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Objectives
• Objective: Understand the concept of direct
and indirect speech.
• Learn to convert sentences between direct
and indirect speech.
Definition
• Direct Speech: Words spoken by a person,
presented within quotation marks.
• Indirect Speech: Reporting or paraphrasing
what someone else has said without quoting
directly.
Reporting speech
There are two ways of reporting
what somebody says;
• direct speech
• indirect (or reported) speech.
Direct Speech
In direct speech we
use the speaker’s
own words.
“In text we
put speech
marks
around the
words
spoken”
“Speech
marks are
also
called
inverted
commas”
Example of Direct Speech
• He said, "I love learning English."
Structure of Direct Speech
• Identify quotation marks, reporting verb,
and the actual words spoken.
Indirect speech
In indirect speech (sometimes called reported
speech) we do not use the exact words of
the speaker.
Instead we report what was said.
We sometimes need to change pronouns and
verb tenses. We don’t use speech marks.
“I am going
home.”
Helen said she was going home.
Purpose of Indirect Speech
• Share information or someone else's words
without using quotation marks.
• Highlighting the purpose of using indirect
speech.
Example of Indirect Speech
• He said that he loved learning English.
• A corresponding example illustrating
indirect speech.
Punctuating Direct Speech.
When using direct speech in your writing you need
to use the correct punctuation.
• The exact words spoken must be enclosed in
speech marks.
• The first word of the speech must begin with a
capital letter.
• The words in the speech marks must be separated
from the rest of the sentence by a comma.
• You must use a new line when a new speaker
begins to speak.
Converting Direct to Indirect
Speech
• Steps:
• Identify the reporting verb.
• Change pronouns if necessary.
• Adjust verb tense.
• Remove quotation marks.
• Sequential steps to guide students through
converting direct speech to indirect speech.
Using Speech in Your Writing
Using speech in fiction and non-fiction writing adds
variety.
However, writing out long pieces of direct speech
can make your writing confusing. It also slows
down the action.
Reported speech can summarise what the speaker
has said so that the action moves along more
quickly.
Reported speech is useful when you want a contrast
between what a character says and what he or she
is thinking. (e.g. Lady Macbeth)
Advantages and disadvantages of
each type of speech.
• Direct speech can
show what a character
is like.
• Long speeches can be
boring.
• Too many speakers
can confuse the reader.
• Direct speech can add
variety to writing.
• Indirect speech can be
summarised briefly so
that it does not slow
down the pace of the
action.
• It can show a contrast
between what a
character is saying and
what he or she is
thinking.
Step-by-Step Conversion
Example
Direct Speech Sentence:
• "I will visit the museum tomorrow," she
said.
• Conversion Steps:
• Identify the Reporting Verb:
• In this case, the reporting verb is "she
said."
Change Pronouns:
Identify the Reporting Verb
Example:
• "We are going to the beach," they
exclaimed.
• Conversion:
• They exclaimed that they were going to the
beach.
Change Pronouns
• Example:
• "You should finish your homework," he
advised.
• Conversion:
• He advised me to finish my homework.
Adjust Verb Tense
• Example:
• "I have never been to Paris," she admitted.
• Conversion:
• She admitted that she had never been to
Paris.
Remove Quotation Marks
• "The movie starts at 7 PM," he informed us.
• Conversion:
• He informed us that the movie starts at 7
PM.
Direct-Indirect Speech
(Rules)
• Rule No. 1. Words of the speaker (reported
speech) are not enclosed in Inverted
Commas or
• Quotation Marks in Indirect Speech.
Rule No. 2.
• Usage of word “that”: The conjunction
“that” is always used between
• reporting verb and reported speech in
indirect speech.
• Example:
• • Direct Speech: He said, “I write a letter”.
• Indirect Speech: He said that he wrote a
letter.
Rule No. 3.
• Change in tense of the reported speech: A
change is made in tense of reported
• speech for changing a direct speech into
indirect speech. Rules for tense change are
given
• below:
• Examples:
• • Direct Speech: She said, “I am watching a
movie”.
Rule No. 4.
