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H2O
TREATMENT & ANALYSIS
DR. TIMY P JOSE
TRAINING SESSION
Titanium
Boiler Water
On 22-03-2023, 17.00Hrs to 19.00Hrs
1. https://www.worldwaterday.org/
World Water Day 2023
is about accelerating change to solve the water and
sanitation crisis.
1. 1.4 million people die annually and 74 million will have their lives shortened by
diseases related to poor water, sanitation and hygiene. (WHO 2022)
2. Today, 1 in 4 people – 2 billion people worldwide – lack safe drinking water.
(WHO/UNICEF 2021)
3. Almost half of the global population – 3.6 billion people – lack safe sanitation.
(WHO/UNICEF 2021)
4. Globally, 44 per cent of household wastewater is not safely treated. (UN-Water
2021)
5. Global water demand (in water withdrawals) is projected to increase by 55 per cent
by 2050. (OECD 2012)
1. https://www.un.org
Did you know?
In 2014, India had the largest freshwater withdrawals at over 760 billion cubic metres per year.
This was followed by China at just over 600 billion m3 and the United States at around 480-90
billion m3.
H2O
TREATMENT & ANALYSIS
DR. TIMY P JOSE
TRAINING SESSION
Titanium
Boiler Water
On 22-03-2023, 17.00Hrs to 19.00Hrs
71 %- Earths surface is covered with Seasand Oceans.
0.02 %- of Earth’s mass!
2.5% -Fresh water
78 % (About) - Human Babies
60 % (About) – Adult Man
55 % (About) – Adult Woman
1. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 2018)
2. http://www.geo.mtu.edu/KeweenawGeoheritage/Lake/Water_on_Earth.html
3. Journal of Biological Chemistry, v. 158, issue 3, p. 625-637
Water on Earth
H2O
1. World fresh water resources, Peter H. Gleick(Editor), 1983
Distribution of Earth’s Water
Test parameter Acceptable limit
Permissible limit
(In the absence of an alternate
source of water)
pH value 6.5-8.5 No Relaxation
Turbidity, NTU, Max. 1 5
Total hardness as CaCO3, mg/l, Max 200 600
E. Coli presence/absence
Shall not be detectable in any
100ml sample
Shall not be detectable in any 100ml
sample
Total Iron as Fe, mg/l, Max 0.3 No Relaxation
Taste Agreeable Agreeable
Odor Agreeable Agreeable
INDIA, Drinking water Standard–IS 10500:2012
*BIS-Indian Standard DRINKING WATER — SPECIFICATION, ( Second Revision) 2012
IS 10500 : 2012
1. Walailak J Sci & Tech 2013; 10(3)
2. *IS 10500 : 2012
Parameters WHO USPH EU INDIA*
pH 6.9-9.2 6.0-8.5 6.5-8.5 6.5-8.5
TDS 500-1500 mg/l 500 500 500
EC 300 µmhos/cm 300 400 -
Cl- 200-600 mg/l 250 250 250
SO4
2- 200-250 mg/l 250 - 200
NO3
- 40-50 mg/l - - 45
F- 1-1.5 mg/l - - 1.0
Ca2+ 75-200 mg/l 100 100 75
Mg2+ 30-150 mg/l 30 - 30
Na+ 50-60 mg/l - - -
K+ 20 mg/l - - -
TH 100-500 mg/l 500 - 200
USPH-US Drinking water std, WHO- World Health Organization
International Drinking Water Standards
According to the World Health Organization's 2017 report, safe drinking-water
is
Water that "does not represent any significant risk to health over a lifetime of
consumption, including different sensitivities that may occur between life
stages".
Public drinking water systems use different water treatment methods to
provide safe drinking water for their communities. Public water systems often
use a series of water treatment steps that include coagulation, flocculation,
sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection.
WHO- Safe Drinking Water
Coagulation
The particles bind with the chemicals to form slightly
larger particles
Flocculation
Flocculation is the gentle mixing of the water to form
larger, heavier particles called flocs.
Sedimentation
During sedimentation, flocs settle to the bottom of the
water because they are heavier than water.
Filtration
Once the flocs have settled to the bottom of the water,
the clear water on top is filtered to separate additional
solids from the water.
Disinfection
After the water has been filtered, water treatment
plants may add one or more chemical disinfectants
Usual Safe Drinking Water Treatment
Water Treatment For Industrial Purpose
Water treatment is used to optimize most water-based industrial processes, such
as heating, cooling, processing, cleaning, and rinsing so that operating costs and
risks are reduced. Poor water treatment lets water interact with the surfaces of
pipes and vessels which contain it. Steam boilers can scale up or corrode, and
these deposits will mean more fuel is needed to heat the same amount of water.
