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How Does the Brain Work?
When witnessing someone with a Neurological disorder, one counts his/her blessings. People with
Neurological disorders struggle to function normally and knowing there is no cure to help them, it is
frustrating. Cancer patients do struggle just like the patients with Neurological disorders but there is
more patients with Neurological disorders than Cancer patients. The problem is more funding is
given to Cancer research as opposed to Neurological research. A Patient with a Neurological
disorder can be disabled their whole life without being able to do anything. It would only be fair to
help those patients enjoy their life just like one does. If more funding was given to Neurological
research, these patients could have a brighter future ahead of them. Fundings' should be taken away
from Cancer research to help Neurologists find new cures or new treatments to Neurological
disorders that affect the lives of many people in America.
The brain is a very complex organ that researchers are still trying to fathom. " ... I DO know that
scientists are working to understand HOW the brain works and are trying to figure out exactly how
it is hard–wired, so they can then explain WHY we have certain reactions, develop diseases, etc."
said Ms. Buchanan. The main parts are the Frontal lobe, Central sulcus, Cerebellum, Temporal lobe,
Parietal lobe, Sylvian fissure, and Occipital lobe. Each of these parts are responsible for the various
movements one does, the thinking process, memory and many
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How The Brain Works Essay
Current research shows that mental events cause physical events, and scientists believe examining
single nerves is the key to understanding how the brain works as a complete unit. Understanding the
brain at the nerve cell level will allow scientists to understand how human consciousness works
(Blakeslee, 1992). Furthermore, the brain's thalamus is identified as the possible sensory connector
because it fires 40 impulses per second that sweep through the entire brain (Blakeslee, 1995a). These
findings are a serious implication to Dualism because it states the mind is not physical. If the mind is
not physical, it cannot affect the physical body, so the Dualist theory of two–sided interactions
between the body and mind are false. The...show more content...
Linking the mind to the brain would invalidate Searle's (1980) explanation that artificial intelligence
is impossible because the brain is irrelevant when the mind is concerned. In other words, programs
require machines to run, but the mind is independent of the brain. Recent findings suggest that the
brain is directly linked to the mind, so even creating AI machines will be possible in the future
because the mind is obviously linked to the body through the brain and the nervous system. Although
new theories on human consciousness will obviously assist AI engineers, those theories will
question the reliability of Dualism because they suggest that mind is a material substance that takes
a certain space and creates certain manifestations in the body. In reality, it is possible that the mind
is a material substance. For example, the human eye cannot observe atoms, but they are physical
substances, so there is no reason to define mind as an immaterial substance based on the fact that it
cannot be perceived. Even though the mind is invisible to the human senses, it is possible to
observe the mind. Armstrong's (1980) proposal is that the consciousness is the observer of the
current state of mind. While the human mind is automatically aware of its perceptions in the brain, a
person's consciousness is aware of the mind's awareness of those perceptions (Armstrong, 1980).
However, Armstrong's theory has two implications for Dualism. While Dualism defines mind as a
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The Human Brain Essay
The Human Brain
The human being is considered to be the ultimate form of life on the earth. This is not because the
human body is strong and agile. Many other animals posses skills much superior to humans and are
able to perform feats humans can only dream of. The one thing that distinguishes humans from all of
the other organisms on this planet is the brain. The brain is the site that controls the human body.
However, unlike in animals, in man, the brain is also the site of the mind. The mind gives humans
superiority over other creatures. It provides humans with the ability to reason, to feel and to adapt.
Because of this, man has achieved so much, and has also realized that much more is still ahead.
During...show more content...
This increase in knowledge is partly due to the recent advances in nuclear medicine. Although X–ray
machines have been the chief mechanical tools for internal observations of the human body since
Wilhelm
Roentgen discovered X–rays in 1901, the development of computers made it possible for better and
more accurate techniques to be applied to scan the human body. These methods employ various
scanners like the CAT, PET, MRI and SPECT.
The CAT is an acronym for Computerized Axial Tomography. This method of scanning generally
involves X–rays and enables scientists to view the inside of the head in a three dimensional format
on a computer screen. PET stands for Positron Emission Tomography and it is much more
complicated than the CAT scan. PET machines bombard the subject with doses of positrons–– the
anti–matter equivalents of the electrons. As the positrons enter the body, they encounter electrons
which are escaping from radioactive elements which have been injected into the bloodstream. When
the positrons and the electrons collide, they give off energy which is recorded by a computer. The
result is a far more detailed 3–D picture of the brain than the one obtained from the CAT machine.