• Changes in Pronoun: The pronoun (or
subject) of reported speech is sometime
changed according to the pronoun (or subject)
or Object of the reported verb (first sentence
• of Direct speech). The possessive pronouns
(i.e. his, her, my, their, your etc.) may also
change
• according to subject or object of the first
sentence.
Rule No. 5
• Change in Time: If there is time mentioned
in the sentence of Direct speech, the time
will be changed in Indirect Speech. There
are certain rules changing the time. i.e. now
into then, tomorrow into the next day, today
into that day, yesterday into the previous
day.
• Examples:
• • Direct Speech: She said, “I am buying a
Change of pronouns
• Direct speech
• I
• We
• My
• Your
• Our
• Indirect speech
• He/ She
• They
• His/ Her
• My
• Their
Change of place and time
words
• Direct speech
Me
• Us
• Here
• Today
• Now
• This
• Indirect speech
• Him/ Her
• Them
there
• That day
• Then
• That
DIRECT SPEECH CHANGES - INTO
INDIRECT SPEECH (TENSE CHANGE)
• (i) Present Simple Tense into Past Simple
Tense
• (ii) Present Progressive Tense into Past
Progressive Tense
• (iii) Present Perfect Tense into Past Perfect
Tense
• (iv) Present Perfect Progressive Tense into
Past Perfect Tense
• (v) Past Simple Tense into Past Perfect
RULES FOR AFFIRMATIVE/
POSITIVE SENTENCES
• PRESENT SIMPLE changes into PAST
SIMPLE
• She said, “I work in a hospital”. She said
that she worked in a hospital.
• They said, “We play Football”. They said
that they played Football.
• He said, “I love my parents”. He said that
he loved his parents.
• She said, “I don’t waste time”. She said that
• PRESENT PROGRESSIVE changes into
PAST PROGESSIVE
• He said, “I am waiting for someone”. He
said that he was waiting for someone.
• I said, “She is driving a car”. I said that she
was driving a car.
• She said, “They are enjoying the music”.
She said that they were enjoying the music.
• David said, “I am not going to College”.
• PRESENT PERFECT changes into PAST
PERFECT
• She said, “ I have completed the work” She
said that she had completed the work.
• John said, “I have won a prize”. John said
that he had won a prize.
• He said, “She has washed the shirts” He
said that she had washed the shirts.
• David said, “I have not met her”. David said
• PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
changes into PAST PERFECT
PROGRESSIVE
• She said, “I have been working in a factory
for
• two years.
• She said that she had been working in a
factory
• for two years.
PAST TENSE
• PAST SIMPLE changes into PAST
PERFECT
• He said, “I started a Job”. He said that he
had started a job.
• She said, “I bought a new car”. She said that
she had bought a new car.
• They said, “We went to a market” They that
they had gone to a market.
• He said to me, “You didn’t help me” He
• PAST PROGRESSIVE changes into PAST
PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
• He said, “I was writing a poem” He said
that he had been writing a poem.
• The kids said, “We were playing a game”.
The kids said they had been playing a game.
• They said, “We were watching a movie”.
They said they had been watching a movie.
• She said, “I was not making a noise”. She
• PAST PERFECT changes into PAST
PERFECT (No change in tense)
• They said, “We had won the game” They
said that they had won the game.
• He said, “I had gone to home”. He said that
he had gone to home.
• David said, “I had passed the exam”. David
said that he had passed the exam.
• She said, “I had not received the letter”. She
. FUTURE TENSE
• FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE
• WILL changes into WOULD
• She said, “I will go to London”. She said
that she would go to London.
• He said, “I will start a new job”. He said
that he would start a new job.
• They said to me, “We will help you”. They
said to me that they would help me.
• She said, “I will not waste time”. She said
FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE
WILL BE changes into WOULD BE
• He said to me, “I will be waiting for you”.
He said to me that he would be waiting for
me.
• David said, “I will be making tea”. David
said that he would be making tea.
• She said, “I will be feeding my kids”. She
said that she would be feeding her kids.
• They said, “We will not be driving a car”.
They said that they would not be driving a
FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
WILL HAVE changes into WOULD HAVE
• She said, “I will have cooked the food”.