Boiler feed water treatment system is usually necessary to ensure an efficient
process and quality steam generation. The most appropriate boiler feed water
treatment system will help the facility avoid costly plant downtime, expensive
maintenance fees, and boiler failure as a result of scaling, corrosion, and fouling
of the boiler and downstream equipment.
In many cases, Effluent Water from one process can be suitable for reuse in
another process if given suitable treatment.
A boiler feed water treatment system depend on the quality of water being
drawn from in relation to the quality of water makeup needed for the specific
boiler (according to the manufacturer’s recommendations), but in general, a basic
boiler feed water treatment system typically includes some type of:
1. Filtration and ultra-filtration
2. Ion exchange/softening
3. Membrane processes such as reverse osmosis and nano-filtration
4. Deaeration/degasification
5. Coagulation/chemical precipitation
Depending on the impurities present in your water, any combination of these
treatments might best suit your facility and make up your treatment system, and
depending on the needs of your plant and process, these standard components are
usually adequate. However, if your plant requires a system that provides a bit more
customization, there might be some features or technologies you will need to add on.
Water Treatment For Boiler Feed
ION EXCHANGE WATER TREATMENT
TYPICAL ION EXCHANGE WATER TREATMENT FACILITY
TYPICAL ION EXCHANGE REGENERATION
CATIONIC ANIONIC MIXED BED
DEMINERALISATION
http://dardel.info/IX/processes/processes.html
DEMINERALISATION
SAC SBA
Resin Functional Group Remark Examples
WAC -COO-H, Carboxylic
acid group
1)Methacrylic acid-based
weakly acidic cation exchange
resin
2)Acrylic acid-based weakly
acidic cation exchange resin
SAC -SO3-H, Sulphonic
acid group
cross-linked styrene frame
Resin Functional
Group
Remark Examples
SBA -N・OH Quaternary ammonium
groups incorporated into the
styrene frame
Type I with a trimethyl
ammonium group, and Type II
with a dimethylethanol
ammonium group.
WBA R-NH2 Polystyrene or polyacrylic
ester frame and a primary-
ternary amino group
Multi grade Sand
Filter -MG
Strong Acid Cation
exchange - SAC
Degasser
Weak Base Anion
Exchange - WBA
Strong Base Anion
exchange- SBA
Raw water
Filtered Raw water Resin-Indion 225H
SAC water
Resin-Indion 850
WBA Water
Resin-Indion FFIP
Treated Water
DM Water
Regenerate in 5% HCl
Regenerate in 3% NaOH
Regenerate in 3% NaOH
TEXMACO BOILER WATER TREATMENT
Strong Acid Cation
exchange - SAC
Na+ , Ca2+, Mg2+
(CO3
2-, Cl-, SO4
2-, and NO3
-)
RSO3H Acidic SAC water
(CO2, HCl, H2SO4, and HNO3)
Degasser
Weak Base Anion
Exchange - WBA
CO2 and gases out
Strong Base Anion exchange-
SBA
H2O
Residual Chloride, carbon dioxide and the entire silica present in
water are removal in the strong Base Anion exchanger 2RNR1
3 OH
Residual Anions
TEXMACO BOILER WATER TREATMENT
WBA: Week Base Anion
It’s remove face mineral acid in the water.
SBA: Strong base Anion
It’s remove residual carbonic acid and silica from the water.
Remove mineral acid in the water.
Cation Exchange
RSO3H + Ca2+ + SO4
2- → (RSO3)2Ca + 2H+ + SO4
2-
CaSO4 H2SO4
RSO3H + Mg2+ + 2Cl- → (RSO3)2Mg + 2H+ + 2Cl-
MgCl2 2HCl
RSO3H + Na+ + HCO3
- → RSO3Na + H2O + CO2
NaHCO3 H2CO3
R-Represents cross linked resin matrix
REGENERATION
R(SO3)2Ca + H2SO4 → 2RSO3H + CaSO4
3RSO3Na + H2SO4 → 2RSO3Na + Na2SO4
TYPICAL CATION EXCCHANGE REACTION
2RNR1
3 OH + 2H+ SO4
2- → RNR1
3SO4 + 2H2O
H2SO4
2RNR1
3 OH + H+ Cl- → RNR1
3C1 + 2H2O
HCl
Regenerate
RNR1
3SO4 + 2NaOH→ 2RNR1
3 OH + Na2SO4
RNR1
3 Cl + NaOH → RNR1
3 OH +NaCl
TYPICAL ANION EXCCHANGE REACTION
In WBA the anion of a mineral acid such as HCl and H2SO4, or
the salt of a weak base like NH44Cl can be carried out as
shown in the reactions below.
