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SKELET RADIOLOGY
Types of investigations
• Plain radiography
• CT
• US
• RNI
• MRI
TRAUMA
Trauma
x-ray views
• Trauma may result in a fracture, a dislocation or
both.
• Two views should be obtained in all cases except
in the pelvis and chest.
• In long bones the 2 views should be at right angles
to each other.
Which parts of the limb to
include
• In suspected fracture of a long bone the
joint above and below should always be
included
Radiographic signs of fractures
(bony changes)
• A lucent line
• Increased density – due to overlap of the
fragments
• Cortical irregularity
• Periosteal reaction – this appears after 7-
10 days.
• Angulation or bowing
Radiographic sign of fracture
(soft tissue changes)
• Soft tissue signs: these are indirect signs
• The commonest of these is the fat pad sign
around the elbow. The anterior and
posterior fat pads are displaced in the
presence of a joint effusion, the anterior fat
pad producing the “sail” sign
Radiographic sign of fractures
(Lipohaemathrosis)
• Lipohaemathrosis – this is due to fat and
blood leaking within a joint and indicates
a fracture line within the confines of the
joint capsule.
• It is seen as a fluid level on a horizontal
beam film.
Signs of fractures
Describe these radiographic changes
What are the sign of fractures on these
Radiographs?
Name the signs of fractures on x-rays
Types of fractures, fracture
healing and x-ray techniques.
Types of fractures
• Fractures may be partial or complete, open or closed.
• Incomplete fractures occur most commonly in children and
there are 3 main types
- plastic fracture or bone bending without
cortical disruption or acute angul
- greenstick fracture – only one cortex is
broken with bending of the other cortex.
- buckle or torus fracture – a step or bend in
one cortex without an actual cortical break
common in the distal radius..
Description of fractures
(position/relationship of fragments in
relation to each other)
• Displacement/Apposition. This refers to the position of
the major fragment. Fragments that are not apposed are
described according to the direction of displacement of the
distal fragment relative to the proximal bone.
• Alignment. This refers to the relationship along the axis of
major fragments. Usually this refers to the alignment of the
distal fragment with respect to the proximal.
• Rotation should always be assessed and both ends of the
bones should be included on the images.
Types of fractures
Describe these fracture types. How many epiphyseal injuries,
fracture types and fracture relationships do you know?
Name them and explain what they are.
Epiphyseal injuries
• Fractures in and around the epiphyses may
be difficult to see and are classified by the
Salter Harris system as follows
Normal epiphysis
The growth plate is closely applied to the metaphysis and epiphysis
No area of separation. The plate is normally aligned with the
metaphysis and diaphysis
Salter Harris type 1
Salter Harris type 1; epiphyseal plate fracture – widening of
the growth plate with no bony involvement
Salter Harris type 2 and 3
Salter Harris type 2; fracture of the metaphysis with or without
displacement of the epiphysis
Salter Harris type 3; fracture of the epiphysis only
Salter Harris type 4 and 5
Salter Harris type 4; fracture of both the metaphysis and epiphysis
Salter Harris type 5: impaction and compression of the epiphyseal plate
The plate appears thinned compared to the normal
Shoulder injuries
What types of dislocations do these line diagrams represent? What fractures may
be associated with shoulder dislocations? What are the causes of these dislocations?
Describe the anatomy of the shoulder including the ligaments, tendons, bursa and
other soft tissue structures related to this joint.
Shoulder injuries
Describe the x-rays, what are the types of dislocations around
shoulder and their x-ray appearances?
Shoulder injuries: the need for extra
views in posterior dislocation
• Posterior dislocation t is commonly missed
at first presentation unless a second view is
taken.
• It is less common than anterior dislocation
but still an important injury.
• The second view should either be an axial
view or a Y view.
Tear AC lig. Type 11: widening
of AC joint
Shoulder injuries
• Describe this injury
• Describe the anatomy
of the shoulder joint
• What views do we do
for the shoulder
• What are radiographic
signs of humero-
glenoid dislocations?
• What extra #s are
associated with these
dislocations?
Shoulder injuries
• Describe this x-ray
• What are the signs
of posterior
shoulder
dislocation?