• She said that she would have cooked the
food.
• He said, “I will have cleaned the room”.
• He said that he would have cleaned the
room.
• David said, “I will have called a Doctor”.
David said that he would have called a
Doctor.
RULES FOR INTERROGATIVE/ QUESTION
SENTENCES
• The basic rules for converting Direct
Speech (question sentences) into Indirect
Speech are as
• follows:
• (i) Comma and inverted commas will be
removed.
• (ii) The conjunction “that” will not be used
in Indirect Speech (in question sentence).
The
There are two types of question-
sentences:
• 1. Question which can be answered with
YES or NO
• 2. Question which cannot be answered only
with YES or NO, but requires a detailed
answer.
• Such questions usually start with “what,
why, how, when etc.”
Examples:
• Do you like a mango? (Such a question can
be answered by saying only YES or No)
• • What are you doing? (Such a question
cannot be answered by Yes or No but it
requires
• a bit explanation i.e. I am listening to
music.)
Questions that CAN be answered
with “YES or NO”
• David said to me, “Do you like coffee?”
David asked me if I liked coffee.
• He said to me, “Will you help me?” He
asked me if I would help him.
• She said to me, “Can I use your Phone?”
She asked me if she could use my Phone.
• They told me, “Have you gone to London?”
They asked me if I had gone to London.
• He said to me, “Did you meet your friend?”
Questions that CANNOT be answered
with only “YES or NO”
• He said to me, “What are you doing?” He
asked me what I was doing.
• She said to me, “What is your name?” She
asked me what my name was.
• David said to me, “How are you?” David
asked me how I was.
INDIRECT SPEECH FOR
IMPERATIVE SENTENCES
• As imperative sentences have a command
(or an order), a request, an advice or a
suggestion, to
• change them into Indirect Speech, some
specific verbs (i.e. requested, order, advised,
forbade,
• suggested) replace the verbs (e.g. said, told)
of reporting verb. The conjunction used
used in these
EXAMPLES
• 1. She said to me, “Please help me”. 1. She
requested me to help her.
• 2. Teacher said to him, “Do not waste your
time”. 2. Teacher advised him not to waste
his time.
• 3. He said to her, “Please lend me your
Camera for
• one day”.
• 3. He requested her to lend him her camera
INDIRECT SPEECH FOR
MODALS
• For converting direct speech into indirect
speech, Present Modals (e.g. Must, Can,
May) are
• changed into Past Modals (i.e. Could,
Might, Had to).
Examples:
• CAN changes into COULD
• He said, “I can sing a song”. He said that he
could sing a song.
• She said, “I can write a poem”. She said that
she could write a poem.
• David said, “I can play a Guitar”. David
said that he could play a Guitar.
• MAY changes into MIGHT
• She said, “I may go to Paris”. She said that
she might go to Paris.
• They said, “We may buy a car”. They said
that might buy a car.
• He said, “I may call a Doctor”. He said he
might call a Doctor.
• MUST (not changed)
• He said, “I must study this book”. He said
that he must study that book.
• They said, “We must finish the work in
time”. They said that they must finish the
work in time.
• She said, “I must eat a healthy diet”. She
said that she must eat a healthy diet.
• Modals like Should, Might, Could,
Would, Ought to are not changed in
Indirect Speech
• He said, “I should start a Job”. He
said that he should start a Job.
• She said, “I might eat a cake”. She
said that she might eat a cake.
• David said, “I could buy a Camera”.
David said that he could buy a
Camera.
Summary
• In your writing use mainly reported speech. Use
direct speech only to emphasise the main points
your characters make.
• Don’t bore and confuse your readers by writing
out long conversations between your characters.
• Direct speech should be used sparingly.
• It is most effective when only the most forceful
statements are put into direct speech.
TEST
She said, 'I am going to the store.
• A. She says that she is going to the store.
• B. She said that she went to the store.
• C. She said that she is going to the store.
• D. She says that she went to the store.
Sentence Transformation:
• He exclaimed, 'What a beautiful day!
Identifying Errors:
• She told that she is leaving tomorrow.