R-NH2+ HCl → R-NH3Cl
R-NH2+ NH4Cl → R-NH3Cl + NH3
Multi grade Sand
Filter -MG
Strong Acid Cation
exchange - SAC
Degasser
Strongly Base Anion
Exchange - SBA
Mixed Bed
Demineraliser- MB
Raw water
Filtered Raw water Resin-Indion 225H
SAC water
Resin-Indion NIP
SBA water
Resin- Indion 225H + Indion FFIP
Treated Water
DM Water
Regenerate in 2.5% H2SO4
Regenerate in 4% NaOH
Regenerate in 2.5 % HCl, 5% NaOH
SAP - BOILER WATER TREATMENT
SN Ions/Gases Reason for Removal
1 Iron can deposit on boiler parts and tubes
2 Copper cause deposits to settle in high-pressure turbines
3 Silica can cause extremely hard scaling
4 Calcium can cause scaling in several forms
5 Magnesium
combined with phosphate, magnesium can stick to
the interior of the boiler
6 Aluminum deposits as scale on the boiler interior
7 Hardness also causes deposits and scale
8 Dissolved gasses can cause severe corrosion
The above deposit on boiler parts and tubes, damage downstream equipment, and affect the quality of certain manufacturing processes
A boiler feed water treatment system might be made up of the technologies necessary to remove
problematic dissolved solids, suspended solids, and organic material, including any number of the
following:
HARMFUL IONS/GASES
SN Boiler No pH TH P BaCl2 Cl- TDS Conductance
1 K-1244* 9.3 3.0 10.0 15.0 34.0 66.0
2 K-330 9.6 12.0 30.0 25.0 94.0 188.0
3 K-332 9.9 7.0 25.0 20.0 53.0 106.0
4 K-1244 9.3 3.0 10.0 20.0 34.0 68.0
5 K-330 9.8 10.0 25.0 10.0 64.0 120.0
6 K-330 9.5 5.0 35.0 15.0 102.0 200.0
7 K-1244 9.2 2.0 10.0 15.0 31.0 60.0
8 K-676** 10.0
1. K-1244 is Thermax Boiler,*
2. K-676 is the Boiler at SAP**
Blow Down Water from Boilers
Sample pH TH Palk Malk Cl-
TDS Cond. PBaCl2 EMA FMA
Raw 6.3 6 0 5 5 35 65 - 6 -
SAC 3.3 1 - - - - - - - 6
SBA 9.5 1 0 10 0 - 12 - - -
WBA 8.9 - - - - - 9 - - -
DMW 6.2 1 0 5 0 - 3 - - -
Boiler BDW* 10.6 - - - - - - - - -
Water from TEXMACO Boiler House
1. *Boiler blowdown is the removal of water from a boiler.
Sample pH TH Palk Malk Cl-
TDS Cond. PBaCl2 EMA FMA
Raw 6.8 6 0 5 10 - 61.4 - 6 -
SAC 3.6 1 - - - - - - - 6
SBA 9.0 1 0 5 0 - 5.1 - - -
MB 6.4 1 0 5 0 - 0.7 - - -
DM Storage
6.0
- - - - -
1.3
- - -
Boiler BDW 10.6 - - - - - - - - -
K-676 is the Boiler at SAP**
Water from SAP
VALUES OF
P, M AND P(BaCl2)
HYDROXIDE
ALKALINITY
CARBONATE
ALKALINITY
BICARBONATE
ALKALINITY
TOTAL
ALKALINITY
P = Zero Nil Nil M M
2P < M Nil 2P M – 2P M
2P = M Nil 2P Nil M
2P > M 2P - M 2(M – P) Nil M
P = M M Nil Nil M
P > P(BaCl2) P(BaCl2) 2[P-P(BaCl2)] Nil 2P – P(BaCl2)
P(BaCl2) = Zero Nil 2P No correlation No correlation
*Because of the endpoints for methyl orange and total alkalinity indicator are nearly identical (pH 4.6 and pH 4.5
respectively) the industry uses both indicators interchangeably for reading total alkalinity.