Injuries of the carpus: (the scaphoid
bone)
• The commonest injury involving a carpal bone is fracture
of the scaphoid.
• This may be difficult to see immediately after the injury.
• Special scaphoid views are needed to demonstrate the
fracture line and should be specifically requested in all
suspected scaphoid injuries.
• The fracture line may only become clearly visible after an
interval of 7-10 days when there will be some widening of
the fracture line due to bone resorbtion.
Injuries of the carpus: Missing a
scaphoid injury!
• If scaphoid injury is suspected but no fracture line is seen,
it is usual practice to immobilise in plaster and repeat the
film after 10 days.
• Failure to diagnose a fracture may result in avascular
necrosis of the proximal pole and subsequent osteoarthritis.
• A missed scaphoid fracture may lead to litigation so
watch out!
Injuries to the carpus
Describe the radiograph. How would you proceed with a suspected
Fracture of the carpus which is not seen immediately after injury?
Name and learn the different carpal and tarsal bones. Be ready to indentify them. What differ
types of joints do you know? Name and learn all the joints of the upper and lower limb. Be
ready to identify them.
Fracture dislocation of the carpus
• Other injuries are less common but
important to recognise. Dislocations of the
carpus may occur and will only be
recognised if the normal relationship of the
carpal bones is known
Normal alignment of the carpus
on AP and lateral views
Injuries to the carpus
What do we mean by volar, dorsal, palmer, ventral surface?
What type of force causes a perilunate dislocation?
Pelvic injuries: complications
• Following severe polly trauma, fractures of
the pelvis are often
• multiple and the pelvis unstable. Associated
soft tissue injuries are common such as
urethral rupture or puncture of a large pelvic
blood vessel, sciatic nerve injury
Hip dislocations
• Pelvic injuries may be associated with injury to
the femoral head or neck.
• Posterior dislocation of the hip may result from
severe trauma.
• Anterior dislocation is much less common.
• In a posterior dislocation the thigh is usually
adducted whereas in an anterior dislocation the
thigh is abducted.
• A posterior dislocation is often associated with a
fracture of the posterior rim of the acetabulum.
Lines which help in detection of
hip pathology
What name is given to these lines? Describe the x-ry?
How do patients with anterior and post dislocation of the
hip present? What type of forces cause these dislocations?
What may complicate such a dislocatioN
Pelvic fractures: hip/femoral neck
injuries
• Fractures of the hip are usually easily seen.
• Impacted fractures of the femoral neck may be missed.
• A true shoot through lateral film is obtained as well as an
AP view otherwise fractures may be missed.
• It is common practice to turn the patient onto the affected
side & take a turned lateral film.
• In this projection the greater trochanter will obscure the
femoral neck. If there is strong suspicion of fracture but
none visible, a re -X-ray after 1-2 days may show dis-
impaction and the fracture may be obvious.
• Avascular necrosis is a complication.
Capital and subcapital fractures
Transcervical and basicerval #s
Trochanteric and subtrochanateic
#
Pelvic fractures
• Several different bones make up the pelvis &
fractures here may be difficult to recognise
especially if there is little displacement.
• An AP film of the pelvis is the routine film and
one should study it very carefully.
• Oblique views of the pelvis may be helpful
especially for fractures in the region of the
acetabulum.
• CT is the best modality for investigating pelvic #s.
