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  1. 1. Pollution & the Environment
  2. 2. Littering <ul><li>Litter is any material that has been left where it is not meant to be. </li></ul><ul><li>Litter is the most visible sign of pollution. It is ugly and can cause harm to people, wildlife and our waterways. </li></ul><ul><li>Litter is wasteful and costly to clean up. </li></ul><ul><li>Litter also affects the way tourists view our state. </li></ul><ul><li>Cleanup costs the U.S. almost $11.5 billion each year. </li></ul><ul><li>Cigarette butts are the most common piece of litter, but beverage containers account for 40-60 percent of most total litter volume. </li></ul>© Stacie Scott
  3. 3. The Great Garbage Patch <ul><li>This patch of garbage floating in the Pacific ocean is roughly twice the size of Texas and contains about 3.5 million tons of trash. </li></ul><ul><li>These type of effects of pollution violate our basic human rights for clean air and water. </li></ul><ul><li>Every bit of plastic that has ever been created still exists, except for a small amount that has been incinerated, releasing toxic chemicals. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Water Pollution <ul><li>Access to water is a Fundamental human need, but according to the UN a third of the world’s population live in countries with moderate to high “water stress” meaning that the annual water supplies drop below 1,700m3 per person. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Facts <ul><li>Peri-urban and rural areas usually have poor access to adequate water supply. </li></ul><ul><li>In high-income countries, the quality of the water supply is a primary concern. </li></ul><ul><li>50 litres a day are required to supply the basic requirements of an individual. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Chemical Contaminants of Water: Naturally Ocurring
  7. 8. Industrial sources & human dwelling
  8. 9. Water treatment or materials in contact with drinking water
  9. 10. Cyanobacteria
  10. 11. <ul><li>US – The system that the Congress created to protect the nation’s waters under the Clean Water Act of 1972 today often fails to prevent pollution . </li></ul><ul><li>Compiled data prove that 200,000 facilities have permits to discharge pollutants. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>The Times interviewed more than 250 state and federal regulators, water-system managers, environmental advocates and scientists: </li></ul><ul><li>The research shows that an estimated 1 in 10 Americans have been exposed to drinking water that contains dangerous chemicals or fails to meet a federal health benchmark. </li></ul><ul><li>Because most of today’s water pollution has no scent or taste, many people who consume dangerous chemicals do not realize it, even after they become sick. </li></ul>
  12. 13. To keep in mind <ul><li>With over 70% of the planet covered by oceans, people have long acted as if these very bodies of water could serve as a limitless dumping ground for wastes. </li></ul><ul><li>Raw sewage, garbage, and oil spills have begun to overwhelm the diluting capabilities of the oceans, and most coastal waters are now polluted, and marine wildlife is beginning to suffer. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Clever adverstising for clean waterways
  14. 16. 1963, Clean Air Act: The EPA (environmental protection agency) set out standards for what was to be considered “ criteria pollutants”. Several of these original pollutants were Carbon Monoxide, Sulfur Dioxide, lead, etc. As of 1970's there were two types of quality air standards set out by the EPA: primary standards: meant to protect human health secondary standards: aimed to protect welfare like crops, livestock, visibility, etc.
  15. 17. EPA discouraged Smoke Stacks as the stacks were spreading the smoke and causing acid rain. -acid rain is caused from sulfur dioxide reacting with water molecules and elevating hydrogen ion levels. -negative effects of plants and animals -diminishes the nutrient content in soil which results in less vegetation; affecting live stock -you may suffer asthma and lung problems over time. -Chicago's level of sulfer oxide is .015 parts per million, -highest rated city, Pittsburgh, which has near .025 ppm of sulfer oxide .
  16. 18. <ul><li>Chicago Tribune analysis of federal data: </li></ul><ul><li>Cook County is ranked worst in the nation for dangerous air pollution, based on 2005 data </li></ul><ul><li>Chicagoans face some of the highest risks in the nation for cancer, lung disease and other health problems (linked to toxic chemicals) </li></ul>
  17. 19. Chinese Ministry of Health says lung cancer is a leading cause of death due to air pollution from factories -Much of the pollution over Los Angeles originates in China, according to the Journal of Geophysical Research.
  18. 20. -U.S. vehicle emissions contribute 45% to global warming -Vehicle exhaust contributes to: -60% of carbon monoxide emissions(US) -95% in large cities -Every year 335,000 Americans die of lung cancer, which is a direct result of air pollution. Ways to cut down emissions: -Don ’t buy products that come in aerosol spray cans -Carpool with friends and coworkers -Don ’t smoke
  19. 23. Take Action! <ul><li>Environmental Provention Agency - www . epa . gov </li></ul><ul><li>Environment America - www . environmentamerica . org </li></ul><ul><li>Garbage Patch - </li></ul><ul><li>Keep America Beautiful - www . kab . org/ </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Power Chicago - www . cleanpowerchicago . org/ </li></ul><ul><li>Green Peace - www . greenpeace . org/ </li></ul>