CALCULATION OF VARIOUS ALKALINITIES OF WATER as per IS : 3550 - 1965
1. IS: 3550-1965-Indian Standard METHODS OF TEST FOR ROUTINE CONTROL FOR WATER USED IN INDUSTRY
TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE, TSP (Na3PO4 12H2O) , Dose 30-50ppm helps
1. Establishes moderately alkaline conditions
2. Minimize corrosion and reduce scaling
3. pH control(Work as buffer).
4. solids in suspension(As dispersing agent)
5. Sludge conditioners can also help keep iron particles in suspension for subsequent
blow down.
Use of TSP in Boiler Feed
The measurement of dissolved oxygen and hydrazine on boiler plants is vital if the plant
is to run efficiently, and to be cost effective, with minimum down time. Even small
quantities of dissolved oxygen in boiler water are capable of causing severe pitting in
boilers of all pressures, and will reduce the boiler life dramatically. In boilers where
high chloride levels exist, the effect of oxygen corrosion is increased. Therefore, the
need to reduce dissolved oxygen content to a very low level is even more important.
It is a powerful reducing agent and will reduce oxygen to form nitrogen and water
N2H4 + O2 ⇒ N2 + 2H2O
Boiling Point: 113°C
Dose: 0.1 and 0.3 ppm
HYDRAZINE
The presence of alkalinity in a water sample may be due to many
different substances. However, for the sake of simplicity, the presence of
1. Bicarbonate,
2. Carbonate, and
3. Hydroxide ions is commonly considered as alkalinity.
P Alk(BaCl2)
Hydroxide alkalinity may be determined by adding barium chloride prior
to titration to precipitate the carbonate ion from solution, allowing direct titration
of the hydroxide alkalinity. Measurement of hydroxide alkalinity is also used to
control the chemicals for softeners.
P(alk) = hydroxide + ½ carbonate pH: 8.3
M(alk) = hydroxide + carbonate + biocarbonate pH: 4.3
P(alk) =Nil, then M(alk) = biocarbonate
ALKALINITY
When the Strong Cation Unit Exhausts, the slip increases and free mineral acidity
decreases.
ACIDITY
Equivalent Mineral Acidity (EMA)/Total Mineral Acidity
The sum of equivalent concentration of sulphate, chloride and nitrate.
Cl–
+ SO4
=
+ NO3
–
≡ EMA
Free Mineral Acidity (FMA)
EMA – FMA = Sodium leakage/ Sodium Slip.
Ca++ + Mg++ = TH
HCO3
– + CO3
= + OH– = m-Alk
Cl– + SO4
= + NO3
– = EMA
1. Meq/L is mill equivalent per litre
P(alk) = hydroxide + ½ carbonate
M(alk) = hydroxide + carbonate + biocarbonate
P(alk) =Nil, then M(alk) = biocarbonate
pH
Buffers Solutions for Calibration
pH – 4.0
pH – 7.0
pH – 9.2
*Commonly using buffer solution for pH meter Calibration10
pH = -log[H+]
pH = 7 means [H+] = 1 x 10-7 mol/L
Conductivity/TDS Meter
Conductivity is a measurement of the ability of
a substance to conduct electricity. Often
encountered in industry is the traditional unit
of μS/cm.
Temp. 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
0.1N KCl 11.69 11.89 12.15 12.39 12.64 12.88 13.13 13.37 13.62 13.87 14.12
0.01N KCl 1.278 1.305 1.332 1.359 1.386 1.413 1.440 1.468 1.496 1.524 1.552
Temperature(0C) Vs Conductance(milli Siemens, mS)
Electrical conductivity of water is directly
related to the concentration of dissolved
ionized solids in the water. Ions from the
dissolved solids in water create the ability
for that water to conduct an electric
current, which can be measured using a
conventional conductivity meter or TDS
meter.
Total Dissolved Solids-TDS
Suspended solids refers to small solid particles which remain in
suspension in water as a colloid or due to motion of the water.
Suspended solids can be removed by sedimentation if their size or
density is comparatively large, or by filtration.