Stable pelvic fractures
• Avulsion #
• Durverney # (# of iliac wing)
• Isolated sacral #
• Ischiopubic rami #
Unstable pelvic #
• Malgaigne
• Straddle
• Bucket –handle
• S-I joint dislocation
Malgaigne #
Articular or para-articular 3 of
the sacro-iliac joint and
ipslateral ischio-pubic ramus
Spinal trauma: general
considerations
• C7 is the most frequently
• Common sites of # are CI-C2, C5-C6, T10-
12
• In most spinal trauma, spinal cord damage
occurs at time of injury
• AP, lateral views
• CT to clarify #s,
• MRI for soft tissue injury
Spinal trauma: cervical spine
• Care when positioning pt for x-ray not to damage
cord
• Cross-table lateral view, AP and open moth
for odontoid, may also do Swimmers,
• Examine the cross table lateral first, before doing
other views to avoid moving pt, if the lateral is
normal, then do the rest of the series
• When no # is seen on all views and pain is present,
do flexion and extension laterals
• CT clarifies the injuries
Spinal trauma: cervical: reading a
film
• All 7 vertebrae should be shown
• Check thickness of retropharyngeal space
• Asses the 4 parallel lines for discontinuity or step-
off
• Examine the atlantodental interval ( distance from
anterior arch of C1 to odontoid process of C2
• Scrutinize disc space for narrowing or widening
Spinal trauma cervical: 4 parallel
lines
• Anterior vertebral line
• Posterior vertebral line
• Spinolaminar line
• Posterior spinous line
ODONTOID PROCESS OF C2 SHOULD
ALIGN WITH THE CLIVUS
Hangmans #
Flexion teardrop
Odontoid fractures
TB SPINE
• The disc space is nearly always eroded
• Two or more vertebrae are often affected as the
infection spreads through the disc space or
underneath the anterior spinal ligament
• The anterior parts are more severely affected
resulting in a gibbus deformity (localised
kyphosis).
• Abscesses form early and result in lateral bulging
of the paraspinal lines or psoas outlines.
TB SPINE
ACUTE OSTEOMYELITIS
• Soft tissue swelling.
• There are no X-ray bone changes for 10
days and diagnosis must be made clinically.
• Demineralisation occurs within 10-14 days.
This is in the metaphysis in children.
• The bone becomes ill defined with loss of
bony detail.
• These signs are subtle.
CHRONIC OSTEOMYELITIS
• Destructive lesion may be seen by 14 days.
• This spreads up the diaphysis within a few days and is
associated with elevation of the periosteum producing a
periosteal reaction
• If untreated this permeative destructive process spreads
and obvious periosteal new bone forms parallel to the
original cortex
• The periosteal new bone thickens and forms the
involucrum.
• There is sclerosis and bone expansion with formation of
sequestra.
• Sinus tracks may form discharging pus and sequestra.
CHRONIC OSTEOMYELITIS
OSTEOSARCOMA
• Irregular destructive lesion involving the medulla
• Cortical destruction
• Soft tissue mass displacing the tissue planes
• New bone formation
• Periosteal reaction. Elevation of the periosteum is
associated with new bone formation, the so-called
“Codmans triangle”.
OSTEOSARCOMA

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SKELET RAD.ppt

  • 2. Types of investigations • Plain radiography • CT • US • RNI • MRI
  • 4. Trauma x-ray views • Trauma may result in a fracture, a dislocation or both. • Two views should be obtained in all cases except in the pelvis and chest. • In long bones the 2 views should be at right angles to each other.
  • 5. Which parts of the limb to include • In suspected fracture of a long bone the joint above and below should always be included
  • 6. Radiographic signs of fractures (bony changes) • A lucent line • Increased density – due to overlap of the fragments • Cortical irregularity • Periosteal reaction – this appears after 7- 10 days. • Angulation or bowing
  • 7. Radiographic sign of fracture (soft tissue changes) • Soft tissue signs: these are indirect signs • The commonest of these is the fat pad sign around the elbow. The anterior and posterior fat pads are displaced in the presence of a joint effusion, the anterior fat pad producing the “sail” sign
  • 8. Radiographic sign of fractures (Lipohaemathrosis) • Lipohaemathrosis – this is due to fat and blood leaking within a joint and indicates a fracture line within the confines of the joint capsule. • It is seen as a fluid level on a horizontal beam film.
  • 9. Signs of fractures Describe these radiographic changes What are the sign of fractures on these Radiographs? Name the signs of fractures on x-rays
  • 10. Types of fractures, fracture healing and x-ray techniques.
  • 11. Types of fractures • Fractures may be partial or complete, open or closed. • Incomplete fractures occur most commonly in children and there are 3 main types - plastic fracture or bone bending without cortical disruption or acute angul - greenstick fracture – only one cortex is broken with bending of the other cortex. - buckle or torus fracture – a step or bend in one cortex without an actual cortical break common in the distal radius..
