strategies, plans and programs.Established Policy Priorities:1.!U.S. will continue to defend the homeland against the threat of limited ballistic missile attack.2.! U.S. will defend against regional missile threats to US forces, while protecting allies and partners and enabling them to defend themselves.3.!Before new capabilities are deployed, they must undergo testing that enables assessment under realistic conditions.4.!The commitment to new capabilities must be fiscally sustainable over the long term.5.! US BMD capabilities must be flexible enough to adapt as threats change.6.!US will seek to lead expanded international efforts for missile defense. “This review. . . will result in an enhanced defense of the United States and its forces, allies, and partners from the danger of ballistic missiles wherever and whenever they threaten us.” UNCLASSIFIED
  42. 42. UNCLASSIFIED Defense of the Homeland“The United States will…”•! Maintain readiness…develop capabilities at Fort Greely, AK (FGA) and Vandenberg AFB, CA (VAFB)•! Complete the 2nd field of 14 silos at FGA as a hedge•! Deploy new sensors in Europe to improve cueing for missiles launched at the US from Iran or elsewhere in Middle East•! Invest in further development of the SM-3 for future land-based use as ICBM threat matures•! Increase investments in sensors and early- intercept kill systems to defeat countermeasures•! Pursue new enhancements…and other hedging strategies including continued development of a two-staged ground-based interceptor UNCLASSIFIED
  43. 43. UNCLASSIFIED Phased Adaptive Approach“A key objective (for regional defense) is to leverage recentsuccesses in regional missile defense to further expand thatcapability at low risk.”•! Near-term capabilities •! Increase procurement of proven systems (SM-3, THAAD, An/TPY-2) •! Improve already developed technology •! “Aegis Ashore” – 2015 epoch: land-based Aegis BMD weapons system including land-based SM-3 variant •! SM-3 BLK IB, BLK IIA, BLK IIB/NGAM •! Develop/deploy enhanced C2BMC•! Long-term Capabilities •! Develop SM-3 BLK IIA/IIB with higher Vbo and divert, providing greater regional coverage •! BLK IIB will have some early-intercept capability against long-range missiles •! “Engage on remote” – enables interceptor “Ballistic missile defenses help support U.S. security commitments engageability at greater ranges using off-board to allies and partners. They provide reassurance that the United sensors States will stand by those commitments despite the growth in the •! Develop persistent overhead sensors to detect/ track military potential of regional adversaries.” large raid sizes over entire trajectories from space UNCLASSIFIED
  44. 44. UNCLASSIFIED PAA Implemented: EuropeSep 2009 decision followed SECDEF/JCS recommendation torevise Sept 2007 deployment plan•! Phase 1 (2011): Existing missile defense systems deployed to defend against short- and medium-range ballistic missiles. •! Protection of portions of southern Europe with sea-based BMD supported by new TPY-2 site in Turkey•! Phase 2 (2015): Fielding enhanced capabilities -- SM-3 Block IB and additional sensors. •! Phase 2 will include land-based SM-3s in southern 2009 CONCEPT Europe expanding coverage to additional NATO allies.•! Phase 3 (2018): Coverage against medium- and intermediate-range threats improved with 2nd land-based SM-3 site, located in northern Europe, and deployment of SM-3 BLK IIA •! Extends coverage to all NATO allies in Europe.•! Phase 4 (2020): adds capability against a potential ICBM launched from the Middle East against the United States. •! Deploys SM-3 BLK IIB/NGAM will be available. UNCLASSIFIED
  45. 45. UNCLASSIFIED BMD: International Participation “The U.S. is committed to working intensively with allies and partners…”Per the BMDR, international cooperation isfocused on:•!Development and deployment of joint and/or complementary capabilities•!Technological and industrial cooperationCurrent Initiatives:•! Europe: implement PAA in a NATO context•! East Asia and Middle East: strengthen cooperative relationships in bilateral frameworks •! Arrow development program w/Israel •! THAAD sale to UAE•! Renew cooperation with Russia•! Conduct a substantive and sustained dialogue with China UNCLASSIFIED
  46. 46. UNCLASSIFIED BMD Planning Lexicon•! Defended Area (DA): Defended area is the portion of the territory protected against long-range missile attacks;•! Critical Asset List (CAL): A list compiled by the JFC w/input from components of assets requiring theater level protection •! Organized by phase of operations and prioritized•! Defended Asset List (DAL): a list of those assets on the CAL that receive theater level asset protection. •! Each defended asset on the DAL should be prioritized as requiring active air defense or appropriate passive measures if that is all that is available.•! Launch Area Denied (LAD): Refers to the collection of threat countries from which the DA is protected;•! Probability of Engagement Success (Pes): The probability that all attacking warheads are destroyed, derived from the probabilities associated with missile defense functions like detection, discrimination, and hit-to-kill;•! Raid size breakpoint: The maximum number of warheads the system can realistically defeat in a single engagement. This metric is highly dependent on interceptor inventory. UNCLASSIFIED