To obtain an even better image, physicians use the MRI, which stands for Magnetic Resonance
Spectroscopy. With these three
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The Structure Of The Brain Essay
Structure of the brain
The brain is made up of 4 main parts and they are:
в—Џthe cerebral cortex,
в—Џlimbic system,
в—Џthe cerebellum
в—Џand the brain stem
The cerebral cortex
The cerebral cortex is split into two cerebral hemispheres (the left and right hemispheres).
Sometimes the right hemisphere is related to creativity and the left hemisphere is related to logic
abilities. It is divided into four sections called lobes, the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe,
and temporal lobe. This is the largest part of the brain. The cerebral cortex is associated with
determining intelligence, influencing your personality, motor function, planning and organization,
processing sensory information and language processing. The cerebral cortex has sensory as well as
motor areas therefore it is responsible for processing sensory information and motor functionality
responses.
The frontal Lobe
The frontal lobe is the biggest lobe. It is involved in motor functions. The frontal lobe helps us to
make decisions as well as assisting to solve problems. It is also connected language and speech
functions. The frontal lobe is located at the front of that brain. It is also the biggest lobe in the brain.
The frontal lobe is the part of the brain that controls important intellectual skills, such as emotional
expression, memory and judgment.
Parietal Lobe
The parietal lobe is behind the frontal lobe and above the temporal lobe. It is responsible for
receiving and processing sensory information and
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How Does the Brain Work? Essay
How do we learn? What makes us smart and how do we remember what we have learned, what
can I do to motivate myself and others, what makes us do the things we do? These are all
questions that a student teacher needs to have answered in order to be able to teach effectively.
Following are some explanations that have guided my understanding of how I have learned and
how I can become more effective in my teaching practice. The brain is a good place to start when
we talk about learning. "It is sometimes referred to as a muscle of thinking." (Biology
about.com)There are lots of different parts to the brain, but the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain are
the biggest parts of the brain. There are billions of nerve cells...show more content...
The area that controls language (forebrain) shows most development in infancy and early
childhood, when children are starting to gain more and more language (Krause,2010).In my
years of working as a child care worker I have observed that, some children of the same age
seemed to arrive at different developmental stages at different times. For example one child aged
twelve months , could walk and move around obstacles with ease, her language was average for a
child of her age ,yet another child of the same age was only able to sit on her bottom, did not
attempt to walk or even crawl, but her language was outstanding. The brain is such a complex
organ, I have learned the basic structure of the brain, and am able to better understand why some
children in childcare were able to do things, others could not. It seems childhood is a crucial time
for children and brain development, even though genetics play a great part in the way our brain is
structured, a healthy diet, plenty of sleep and a good variety of experiences all play a part in the
way our brain develops from early childhood (Krauss, 2010). There are two main Psychological
theories of learning I would like to discuss, the first being Vygotsky's (social constructivism), the
second Piaget's (personal constructivism) theories .Constructivists learning theories basically centre
on the believe that the student is an active learner and has to build on his/her own learning.
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Brain Stem Essay
Brain stem is considered to be one of the most primitive parts of the brain that is crucial to human
survival. As thoroughly explicated by most scholars and anatomist throughout the centuries, it
regulates the most fundamental physiological activities of the human body which are essential for
maintaining and sustaining life. This is how each function is utilized in medical practice to define
death through different research and experiments.
Brain stem regulates alertness, arousal, breathing, blood pressure, digestion, heart rate and other
autonomic functions. (Lawrence, 2006) It also contains most of the 12 cranial nerves responsible for
sensory and motor functions of the face and special senses, meaning hearing, vision, taste, smell and
...show more content...
Net ( 2010), "For many years the subventricular zone has been suspected to be the origin of
specific malignant brain tumors called gliomas, the most deadly type of which is glioblastoma."
(To Function, Brain Stem Cells May Rely on a Specific Molecule, para. 2). Researchers have shown
that brain stem cells in the subvetricular zone have been characterized a certain molecule called
Protein Tlx. It is a transcription factor that stimulates the activity of various genes as stated by Stem
Cell Digest.Net.
