Direct reported speech (tugas ibu defie) by widiya 4 sa02

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Tugas Pembelajaran B. Ing Berbasis Komp #softskill (Ibu Defie)

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Direct reported speech (tugas ibu defie) by widiya 4 sa02

  1. 1. Tugas Pembelajar B. Ing Berbantuan Komp #Softskill Name: Widiya Hardiyanti | Class: 4SA02 | NPM: 18610489 | ENGLISH LITERATURE
  2. 2. DIRECT & INDIRECT REPORTED SPEECH Direct Speech Indirect Speech
  3. 3. The definition of: There are two ways of relating what a person has said: direct and indirect. Direct speech • In direct speech we repeat the original speaker's exact words: He said, 'I have lost my umbrella.' • Remarks thus repeated are placed between inverted commas, and a comma or colon is placed immediately before the remark. • Direct speech is found in conversations in books, in plays, and quotations. Indirect speech • • • In indirect speech we give the exact meaning of a remark or speech, without necessarily using the speaker's exact words: He said that he had lost his umbrella. Indirect speech is normally used in conversation, though direct speech is sometimes employed here to give a more dramatic effect. When we turn direct speech into indirect, some changes are usually necessary. These are most easily studied by considering statements, questions, and commands separately.
  4. 4. You can answer the question "What did he/she say?" in two ways: by repeating the words spoken (direct speech) by reporting the words spoken (indirect or reported speech). • Direct Speech Direct speech repeats, or quotes, the exact words spoken. When we use direct speech in writing, we place the words spoken between inverted commas ("....") and there is no change in these words. We may be reporting something that's being said NOW (for example a telephone conversation), or telling someone later about a previous conversation. • Reported Speech Reported speech is usually used to talk about the past, so we normally change the tense of the words spoken. We use reporting verbs like 'say', 'tell', 'ask', and we may use the word 'that' to introduce the reported words. Inverted commas are not used.
  5. 5. The examples of two ways to report what someone says or thinks. 1. Direct speech shows a person’s exact words. Quotation marks (“. . .”) are a sign that the words are the same words that a person used. For example: Maria: Where are you going? John: I’m going home. • Direct speech: Maria asked, “Where are you going?” John replied, “I am going home.” 2. Reported speech puts the speaker’s words or ideas into a sentence without quotation marks. Noun clauses are usually used. For example: Maria: Where are you going? John: I’m going home. • Reported speech: Maria asked John where he was going. John said that he was going home. [Note]: That is optional in reported speech. Both of the following sentences are correct. > The boy said that he was lost. > The boy said he was lost.
  6. 6. Another Example of Direct Speech & Reported Speech 1. Direct Speech • She says "What time will you be home?" She said "What time will you be home?" and I said "I don't know! " • "There's a fly in my soup!" screamed Simone. John said, "There's an elephant outside the window." 2. Reported Speech • She said, "I saw him." She said that she had seen him. • 'That' may be omitted: She told him that she was happy. She told him she was happy. • 'Say' and 'tell': Use 'say' when there is no indirect object: He said that he was tired. • Always use 'tell' when you say who was being spoken to (i.e. with an indirect object): He told me that he was tired. • 'Talk' and 'speak' are used: - to describe the action of communicating: He talked to us. She was speaking on the telephone. • - with 'about' to refer to what was said: He talked (to us) about his parents.
  7. 7. Things that have to know: • • • • • • Many changes must be made to a sentence when you use reported speech. These will be explained in this handout. o Verb tenses o Questions and word order o Pronoun changes o Place and time word changes o Infinitives o Verb forms with suggest and recommend
  8. 8. VERB TENSE IN REPORTED SPEECH • • • • • When you report what someone said in the past, you usually shift back a verb tense from the tense the speaker used: simple present  simple past past  past perfect present perfect  past perfect will would can  could
  9. 9. The difference between Quotation & Reported Speech Quotation • “I am hungry.” • “I saw them leave.” • “Where have they gone?” • “Will you help me?” • “I can’t remember you name.” Reported Speech • She stated that she was hungry. • Pat said he had seen them leave. • James wondered where they had gone. • I asked John if he would help me. • Lisa said she couldn’t remember my name.
  10. 10. Note: If the information in the reported speech is still true, you may use the same tense. • Quotation “The exam will be next week.” “I want to see that movie.” • Reported speech Dr. Jones said the exam will be next week. Kim said that she wants to see that movie.

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