Suspended Solids
SN Ion Simple Method
1 Fe (Soluble & Insoluble) Colorimetric
2 TH EDTA Titrations
3 Cl- AgNO3 Titrations
4 Soluble Silica Colorimetric
Other Routine Water Analysis Parameter
Solution A: Ammonium molybdate
Solution B: Tartaric Acid
Solution C: 4-amino-3-hydroxy-1-
naphthalene sulphuric acid, Na2SO3 (Sodium
sulfite) and NaHSO3(Sodium bisulfite)
Soluble Silica Analysis
Discussions
Open
FOR
THANK YOU…
timypj@ttptld.in
Titanium

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Water Analysis.pdf

  • 1. H2O TREATMENT & ANALYSIS DR. TIMY P JOSE TRAINING SESSION Titanium Boiler Water On 22-03-2023, 17.00Hrs to 19.00Hrs
  • 3. World Water Day 2023 is about accelerating change to solve the water and sanitation crisis.
  • 4. 1. 1.4 million people die annually and 74 million will have their lives shortened by diseases related to poor water, sanitation and hygiene. (WHO 2022) 2. Today, 1 in 4 people – 2 billion people worldwide – lack safe drinking water. (WHO/UNICEF 2021) 3. Almost half of the global population – 3.6 billion people – lack safe sanitation. (WHO/UNICEF 2021) 4. Globally, 44 per cent of household wastewater is not safely treated. (UN-Water 2021) 5. Global water demand (in water withdrawals) is projected to increase by 55 per cent by 2050. (OECD 2012) 1. https://www.un.org Did you know?
  • 5. In 2014, India had the largest freshwater withdrawals at over 760 billion cubic metres per year. This was followed by China at just over 600 billion m3 and the United States at around 480-90 billion m3.
  • 6.
  • 7. H2O TREATMENT & ANALYSIS DR. TIMY P JOSE TRAINING SESSION Titanium Boiler Water On 22-03-2023, 17.00Hrs to 19.00Hrs
  • 8. 71 %- Earths surface is covered with Seasand Oceans. 0.02 %- of Earth’s mass! 2.5% -Fresh water 78 % (About) - Human Babies 60 % (About) – Adult Man 55 % (About) – Adult Woman 1. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 2018) 2. http://www.geo.mtu.edu/KeweenawGeoheritage/Lake/Water_on_Earth.html 3. Journal of Biological Chemistry, v. 158, issue 3, p. 625-637 Water on Earth H2O
  • 9. 1. World fresh water resources, Peter H. Gleick(Editor), 1983 Distribution of Earth’s Water
  • 10. Test parameter Acceptable limit Permissible limit (In the absence of an alternate source of water) pH value 6.5-8.5 No Relaxation Turbidity, NTU, Max. 1 5 Total hardness as CaCO3, mg/l, Max 200 600 E. Coli presence/absence Shall not be detectable in any 100ml sample Shall not be detectable in any 100ml sample Total Iron as Fe, mg/l, Max 0.3 No Relaxation Taste Agreeable Agreeable Odor Agreeable Agreeable INDIA, Drinking water Standard–IS 10500:2012 *BIS-Indian Standard DRINKING WATER — SPECIFICATION, ( Second Revision) 2012
  • 11. IS 10500 : 2012
  • 12. 1. Walailak J Sci & Tech 2013; 10(3) 2. *IS 10500 : 2012 Parameters WHO USPH EU INDIA* pH 6.9-9.2 6.0-8.5 6.5-8.5 6.5-8.5 TDS 500-1500 mg/l 500 500 500 EC 300 µmhos/cm 300 400 - Cl- 200-600 mg/l 250 250 250 SO4 2- 200-250 mg/l 250 - 200 NO3 - 40-50 mg/l - - 45 F- 1-1.5 mg/l - - 1.0 Ca2+ 75-200 mg/l 100 100 75 Mg2+ 30-150 mg/l 30 - 30 Na+ 50-60 mg/l - - - K+ 20 mg/l - - - TH 100-500 mg/l 500 - 200 USPH-US Drinking water std, WHO- World Health Organization International Drinking Water Standards
  • 13. According to the World Health Organization's 2017 report, safe drinking-water is Water that "does not represent any significant risk to health over a lifetime of consumption, including different sensitivities that may occur between life stages". Public drinking water systems use different water treatment methods to provide safe drinking water for their communities. Public water systems often use a series of water treatment steps that include coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. WHO- Safe Drinking Water
  • 14. Coagulation The particles bind with the chemicals to form slightly larger particles Flocculation Flocculation is the gentle mixing of the water to form larger, heavier particles called flocs. Sedimentation During sedimentation, flocs settle to the bottom of the water because they are heavier than water. Filtration Once the flocs have settled to the bottom of the water, the clear water on top is filtered to separate additional solids from the water. Disinfection After the water has been filtered, water treatment plants may add one or more chemical disinfectants Usual Safe Drinking Water Treatment
  • 15. Water Treatment For Industrial Purpose Water treatment is used to optimize most water-based industrial processes, such as heating, cooling, processing, cleaning, and rinsing so that operating costs and risks are reduced. Poor water treatment lets water interact with the surfaces of pipes and vessels which contain it. Steam boilers can scale up or corrode, and these deposits will mean more fuel is needed to heat the same amount of water. Boiler feed water treatment system is usually necessary to ensure an efficient process and quality steam generation. The most appropriate boiler feed water treatment system will help the facility avoid costly plant downtime, expensive maintenance fees, and boiler failure as a result of scaling, corrosion, and fouling of the boiler and downstream equipment. In many cases, Effluent Water from one process can be suitable for reuse in another process if given suitable treatment.