• He explained why he doesn't like seafood.
• They informed us where they are going for
vacation.
• I asked him if he have finished his
homework.
• She mentioned that she is reading a new
book.
• The teacher explained why the students

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Direct_and_indirect speech.ppt

  • 1.
  • 2. Objectives • Objective: Understand the concept of direct and indirect speech. • Learn to convert sentences between direct and indirect speech.
  • 3. Definition • Direct Speech: Words spoken by a person, presented within quotation marks. • Indirect Speech: Reporting or paraphrasing what someone else has said without quoting directly.
  • 4. Reporting speech There are two ways of reporting what somebody says; • direct speech • indirect (or reported) speech.
  • 5. Direct Speech In direct speech we use the speaker’s own words. “In text we put speech marks around the words spoken” “Speech marks are also called inverted commas”
  • 6. Example of Direct Speech • He said, "I love learning English."
  • 7. Structure of Direct Speech • Identify quotation marks, reporting verb, and the actual words spoken.
  • 8. Indirect speech In indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech) we do not use the exact words of the speaker. Instead we report what was said. We sometimes need to change pronouns and verb tenses. We don’t use speech marks. “I am going home.” Helen said she was going home.
  • 9. Purpose of Indirect Speech • Share information or someone else's words without using quotation marks. • Highlighting the purpose of using indirect speech.
  • 10. Example of Indirect Speech • He said that he loved learning English. • A corresponding example illustrating indirect speech.
  • 11. Punctuating Direct Speech. When using direct speech in your writing you need to use the correct punctuation. • The exact words spoken must be enclosed in speech marks. • The first word of the speech must begin with a capital letter. • The words in the speech marks must be separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma. • You must use a new line when a new speaker begins to speak.
  • 12. Converting Direct to Indirect Speech • Steps: • Identify the reporting verb. • Change pronouns if necessary. • Adjust verb tense. • Remove quotation marks. • Sequential steps to guide students through converting direct speech to indirect speech.
  • 13. Using Speech in Your Writing Using speech in fiction and non-fiction writing adds variety. However, writing out long pieces of direct speech can make your writing confusing. It also slows down the action. Reported speech can summarise what the speaker has said so that the action moves along more quickly. Reported speech is useful when you want a contrast between what a character says and what he or she is thinking. (e.g. Lady Macbeth)
  • 14. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of speech. • Direct speech can show what a character is like. • Long speeches can be boring. • Too many speakers can confuse the reader. • Direct speech can add variety to writing. • Indirect speech can be summarised briefly so that it does not slow down the pace of the action. • It can show a contrast between what a character is saying and what he or she is thinking.
  • 15. Step-by-Step Conversion Example Direct Speech Sentence: • "I will visit the museum tomorrow," she said.
  • 16. • Conversion Steps: • Identify the Reporting Verb: • In this case, the reporting verb is "she said." Change Pronouns:
  • 17. Identify the Reporting Verb Example: • "We are going to the beach," they exclaimed. • Conversion: • They exclaimed that they were going to the beach.
  • 18. Change Pronouns • Example: • "You should finish your homework," he advised. • Conversion: • He advised me to finish my homework.
  • 19. Adjust Verb Tense • Example: • "I have never been to Paris," she admitted. • Conversion: • She admitted that she had never been to Paris.
  • 20. Remove Quotation Marks • "The movie starts at 7 PM," he informed us. • Conversion: • He informed us that the movie starts at 7 PM.
  • 21. Direct-Indirect Speech (Rules) • Rule No. 1. Words of the speaker (reported speech) are not enclosed in Inverted Commas or • Quotation Marks in Indirect Speech.
  • 22. Rule No. 2. • Usage of word “that”: The conjunction “that” is always used between • reporting verb and reported speech in indirect speech. • Example: • • Direct Speech: He said, “I write a letter”. • Indirect Speech: He said that he wrote a letter.
  • 23. Rule No. 3. • Change in tense of the reported speech: A change is made in tense of reported • speech for changing a direct speech into indirect speech. Rules for tense change are given • below: • Examples: • • Direct Speech: She said, “I am watching a movie”.