  • 12. Description of fractures (position/relationship of fragments in relation to each other) • Displacement/Apposition. This refers to the position of the major fragment. Fragments that are not apposed are described according to the direction of displacement of the distal fragment relative to the proximal bone. • Alignment. This refers to the relationship along the axis of major fragments. Usually this refers to the alignment of the distal fragment with respect to the proximal. • Rotation should always be assessed and both ends of the bones should be included on the images.
  • 13. Types of fractures Describe these fracture types. How many epiphyseal injuries, fracture types and fracture relationships do you know? Name them and explain what they are.
  • 14. Epiphyseal injuries • Fractures in and around the epiphyses may be difficult to see and are classified by the Salter Harris system as follows
  • 15. Normal epiphysis The growth plate is closely applied to the metaphysis and epiphysis No area of separation. The plate is normally aligned with the metaphysis and diaphysis
  • 16. Salter Harris type 1 Salter Harris type 1; epiphyseal plate fracture – widening of the growth plate with no bony involvement
  • 17. Salter Harris type 2 and 3 Salter Harris type 2; fracture of the metaphysis with or without displacement of the epiphysis Salter Harris type 3; fracture of the epiphysis only
  • 18. Salter Harris type 4 and 5 Salter Harris type 4; fracture of both the metaphysis and epiphysis Salter Harris type 5: impaction and compression of the epiphyseal plate The plate appears thinned compared to the normal
  • 19. Shoulder injuries What types of dislocations do these line diagrams represent? What fractures may be associated with shoulder dislocations? What are the causes of these dislocations? Describe the anatomy of the shoulder including the ligaments, tendons, bursa and other soft tissue structures related to this joint.
  • 20. Shoulder injuries Describe the x-rays, what are the types of dislocations around shoulder and their x-ray appearances?
  • 21. Shoulder injuries: the need for extra views in posterior dislocation • Posterior dislocation t is commonly missed at first presentation unless a second view is taken. • It is less common than anterior dislocation but still an important injury. • The second view should either be an axial view or a Y view.
  • 22. Tear AC lig. Type 11: widening of AC joint
  • 23. Shoulder injuries • Describe this injury • Describe the anatomy of the shoulder joint • What views do we do for the shoulder • What are radiographic signs of humero- glenoid dislocations? • What extra #s are associated with these dislocations?
  • 24. Shoulder injuries • Describe this x-ray • What are the signs of posterior shoulder dislocation?
  • 25. Injuries of the carpus: (the scaphoid bone) • The commonest injury involving a carpal bone is fracture of the scaphoid. • This may be difficult to see immediately after the injury. • Special scaphoid views are needed to demonstrate the fracture line and should be specifically requested in all suspected scaphoid injuries. • The fracture line may only become clearly visible after an interval of 7-10 days when there will be some widening of the fracture line due to bone resorbtion.
  • 26. Injuries of the carpus: Missing a scaphoid injury! • If scaphoid injury is suspected but no fracture line is seen, it is usual practice to immobilise in plaster and repeat the film after 10 days. • Failure to diagnose a fracture may result in avascular necrosis of the proximal pole and subsequent osteoarthritis. • A missed scaphoid fracture may lead to litigation so watch out!
  • 27. Injuries to the carpus Describe the radiograph. How would you proceed with a suspected Fracture of the carpus which is not seen immediately after injury? Name and learn the different carpal and tarsal bones. Be ready to indentify them. What differ types of joints do you know? Name and learn all the joints of the upper and lower limb. Be ready to identify them.
  • 28. Fracture dislocation of the carpus • Other injuries are less common but important to recognise. Dislocations of the carpus may occur and will only be recognised if the normal relationship of the carpal bones is known
  • 29. Normal alignment of the carpus on AP and lateral views
  • 30. Injuries to the carpus What do we mean by volar, dorsal, palmer, ventral surface? What type of force causes a perilunate dislocation?
  • 31. Pelvic injuries: complications • Following severe polly trauma, fractures of the pelvis are often • multiple and the pelvis unstable. Associated soft tissue injuries are common such as urethral rupture or puncture of a large pelvic blood vessel, sciatic nerve injury
  • 32. Hip dislocations • Pelvic injuries may be associated with injury to the femoral head or neck. • Posterior dislocation of the hip may result from severe trauma. • Anterior dislocation is much less common. • In a posterior dislocation the thigh is usually adducted whereas in an anterior dislocation the thigh is abducted. • A posterior dislocation is often associated with a fracture of the posterior rim of the acetabulum.