  • 16. A boiler feed water treatment system depend on the quality of water being drawn from in relation to the quality of water makeup needed for the specific boiler (according to the manufacturer’s recommendations), but in general, a basic boiler feed water treatment system typically includes some type of: 1. Filtration and ultra-filtration 2. Ion exchange/softening 3. Membrane processes such as reverse osmosis and nano-filtration 4. Deaeration/degasification 5. Coagulation/chemical precipitation Depending on the impurities present in your water, any combination of these treatments might best suit your facility and make up your treatment system, and depending on the needs of your plant and process, these standard components are usually adequate. However, if your plant requires a system that provides a bit more customization, there might be some features or technologies you will need to add on. Water Treatment For Boiler Feed
  • 17. ION EXCHANGE WATER TREATMENT
  • 18. TYPICAL ION EXCHANGE WATER TREATMENT FACILITY
  • 19. TYPICAL ION EXCHANGE REGENERATION CATIONIC ANIONIC MIXED BED
  • 23. Resin Functional Group Remark Examples WAC -COO-H, Carboxylic acid group 1)Methacrylic acid-based weakly acidic cation exchange resin 2)Acrylic acid-based weakly acidic cation exchange resin SAC -SO3-H, Sulphonic acid group cross-linked styrene frame
  • 24. Resin Functional Group Remark Examples SBA -N・OH Quaternary ammonium groups incorporated into the styrene frame Type I with a trimethyl ammonium group, and Type II with a dimethylethanol ammonium group. WBA R-NH2 Polystyrene or polyacrylic ester frame and a primary- ternary amino group
  • 25. Multi grade Sand Filter -MG Strong Acid Cation exchange - SAC Degasser Weak Base Anion Exchange - WBA Strong Base Anion exchange- SBA Raw water Filtered Raw water Resin-Indion 225H SAC water Resin-Indion 850 WBA Water Resin-Indion FFIP Treated Water DM Water Regenerate in 5% HCl Regenerate in 3% NaOH Regenerate in 3% NaOH TEXMACO BOILER WATER TREATMENT
  • 26. Strong Acid Cation exchange - SAC Na+ , Ca2+, Mg2+ (CO3 2-, Cl-, SO4 2-, and NO3 -) RSO3H Acidic SAC water (CO2, HCl, H2SO4, and HNO3) Degasser Weak Base Anion Exchange - WBA CO2 and gases out Strong Base Anion exchange- SBA H2O Residual Chloride, carbon dioxide and the entire silica present in water are removal in the strong Base Anion exchanger 2RNR1 3 OH Residual Anions TEXMACO BOILER WATER TREATMENT WBA: Week Base Anion It’s remove face mineral acid in the water. SBA: Strong base Anion It’s remove residual carbonic acid and silica from the water. Remove mineral acid in the water.
