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  1. 1. Pollution & the Environment
  2. 2. Littering <ul><li>Litter is any material that has been left where it is not meant to be. </li></ul><ul><li>Litter is the most visible sign of pollution. It is ugly and can cause harm to people, wildlife and our waterways. </li></ul><ul><li>Litter is wasteful and costly to clean up. </li></ul><ul><li>Litter also affects the way tourists view our state. </li></ul><ul><li>Cleanup costs the U.S. almost $11.5 billion each year. </li></ul><ul><li>Cigarette butts are the most common piece of litter, but beverage containers account for 40-60 percent of most total litter volume. </li></ul>© Stacie Scott
  3. 4. The Great Garbage Patch <ul><li>This patch of garbage floating in the Pacific ocean is roughly twice the size of Texas and contains about 3.5 million tons of trash. </li></ul><ul><li>These type of effects of pollution violate our basic human rights for clean air and water. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Water Pollution <ul><li>Access to water is a Fundamental human need, but according to the UN a third of the world’s population live in countries with moderate to high “water stress” meaning that the annual water supplies drop below 1,700m3 per person. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Facts <ul><li>Peri-urban and rural areas usually have poor access to adequate water supply. </li></ul><ul><li>In high-income countries, the quality of the water supply is a primary concern. </li></ul><ul><li>50 litres a day are required to supply the basic requirements of an individual. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Chemical Contaminants of Water: Naturally Ocurring
  7. 8. Industrial sources & human dwelling
  8. 9. Water treatment or materials in contact with drinking water
  9. 10. Cyanobacteria
  10. 11. <ul><li>US – The system that the Congress created to protect the nation’s waters under the Clean Water Act of 1972 today often fails to prevent pollution . </li></ul><ul><li>Compiled data prove that 200,000 facilities have permits to discharge pollutants. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>The Times interviewed more than 250 state and federal regulators, water-system managers, environmental advocates and scientists: </li></ul><ul><li>The research shows that an estimated 1 in 10 Americans have been exposed to drinking water that contains dangerous chemicals or fails to meet a federal health benchmark. </li></ul><ul><li>Because most of today’s water pollution has no scent or taste, many people who consume dangerous chemicals do not realize it, even after they become sick. </li></ul>
  12. 13. To keep in mind <ul><li>With over 70% of the planet covered by oceans, people have long acted as if these very bodies of water could serve as a limitless dumping ground for wastes. </li></ul><ul><li>Raw sewage, garbage, and oil spills have begun to overwhelm the diluting capabilities of the oceans, and most coastal waters are now polluted, and marine wildlife is beginning to suffer. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Clever adverstising for clean waterways
  14. 16. 1963, Clean Air Act: The EPA (environmental protection agency) set out standards for what was to be considered “ criteria pollutants”. Several of these original pollutants were Carbon Monoxide, Sulfur Dioxide, lead, etc. As of 1970's there were two types of quality air standards set out by the EPA: primary standards: meant to protect human health secondary standards: aimed to protect welfare like crops, livestock, visibility, etc.
  15. 17. EPA discouraged Smoke Stacks as the stacks were spreading the smoke and causing acid rain. -acid rain is caused from sulfur dioxide reacting with water molecules and elevating hydrogen ion levels. -negative effects of plants and animals -diminishes the nutrient content in soil which results in less vegetation; affecting live stock -you may suffer asthma and lung problems over time. -Chicago's level of sulfer oxide is .015 parts per million, -highest rated city, Pittsburgh, which has near .025 ppm of sulfer oxide .
  16. 18. Chicago Tribune analysis of federal data: Cook County is ranked worst in the nation for dangerous air pollution, based on 2005 data Chicagoans face some of the highest risks in the nation for cancer, lung disease and other health problems (linked to toxic chemicals)
  17. 19. Chinese Ministry of Health says lung cancer is a leading cause of death due to air pollution from factories -Much of the pollution over Los Angeles originates in China, according to the Journal of Geophysical Research.
  18. 20. -U.S. vehicle emissions contribute 45% to global warming -Vehicle exhaust contributes to: -60% of carbon monoxide emissions(US) -95% in large cities -Every year 335,000 Americans die of lung cancer, which is a direct result of air pollution. Ways to cut down emissions: -Don’t buy products that come in aerosol spray cans -Carpool with friends and coworkers -Don’t smoke
  19. 23. Take Action! <ul><li>Environmental Provention Agency - </li></ul><ul><li>Environment America - www. environmentamerica .org </li></ul><ul><li>Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch - </li></ul><ul><li>Keep America Beautiful - </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Power Chicago - </li></ul><ul><li>Green Peace - </li></ul>