  • 33. Lines which help in detection of hip pathology What name is given to these lines? Describe the x-ry? How do patients with anterior and post dislocation of the hip present? What type of forces cause these dislocations? What may complicate such a dislocatioN
  • 34. Pelvic fractures: hip/femoral neck injuries • Fractures of the hip are usually easily seen. • Impacted fractures of the femoral neck may be missed. • A true shoot through lateral film is obtained as well as an AP view otherwise fractures may be missed. • It is common practice to turn the patient onto the affected side & take a turned lateral film. • In this projection the greater trochanter will obscure the femoral neck. If there is strong suspicion of fracture but none visible, a re -X-ray after 1-2 days may show dis- impaction and the fracture may be obvious. • Avascular necrosis is a complication.
  • 38. Pelvic fractures • Several different bones make up the pelvis & fractures here may be difficult to recognise especially if there is little displacement. • An AP film of the pelvis is the routine film and one should study it very carefully. • Oblique views of the pelvis may be helpful especially for fractures in the region of the acetabulum. • CT is the best modality for investigating pelvic #s.
  • 39. Stable pelvic fractures • Avulsion # • Durverney # (# of iliac wing) • Isolated sacral # • Ischiopubic rami #
  • 40. Unstable pelvic # • Malgaigne • Straddle • Bucket –handle • S-I joint dislocation
  • 41. Malgaigne # Articular or para-articular 3 of the sacro-iliac joint and ipslateral ischio-pubic ramus
  • 42. Spinal trauma: general considerations • C7 is the most frequently • Common sites of # are CI-C2, C5-C6, T10- 12 • In most spinal trauma, spinal cord damage occurs at time of injury • AP, lateral views • CT to clarify #s, • MRI for soft tissue injury
  • 43. Spinal trauma: cervical spine • Care when positioning pt for x-ray not to damage cord • Cross-table lateral view, AP and open moth for odontoid, may also do Swimmers, • Examine the cross table lateral first, before doing other views to avoid moving pt, if the lateral is normal, then do the rest of the series • When no # is seen on all views and pain is present, do flexion and extension laterals • CT clarifies the injuries
  • 44. Spinal trauma: cervical: reading a film • All 7 vertebrae should be shown • Check thickness of retropharyngeal space • Asses the 4 parallel lines for discontinuity or step- off • Examine the atlantodental interval ( distance from anterior arch of C1 to odontoid process of C2 • Scrutinize disc space for narrowing or widening
  • 45. Spinal trauma cervical: 4 parallel lines • Anterior vertebral line • Posterior vertebral line • Spinolaminar line • Posterior spinous line ODONTOID PROCESS OF C2 SHOULD ALIGN WITH THE CLIVUS
  • 49. TB SPINE • The disc space is nearly always eroded • Two or more vertebrae are often affected as the infection spreads through the disc space or underneath the anterior spinal ligament • The anterior parts are more severely affected resulting in a gibbus deformity (localised kyphosis). • Abscesses form early and result in lateral bulging of the paraspinal lines or psoas outlines.
  • 51. ACUTE OSTEOMYELITIS • Soft tissue swelling. • There are no X-ray bone changes for 10 days and diagnosis must be made clinically. • Demineralisation occurs within 10-14 days. This is in the metaphysis in children. • The bone becomes ill defined with loss of bony detail. • These signs are subtle.
  • 52. CHRONIC OSTEOMYELITIS • Destructive lesion may be seen by 14 days. • This spreads up the diaphysis within a few days and is associated with elevation of the periosteum producing a periosteal reaction • If untreated this permeative destructive process spreads and obvious periosteal new bone forms parallel to the original cortex • The periosteal new bone thickens and forms the involucrum. • There is sclerosis and bone expansion with formation of sequestra. • Sinus tracks may form discharging pus and sequestra.
  • 54. OSTEOSARCOMA • Irregular destructive lesion involving the medulla • Cortical destruction • Soft tissue mass displacing the tissue planes • New bone formation • Periosteal reaction. Elevation of the periosteum is associated with new bone formation, the so-called “Codmans triangle”.