  • 27. Cation Exchange RSO3H + Ca2+ + SO4 2- → (RSO3)2Ca + 2H+ + SO4 2- CaSO4 H2SO4 RSO3H + Mg2+ + 2Cl- → (RSO3)2Mg + 2H+ + 2Cl- MgCl2 2HCl RSO3H + Na+ + HCO3 - → RSO3Na + H2O + CO2 NaHCO3 H2CO3 R-Represents cross linked resin matrix REGENERATION R(SO3)2Ca + H2SO4 → 2RSO3H + CaSO4 3RSO3Na + H2SO4 → 2RSO3Na + Na2SO4 TYPICAL CATION EXCCHANGE REACTION
  • 28. 2RNR1 3 OH + 2H+ SO4 2- → RNR1 3SO4 + 2H2O H2SO4 2RNR1 3 OH + H+ Cl- → RNR1 3C1 + 2H2O HCl Regenerate RNR1 3SO4 + 2NaOH→ 2RNR1 3 OH + Na2SO4 RNR1 3 Cl + NaOH → RNR1 3 OH +NaCl TYPICAL ANION EXCCHANGE REACTION In WBA the anion of a mineral acid such as HCl and H2SO4, or the salt of a weak base like NH44Cl can be carried out as shown in the reactions below. R-NH2+ HCl → R-NH3Cl R-NH2+ NH4Cl → R-NH3Cl + NH3
  • 29. Multi grade Sand Filter -MG Strong Acid Cation exchange - SAC Degasser Strongly Base Anion Exchange - SBA Mixed Bed Demineraliser- MB Raw water Filtered Raw water Resin-Indion 225H SAC water Resin-Indion NIP SBA water Resin- Indion 225H + Indion FFIP Treated Water DM Water Regenerate in 2.5% H2SO4 Regenerate in 4% NaOH Regenerate in 2.5 % HCl, 5% NaOH SAP - BOILER WATER TREATMENT
  • 30. SN Ions/Gases Reason for Removal 1 Iron can deposit on boiler parts and tubes 2 Copper cause deposits to settle in high-pressure turbines 3 Silica can cause extremely hard scaling 4 Calcium can cause scaling in several forms 5 Magnesium combined with phosphate, magnesium can stick to the interior of the boiler 6 Aluminum deposits as scale on the boiler interior 7 Hardness also causes deposits and scale 8 Dissolved gasses can cause severe corrosion The above deposit on boiler parts and tubes, damage downstream equipment, and affect the quality of certain manufacturing processes A boiler feed water treatment system might be made up of the technologies necessary to remove problematic dissolved solids, suspended solids, and organic material, including any number of the following: HARMFUL IONS/GASES
  • 31. SN Boiler No pH TH P BaCl2 Cl- TDS Conductance 1 K-1244* 9.3 3.0 10.0 15.0 34.0 66.0 2 K-330 9.6 12.0 30.0 25.0 94.0 188.0 3 K-332 9.9 7.0 25.0 20.0 53.0 106.0 4 K-1244 9.3 3.0 10.0 20.0 34.0 68.0 5 K-330 9.8 10.0 25.0 10.0 64.0 120.0 6 K-330 9.5 5.0 35.0 15.0 102.0 200.0 7 K-1244 9.2 2.0 10.0 15.0 31.0 60.0 8 K-676** 10.0 1. K-1244 is Thermax Boiler,* 2. K-676 is the Boiler at SAP** Blow Down Water from Boilers
  • 32. Sample pH TH Palk Malk Cl- TDS Cond. PBaCl2 EMA FMA Raw 6.3 6 0 5 5 35 65 - 6 - SAC 3.3 1 - - - - - - - 6 SBA 9.5 1 0 10 0 - 12 - - - WBA 8.9 - - - - - 9 - - - DMW 6.2 1 0 5 0 - 3 - - - Boiler BDW* 10.6 - - - - - - - - - Water from TEXMACO Boiler House 1. *Boiler blowdown is the removal of water from a boiler.
  • 33. Sample pH TH Palk Malk Cl- TDS Cond. PBaCl2 EMA FMA Raw 6.8 6 0 5 10 - 61.4 - 6 - SAC 3.6 1 - - - - - - - 6 SBA 9.0 1 0 5 0 - 5.1 - - - MB 6.4 1 0 5 0 - 0.7 - - - DM Storage 6.0 - - - - - 1.3 - - - Boiler BDW 10.6 - - - - - - - - - K-676 is the Boiler at SAP** Water from SAP
  • 34. VALUES OF P, M AND P(BaCl2) HYDROXIDE ALKALINITY CARBONATE ALKALINITY BICARBONATE ALKALINITY TOTAL ALKALINITY P = Zero Nil Nil M M 2P < M Nil 2P M – 2P M 2P = M Nil 2P Nil M 2P > M 2P - M 2(M – P) Nil M P = M M Nil Nil M P > P(BaCl2) P(BaCl2) 2[P-P(BaCl2)] Nil 2P – P(BaCl2) P(BaCl2) = Zero Nil 2P No correlation No correlation *Because of the endpoints for methyl orange and total alkalinity indicator are nearly identical (pH 4.6 and pH 4.5 respectively) the industry uses both indicators interchangeably for reading total alkalinity. CALCULATION OF VARIOUS ALKALINITIES OF WATER as per IS : 3550 - 1965 1. IS: 3550-1965-Indian Standard METHODS OF TEST FOR ROUTINE CONTROL FOR WATER USED IN INDUSTRY
