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Week 4 new voices

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Week 4 new voices

  1. 1. deborah.jackson@ed.ac.uk
  2. 2. “Western in its orientation,capitalist in its determiningeconomic tendency,bourgeois in its classcharacter, white in its racialcomplexion and masculinein its dominant gender.”(Harrison and Wood, Art in Theory)
  3. 3. Feminism and postmodernism have emerged as two of the most important political and cultural currents since the 1960s.Barbara KrugerUntitled (your body is a battleground) 
(1989)
  4. 4. Martha RoslerSemiotics of the Kitchen(1975)
  5. 5. Shift from universal historiesto local and explicitlycontingent histories.History and identity politics:who can write or make art?for whom? from whatstandpoint?
  6. 6. REPRESENTATION IS NOT NEUTRAL; IT IS AN ACT OF POWERIN OUR CULTURE. Craig Owens, 1992
  7. 7. 1. a critique of historical narratives 2. a critique of the myth of originality 3. a critique of the grounds of difference
  8. 8. ‘I definepostmodern asincredulity towardmetanarratives.’Lyotard
  9. 9. Postmodernism challenges the logic of binary oppositions Binary oppositions Rational - Irrational/emotional White - Black Male - Female Heterosexual - Homosexual Order - Chaos West - East Occident - Orient Centre - Margin Town - Country Cowboys - Indians Middle class - Working class North - South Culture - Nature
  10. 10. Psychoanalysis• Discusses the gaze and the way the gaze subjugates the person looked at and by whom• Seen in the work of Freud, Lacan and later Mulvey
  11. 11. Allen Jones Chair (1968)The politicisation of women’s art practices in the 1970s and thedevelopment of theories about the way meaning is produced,semiology in particular, led feminists to a more complex appraisalof what came to be called ‘representation’ or ‘signification’ . That ishow the representations of women are produced, the way they areunderstood, and the conditions in which they are situated.
  12. 12. “Men act and women appear. Menlook at women. Women watchthemselves being looked at. Thisdetermines not only most relationsbetween men and women but alsothe relations between women andherself. The surveyor of women Iherself is male; the surveyed female.Thus she turns herself into an objectof vision; a sight…The ‘ideal’spectator is always assumed to bemale and the images of woman isdesign to flatter him.”John Berger, Ways of Seeing,Penguin, London (1972)
  13. 13. Considering the fluidity with which spectators, from a variety ofpositions, slip in and out of identifications and desires
  14. 14. Guerrilla Girls a group of female artists founded in NYCin the 1980s. This group appear in gorilla masks andattempt to expose the inequalities within the art world.
  15. 15. Portrait of the Artist with her Mother, Selma Butter (So Help MeHannah series), 1978-81.
  16. 16. CINDY SHERMAN,‘Untitled Film Stills, 1978
  17. 17. Cindy Sherman Untitled Film Still #54Sherman shows that to represent the self is to reproduce analready given type.
  18. 18. “One is not born a woman, but, rathe r becomes one.” Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex (1973)RroseSélavy (Marcel Duchamp)1921Photograph by Man Ray
  19. 19. Barbara KrugerUntitled (I shoptherefore I am)1987
  20. 20.
  21. 21. After World War Two, a broad movement against racistinstitutions and stereotypes developed in many Westernsocieties. Civil rights organisations in the United Statesprotested against negative stereotypes of African-Americansand against institutional racism and discrimination
  22. 22. Sonia Boyce, From Tarzan to Rambo:English Born `Native Considers herRelationship to the Constructed/SelfImage and her Roots in Reconstruction, 1987
  23. 23. The purpose of the workis to pointedly expressthe racial stereotypingthat exists. Adrian Piper Mythic Being (1972-76)
  24. 24. Jean Michel BasquiatNative Carrying Some Guns, Bibles, Amoriteson Surfari 1982
  25. 25. The arguments found withinpostmodernism suggests thatthere is more to the worldthan the western straightwhite male norm.Robert Mapplethorpe “Man inpolyester suit” (1980)
  26. 26. Keith Haring and Grace Jones
  27. 27. “ As Europeans increasinglycame to think of themselvesduring the nineteenthcenturies as essentially andcharacteristically secular,rational, civilised, andtechnologically advanced,they almost necessarilygenerated an imagined Otherthat was savage, ignorant,and uncivilised” Errington 1998 p16
  28. 28. Picasso, Sitting Nude, 1908Mask from Baule in Ivory Coast
  29. 29. Anonymous artist, South Africa +Picasso, Woman with Joined Hands
  30. 30. Whistler, Nocturne in Blue and Gold: Old Battersea Bridge (1872-77) and Hiroshige, Kyo Bridge c.1855
  31. 31. More than being a case of the ‘simple repression of one group ofpeople by another, power is implicit in the way we come to ‘know’the world. For this reason postmodernism, bound up with an‘incredulity’ towards Grand Narratives and ‘truths’ is incredibly hardto define. To be marginalised is to be held apart from the ‘centres’of knowledge production and representation. Multiculturalism,Feminism, And Queer theory are, for those reasons, very importantaspects of the de-centralising process defined as postmodernism.Moreover, they might be seen to be only prominent examples in amuch broader field of marginalisation.

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