  • 24. Rule No. 4. • Changes in Pronoun: The pronoun (or subject) of reported speech is sometime changed according to the pronoun (or subject) or Object of the reported verb (first sentence • of Direct speech). The possessive pronouns (i.e. his, her, my, their, your etc.) may also change • according to subject or object of the first sentence.
  • 25. Rule No. 5 • Change in Time: If there is time mentioned in the sentence of Direct speech, the time will be changed in Indirect Speech. There are certain rules changing the time. i.e. now into then, tomorrow into the next day, today into that day, yesterday into the previous day. • Examples: • • Direct Speech: She said, “I am buying a
  • 26. Change of pronouns • Direct speech • I • We • My • Your • Our • Indirect speech • He/ She • They • His/ Her • My • Their
  • 27. Change of place and time words • Direct speech Me • Us • Here • Today • Now • This • Indirect speech • Him/ Her • Them there • That day • Then • That
  • 28. DIRECT SPEECH CHANGES - INTO INDIRECT SPEECH (TENSE CHANGE) • (i) Present Simple Tense into Past Simple Tense • (ii) Present Progressive Tense into Past Progressive Tense • (iii) Present Perfect Tense into Past Perfect Tense • (iv) Present Perfect Progressive Tense into Past Perfect Tense • (v) Past Simple Tense into Past Perfect
  • 29. RULES FOR AFFIRMATIVE/ POSITIVE SENTENCES • PRESENT SIMPLE changes into PAST SIMPLE • She said, “I work in a hospital”. She said that she worked in a hospital. • They said, “We play Football”. They said that they played Football. • He said, “I love my parents”. He said that he loved his parents. • She said, “I don’t waste time”. She said that
  • 30. • PRESENT PROGRESSIVE changes into PAST PROGESSIVE • He said, “I am waiting for someone”. He said that he was waiting for someone. • I said, “She is driving a car”. I said that she was driving a car. • She said, “They are enjoying the music”. She said that they were enjoying the music. • David said, “I am not going to College”.
  • 31. • PRESENT PERFECT changes into PAST PERFECT • She said, “ I have completed the work” She said that she had completed the work. • John said, “I have won a prize”. John said that he had won a prize. • He said, “She has washed the shirts” He said that she had washed the shirts. • David said, “I have not met her”. David said
  • 32. • PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE changes into PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE • She said, “I have been working in a factory for • two years. • She said that she had been working in a factory • for two years.
  • 33. PAST TENSE • PAST SIMPLE changes into PAST PERFECT • He said, “I started a Job”. He said that he had started a job. • She said, “I bought a new car”. She said that she had bought a new car. • They said, “We went to a market” They that they had gone to a market. • He said to me, “You didn’t help me” He
  • 34. • PAST PROGRESSIVE changes into PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE • He said, “I was writing a poem” He said that he had been writing a poem. • The kids said, “We were playing a game”. The kids said they had been playing a game. • They said, “We were watching a movie”. They said they had been watching a movie. • She said, “I was not making a noise”. She
  • 35. • PAST PERFECT changes into PAST PERFECT (No change in tense) • They said, “We had won the game” They said that they had won the game. • He said, “I had gone to home”. He said that he had gone to home. • David said, “I had passed the exam”. David said that he had passed the exam. • She said, “I had not received the letter”. She
  • 36. . FUTURE TENSE • FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE • WILL changes into WOULD • She said, “I will go to London”. She said that she would go to London. • He said, “I will start a new job”. He said that he would start a new job. • They said to me, “We will help you”. They said to me that they would help me. • She said, “I will not waste time”. She said
  • 37. FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE WILL BE changes into WOULD BE • He said to me, “I will be waiting for you”. He said to me that he would be waiting for me. • David said, “I will be making tea”. David said that he would be making tea. • She said, “I will be feeding my kids”. She said that she would be feeding her kids. • They said, “We will not be driving a car”. They said that they would not be driving a
  • 38. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE WILL HAVE changes into WOULD HAVE • She said, “I will have cooked the food”. • She said that she would have cooked the food. • He said, “I will have cleaned the room”. • He said that he would have cleaned the room. • David said, “I will have called a Doctor”. David said that he would have called a Doctor.