  • 35. TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE, TSP (Na3PO4 12H2O) , Dose 30-50ppm helps 1. Establishes moderately alkaline conditions 2. Minimize corrosion and reduce scaling 3. pH control(Work as buffer). 4. solids in suspension(As dispersing agent) 5. Sludge conditioners can also help keep iron particles in suspension for subsequent blow down. Use of TSP in Boiler Feed
  • 36. The measurement of dissolved oxygen and hydrazine on boiler plants is vital if the plant is to run efficiently, and to be cost effective, with minimum down time. Even small quantities of dissolved oxygen in boiler water are capable of causing severe pitting in boilers of all pressures, and will reduce the boiler life dramatically. In boilers where high chloride levels exist, the effect of oxygen corrosion is increased. Therefore, the need to reduce dissolved oxygen content to a very low level is even more important. It is a powerful reducing agent and will reduce oxygen to form nitrogen and water N2H4 + O2 ⇒ N2 + 2H2O Boiling Point: 113°C Dose: 0.1 and 0.3 ppm HYDRAZINE
  • 37. The presence of alkalinity in a water sample may be due to many different substances. However, for the sake of simplicity, the presence of 1. Bicarbonate, 2. Carbonate, and 3. Hydroxide ions is commonly considered as alkalinity. P Alk(BaCl2) Hydroxide alkalinity may be determined by adding barium chloride prior to titration to precipitate the carbonate ion from solution, allowing direct titration of the hydroxide alkalinity. Measurement of hydroxide alkalinity is also used to control the chemicals for softeners. P(alk) = hydroxide + ½ carbonate pH: 8.3 M(alk) = hydroxide + carbonate + biocarbonate pH: 4.3 P(alk) =Nil, then M(alk) = biocarbonate ALKALINITY
  • 38. When the Strong Cation Unit Exhausts, the slip increases and free mineral acidity decreases. ACIDITY Equivalent Mineral Acidity (EMA)/Total Mineral Acidity The sum of equivalent concentration of sulphate, chloride and nitrate. Cl– + SO4 = + NO3 – ≡ EMA Free Mineral Acidity (FMA) EMA – FMA = Sodium leakage/ Sodium Slip.
  • 39. Ca++ + Mg++ = TH HCO3 – + CO3 = + OH– = m-Alk Cl– + SO4 = + NO3 – = EMA 1. Meq/L is mill equivalent per litre P(alk) = hydroxide + ½ carbonate M(alk) = hydroxide + carbonate + biocarbonate P(alk) =Nil, then M(alk) = biocarbonate
  • 40. pH Buffers Solutions for Calibration pH – 4.0 pH – 7.0 pH – 9.2 *Commonly using buffer solution for pH meter Calibration10 pH = -log[H+] pH = 7 means [H+] = 1 x 10-7 mol/L
  • 41. Conductivity/TDS Meter Conductivity is a measurement of the ability of a substance to conduct electricity. Often encountered in industry is the traditional unit of μS/cm. Temp. 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 0.1N KCl 11.69 11.89 12.15 12.39 12.64 12.88 13.13 13.37 13.62 13.87 14.12 0.01N KCl 1.278 1.305 1.332 1.359 1.386 1.413 1.440 1.468 1.496 1.524 1.552 Temperature(0C) Vs Conductance(milli Siemens, mS)
  • 42. Electrical conductivity of water is directly related to the concentration of dissolved ionized solids in the water. Ions from the dissolved solids in water create the ability for that water to conduct an electric current, which can be measured using a conventional conductivity meter or TDS meter. Total Dissolved Solids-TDS
  • 43. Suspended solids refers to small solid particles which remain in suspension in water as a colloid or due to motion of the water. Suspended solids can be removed by sedimentation if their size or density is comparatively large, or by filtration. Suspended Solids
  • 44. SN Ion Simple Method 1 Fe (Soluble & Insoluble) Colorimetric 2 TH EDTA Titrations 3 Cl- AgNO3 Titrations 4 Soluble Silica Colorimetric Other Routine Water Analysis Parameter Solution A: Ammonium molybdate Solution B: Tartaric Acid Solution C: 4-amino-3-hydroxy-1- naphthalene sulphuric acid, Na2SO3 (Sodium sulfite) and NaHSO3(Sodium bisulfite) Soluble Silica Analysis