  47. 47. UNCLASSIFIED BMD Planning Lexicon Point Defense (PAC 3) DEFENDED AREA Area Defense (Aegis BMD/THAAD)Critical Asset List Launch Area Denied UNCLASSIFIED
  48. 48. UNCLASSIFIED BMD & Joint Doctrine for C2 Architecture•!The JFACC / Area Air Defense Commander (AADC) is the supported commander for Counter-Air operations to include BMD – The JFMCC has a supporting role (JP 3-01)•!In mature theaters, the JFC will normally designate the JFACC as the AADC and Airspace Control Authority (JP 3-01)•!Decentralized execution remains a basic C2 tenet of joint operations. The level of control used will depend on the nature of the operation or task, the risk or priority of its success, and the associated comfort level of the CDR. (JP 1) •!BMD engagement timelines may dictate that engagement authority be held by the ship’s CO for optimal employment of BMD-capable ships•!Strategic considerations may drive engagement authority to be held at the highest level in some situations (JP 1) UNCLASSIFIED
  49. 49. UNCLASSIFIED Navy C2 Architecture Planning Factors•! JFMCC is the persistent maritime IAMD planning and execution command echelon•! IAMD ships are multi-mission platforms that are most effectively controlled by a Maritime Commander•! A Maritime Commander will retain OPCON / TACON of multi-mission ships •! Provides most effective asset management for AADC •! Maximizes warfighting capacity and capability across all component commanders •! Optimizes logistics support •! Ensures asset protection and safety of navigation•! When the size and scope of the mission dictates, JFMCC will recommend a RADC to support the AADC for optimum employment of multi-mission ships Multi-mission Ships Are Most Effectively Controlled By Maritime Commander UNCLASSIFIED
  50. 50. UNCLASSIFIED Integrated Air & Missile Defense C2 JFC / JTF Supporting OPCON / TACON Lines of Coordination Engagement Authority JFACC JFMCC JFLCC AADC TAAMDCOORD DAADC CRC CTF IAMD RADC RADC RADC AAMDC ADAFCO Maritime Airborne Land-based Sensors and Sensors and Sensors and Shooters Shooters Shooters•! JFMCC is a supporting commander to JFACC/AADC for IAMD•! Navy retains OPCON and TACON of multi-mission IAMD ships•! When the size and scope of the mission dictates, JFMCC will recommend a RADC to support the AADC for optimum employment of multi-mission ships UNCLASSIFIED
  51. 51. UNCLASSIFIEDIAMD C2 Vision: The Reality UNCLASSIFIED
  52. 52. UNCLASSIFIED TF Integrated Air & Missile Defense•!JFMCC conducts operations at the Operational level from the Maritime Operations Center (MOC)•!Commander, Task Force Integrated Air and Missile Defense (TF IAMD) is the JFMCC’s tactical execution agent for the air and missile defense mission•!CTF IAMD may serve as the RADC for the maritime BMD fight•!In most cases, CTF IAMD would reside at the MOC where the supporting integrated planning and C2 resides CTF IAMD is JFMCC’s Tactical Execution Agent for IAMD UNCLASSIFIED
  53. 53. UNCLASSIFIED What This Means For The Joint Community•!Joint Force Commanders have a consistent path to maritime IAMD capability in every theater•!Optimized maritime contribution to theater- level plans and operations•!Supports JP 3-01 for IAMD C2 Theater IAMD C2 Elements •!Identifies maritime node to support JFACC / Joint Force Commander ACC MCC LCC AADC development and execution of the Area USFF 263rd NORTHCOM 1st AF Air Defense Plan AAMDC •!CTF IAMD plans for maritime IAMD SOUTHCOM 12th AF C4F N/A •!CTF IAMD, when designated as RADC plan, EUCOM 3rd AF C6F 357th AMDD coordinate, and execute engagements 32nd CENTCOM 9th AF C5F AAMDC 94th PACOM 13th AF C7F AAMDC 94th USFK 7th AF C7F AAMDC The Path to Maritime IAMD Capability is Through the JFMCC UNCLASSIFIED
  54. 54. UNCLASSIFIED BMD ChallengesCountermeasures •!PENAIDS: Chaff, decoys •!Terminal maneuvers •!Multiple warheads/HGV •!Salvage fuzingDebris •!Upper stages, separation debris, “chuffing,” other interceptsAdversary TTP•!Attack BMD system•!Trajectory shaping/depressed trajectories•!Raids•!Mass launches/Timed arrivalPositional•!Location of sensors/shooters relative to BMOAGeo-political•!Host-nation concerns/issues UNCLASSIFIED
  55. 55. UNCLASSIFIEDBREAK UNCLASSIFIED
  56. 56. UNCLASSIFIEDDiscussion UNCLASSIFIED
  57. 57. UNCLASSIFIEDBackups UNCLASSIFIED
  58. 58. UNCLASSIFIED BMD: Tracking and Cueing Vz Area Of Uncertainty (AOU)Full Covariance: Space track report transmitted by a BMDplatform: Aegis Track Covariance Position: X-Y-Z Cartesian coordinate system w/origin @ Earth center Vy Velocity: Along X, Y & Z axes. Predicts future BM position. VxFull covariance provides a more reliable AOU around thecurrent and future positions of the space track, enablingconstruction of a search pattern that efficiently utilizessensor resources by limiting the search only to the mostprobable area of the sky (Earth center) UNCLASSIFIED

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