  • 39. RULES FOR INTERROGATIVE/ QUESTION SENTENCES • The basic rules for converting Direct Speech (question sentences) into Indirect Speech are as • follows: • (i) Comma and inverted commas will be removed. • (ii) The conjunction “that” will not be used in Indirect Speech (in question sentence). The
  • 40. There are two types of question- sentences: • 1. Question which can be answered with YES or NO • 2. Question which cannot be answered only with YES or NO, but requires a detailed answer. • Such questions usually start with “what, why, how, when etc.”
  • 41. Examples: • Do you like a mango? (Such a question can be answered by saying only YES or No) • • What are you doing? (Such a question cannot be answered by Yes or No but it requires • a bit explanation i.e. I am listening to music.)
  • 42. Questions that CAN be answered with “YES or NO” • David said to me, “Do you like coffee?” David asked me if I liked coffee. • He said to me, “Will you help me?” He asked me if I would help him. • She said to me, “Can I use your Phone?” She asked me if she could use my Phone. • They told me, “Have you gone to London?” They asked me if I had gone to London. • He said to me, “Did you meet your friend?”
  • 43. Questions that CANNOT be answered with only “YES or NO” • He said to me, “What are you doing?” He asked me what I was doing. • She said to me, “What is your name?” She asked me what my name was. • David said to me, “How are you?” David asked me how I was.
  • 44. INDIRECT SPEECH FOR IMPERATIVE SENTENCES • As imperative sentences have a command (or an order), a request, an advice or a suggestion, to • change them into Indirect Speech, some specific verbs (i.e. requested, order, advised, forbade, • suggested) replace the verbs (e.g. said, told) of reporting verb. The conjunction used used in these
  • 45. EXAMPLES • 1. She said to me, “Please help me”. 1. She requested me to help her. • 2. Teacher said to him, “Do not waste your time”. 2. Teacher advised him not to waste his time. • 3. He said to her, “Please lend me your Camera for • one day”. • 3. He requested her to lend him her camera
  • 46. INDIRECT SPEECH FOR MODALS • For converting direct speech into indirect speech, Present Modals (e.g. Must, Can, May) are • changed into Past Modals (i.e. Could, Might, Had to).
  • 47. Examples: • CAN changes into COULD • He said, “I can sing a song”. He said that he could sing a song. • She said, “I can write a poem”. She said that she could write a poem. • David said, “I can play a Guitar”. David said that he could play a Guitar.
  • 48. • MAY changes into MIGHT • She said, “I may go to Paris”. She said that she might go to Paris. • They said, “We may buy a car”. They said that might buy a car. • He said, “I may call a Doctor”. He said he might call a Doctor.
  • 49. • MUST (not changed) • He said, “I must study this book”. He said that he must study that book. • They said, “We must finish the work in time”. They said that they must finish the work in time. • She said, “I must eat a healthy diet”. She said that she must eat a healthy diet.
  • 50. • Modals like Should, Might, Could, Would, Ought to are not changed in Indirect Speech • He said, “I should start a Job”. He said that he should start a Job. • She said, “I might eat a cake”. She said that she might eat a cake. • David said, “I could buy a Camera”. David said that he could buy a Camera.
  • 51. Summary • In your writing use mainly reported speech. Use direct speech only to emphasise the main points your characters make. • Don’t bore and confuse your readers by writing out long conversations between your characters. • Direct speech should be used sparingly. • It is most effective when only the most forceful statements are put into direct speech.
  • 52. TEST She said, 'I am going to the store. • A. She says that she is going to the store. • B. She said that she went to the store. • C. She said that she is going to the store. • D. She says that she went to the store.
  • 53. Sentence Transformation: • He exclaimed, 'What a beautiful day!
  • 54. Identifying Errors: • She told that she is leaving tomorrow. • He explained why he doesn't like seafood. • They informed us where they are going for vacation. • I asked him if he have finished his homework. • She mentioned that she is reading a new book. • The teacher explained why the students