Erasinamericanliterature 091116193420-phpapp01

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Erasinamericanliterature 091116193420-phpapp01

  1. 1. Eras inAmerican Literature
  2. 2. Before We Start • Fold your paper into 2 columns • Topic: Eras in American Literature • Label – left column: Q’s, right column: Notes • Summary box at the bottom
  3. 3. The Puritans, the Rationalists, and the Revolution •Captain John Smith, charter member of the Jamestown colony, chronicled his new world in a volume known as True Relation –Typical of the style of writing during the early period of America –Concerned more with facts than literary style –Mostly historical •Puritans, band of religious zealots who braved the Atlantic to establish a new order in America –Believed that each person should seek a direct personal relationship with God –Strive to live without sin to ensure a path to salvation in the afterlife –Much of their reading focused on the Bible –Writings tend to be nonfiction historical accounts or diaries that focused on religious observation •Poet Anne Bradstreet •Minister Jonathan Edwards
  4. 4. The Puritans, the Rationalists, and the Revolution •Captivity stories –Tales of settlers being abducted and tortured by native Americans –Wildly exaggerated, if not completely fabricated –Fed the colonists’ desire for exciting tales of an exotic new land and their perception of Native Americans as a people to be feared. •The Age Of Reason –Pamphlets and essays influenced popular opinion –Complete faith in human intellect –Valued reason above all –Believed that people were essentially good and capable of creating an ideal society •The Rationalists –Benjamin Franklin –Thomas Paine –Thomas Jefferson
  5. 5. Topic: Eras in Am. LitQ’s Notes• How did Puritan beliefs • Puritans influence their writing – nonfiction historical and the society? accounts or diaries focused on religious observation – Jonathan Edwards, Cpt. John Smith, Anne Bradstreet• In what ways did the • Rationalists Rationalists shape our – Reason country? – People good & able to create ideal society (utopia) – Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, Thomas Jefferson
  6. 6. American Romanticism • Rebelled against the ideas of the Age of Reason • Valued emotion, imagination, and intuition • Found inspiration in nature • The Fireside Poets – Henry Wadsworth Longfellow – Oliver Wendell Holmes – James Russell Lowell – John Greenleaf Whittier
  7. 7. American Renaissance •Very different thinking •Poets about religion, human –Emily Dickinson nature, and the future –Walt Whitman •Americans were •Transcendentalists discussing how best to –Ralph Waldo Emerson organize American society –Henry David Thoreau –Better public education –Believed that to live –End to slavery more satisfying life, you –Women’s rights had to go beyond everyday reality by •Writers immersing yourself in –Nathaniel Hawthorne nature –Herman Melville –Optimistic, putting –Edgar Allan Poe faith in the power of the individual –Washington Irving –People could be –James Fenimore Cooper happy and good if they felt a personal connection to nature
  8. 8. Topic: Eras in Am. LitQ’s Notes• Why was nature such • Romanticism an important part of – Rebelled against Rationalists Romanticism and – Imagination, creativity Transcendentalism? – Nature – Longfellow, Holmes,• Compare Romanticism Whittier • Renaissance to Transcendentalism. – How to organize society – Hawthorne, Melville, Poe • Transcendentalists – People could be happy and good if they felt a personal connection to nature
  9. 9. The Civil War and Realism •Writings about slavery –1850 Fugitive Slave Act – imposed punishment on anyone who helped a person trying to escape in the southern states –Harriet Beecher Stowe – Uncle Tom’s Cabin –Narrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass –The life story of Sojourner Truth –Walt Whitman celebrated the bravery of American soldiers
  10. 10. Realists, Regionalists, and Naturalists • Stephen Crane - The Red Badge Of Courage – Tried to describe life as accurately as possible – Lives of ordinary people from a neutral point of view • Henry James – Psychological novel • Fascinated with people’s behavior • Explored thinking and motivation behind the actions of characters • Mark Twain – Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn – Regionalist - focused on the reality of life in specific parts of the country • Jack London – The Call The Wild – Naturalist – focused on the forces of society or nature that are beyond a person’s control but influence life
  11. 11. Topic: Eras in Am. LitQ’s Notes• How did the Civil War • Civil War affect writing? – Not much significant literature • Realists, Regionalists,• Compare and contrasts and Naturalists Realists, Regionalists, – Focus on reality, and Naturalists. forces of nature, and people’s behavior. – Jack London – Mark Twain
  12. 12. Modernism •Spirit of changing growth reflected in which of the early twentieth century –The Roaring Twenties •T.S. Eliot , Ezra Pound, e e cummings, and Marianne Moore –Broke from tradition –Modern style that was more impersonal –Used symbolism to a greater degree –Influenced by European modernist artists the •Picasso and Matisse
  13. 13. Modernism •The Harlem Renaissance –Explosion in human rights –Migrated to northern cities in the nineteen twenties –Came together to influence each other’s work –Focused on the reality of black life including history, racism, and identity •Langston Hughes •James Weldon Johnson •Countee Cullen •Zora Neale Hurston •Richard Wright
  14. 14. Modernism•Following the Great •Stream of consciousnessDepression, Americans writers –William Faulknercore beliefs about –Katherine Anne Porterthemselves in the world •Influenced by Freudbegan to change •Psychology –The American Dream •Reality of American life changed –Sinclair Lewis – small town •Americans were cynical but –Ernest Hemingway – the government disillusionment with •Began to question traditional American ideas ways of thinking about –F. Scott Fitzgerald – politics and culture consequences of living the American Dream, questioning societies definition of success and progress •The Great Gatsby
  15. 15. Topic: Eras in Am. LitQ’s Notes• Give an example of the • Roaring 20’s symbolism used by – Break from tradition writers in the 20’s. – Symbolism – Modernist influence • Harlem Renaissance• In what ways did the – Focus on black life, civil writers of the Harlem rights, racism Renaissance change – Langston Hughes people’s perceptions of – Malcolm X African Americans? • Modernism – New American Dream – Stream of Consciousness – Hemmingway, Fitzgerald
  16. 16. Great Names in American Literature •Washington Irving •TS Eliot •James Fenimore Cooper •Katherine Anne Porter •Ralph Waldo Emerson •Zora Neale Hurston •Nathaniel Hawthorne •F. Scott Fitzgerald •Henry Wadsworth Longfellow •Ernest Hemingway •Edgar Allan Poe •Thomas Wolfe •Harriet Beecher Stowe •Langston Hughes •Henry David Thoreau •John Steinbeck •Frederick Douglass •Robert Penn Warren •Herman Melville •W.H. Auden •Walt Whitman •Richard Wright •Emily Dickinson •Eudora Welty •Louisa May Alcott •Tennessee Williams •Mark Twain •Ralph Ellison •Henry James •Arthur Miller •Kate Chopin •Robert Lowell •Edith Wharton •J.D. Salinger •Stephen Crane •Jack Kerouac •Theodore Dreiser •Joseph Heller •Willa Cather •James Baldwin •Robert Frost •Allen Ginsberg •William Carlos Williams •Anne Sexton •Sinclair Lewis •Toni Morrison •Eugene O’Neill •Sylvia Plath •Ezra Pound

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