They used mice during this experiment and when they tested adult mice; they found out that Tlx
was expressed solely in its brain stem cell. When the scientists switched off Tlx, they discovered
that there were no hidden stem cells in the brain and the neurons stopped or ceased. In reference to
Stem Cell Digest.Net; recent studies by teams headed by Professor GГјnter Schutz, and Professor
Peter Lichter in Germany at the German Cancer Research Center tested the opposite of the above
mentioned experiment. They did about everything the same except they
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Essay The Aging Brain
The Aging Brain Why does the human brain age? Brain aging is a part of human life and a big
part of society as the awareness for brain aging increases. Over time memory tends to become less
efficient as we age and the neurons in the brain decreases (Bendheim, P.E. (2009). By 2050 in the
US, 20 percent of the population will be 65 years or older. And as the elderly population increases,
so will the incidence of age–related neurological disorders (Perlmutter, David. (2004). Therefor it is
important to understand the aging brain, and how to keep the brain functioning as one ages. As age
increases, we can expect some loss of heart, lung, joint, and sexual functioning. Some loss of brain
cells and mental efficiency is a normal part of...show more content...
In many cases mild age–related memory loss is considered normal, but more severe memory
impairments are not. What is a stroke and how is it related to the aging brain? A stroke happens
when the blood supply to your brain is interrupted or it is reduced, depriving the brain tissues of
oxygen and food (Bendheim, P.E. (2009). Within minutes of a stroke brain cells begin to die.
Early action can minimize brain damage and potential complications. A stroke can cause
temporary or permanent disabilities, depending on how long the brain suffers the lack of blood
flow (Perlmutter, David. (2004). Some complications after a stroke are; paralyzation (loss of
muscle movement), memory loss, and trouble talking. Paralyzation is due to the lack of blood
flow to the brain, a patient can lose movement in one side of the body. Stroke can damage too
many parts of the brain, and it can start an early brain aging. A stroke can cause a patient to loss
control over the way muscles in the mouth move, have difficult talking and eating (Bendheim, P.E.
(2009). But one can try to prevent a stroke by taking care of their high blood pressure, high
cholesterol, and smoking. Dementia is also part of the aging brain. One in seven people ages 71 and
older has dementia, but that figure rises to
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Meditation and the Brain Essay
Meditation and the Brain
When discussing the relationship of brain and behavior, the materialist view of human experience
runs into conflict with the historically dominant religious accounts. Recent studies, however,
suggests that there may be a "middle view" between the two world–views. Religions, especially
Buddhism, stress the role of meditation in one's spiritual growth. Meditation has tangible
psychological and physiological benefits, though, which can be explained strictly in neurobiological
terms. Understanding of how meditation affects the brain, and, by extension, human behavior, also
gives insight into consciousness, the role of feedback loops, and the nature of the I–function.
The goal of Buddhist meditation is to...show more content...
Instead of seeing a "soul" or a "mind" as the seat of personal identity, in Buddhism, the self is to be
found in processes. Meditation, then, has the therapeutic effect of disengaging the practitioner from
self–consciousness, freeing the mind. The view of the world without the construct of a permanent
essence enables one to "experience reality as it really is" (3). It is important to note that Buddhism
does not distinguish mental processes from other senses. Just as seeing takes a visual object, the
mind takes a mental object (1). Just as the eye is free to take in different visual objects, the mind is
free, as well. While meditation aims to develop "single–pointedness of mind," it is ultimately to free
it from external objects. The focus is on the process of breathing, in Zen, and, eventually, one can
reach a state where one is not considering anything (2). Zen considers the "blank–mind" stage to be a
higher form of consciousness because it is free from attachments.
Indeed, one of the goals of meditation is the "mindful state," which is awareness of objects,
mind–states, and physical states but not attachment to them. Buddhism puts a great emphasis on
empirical understanding of the world (3), through meditation and through observation, and the
"mindful state" is one which recognizes distractions and attachments, and acknowledges them, in
order to achieve awareness of one's true nature. While a person in meditation does not dwell on
possible objects of
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The Brain Essay
From the beginning of time man's actions were just as diverse as the ever–changing life conditions
around him. For centuries man's actions were unexplained and unquestionable. Indeed, the brain was
not thoroughly explored and explained until the late 1600s. Up until then the human person was
regarded by the essence of their soul. Rene Descartes, a philosopher, began to explore the notions of
the human "soul" and in 1637 wrote a book entitled Discourse on Method that explained his
philosophy. In it he states his observations about how animals can move and react without the
concept of a soul. This "soul" was actually the human brain and a little later, Thomas Willis, a
scientist and member of the Oxford Circle, performed experiments to...show more content...
"The brain is made up of three central parts: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain, which are then
broken into other categories which makeup communication as a whole." "The brain through the
ages has been declared to have a life of its own as it shapes the functions of our bodies." "The brain
integrates sensory information and directs motor responses" that allow us to perform various
actions." The cerebrum, which controls thought and action, is the biggest part of the human brain. It
is also very wrinkled and this feature is noted for the potential increased size of the brain and the
number of neurons that help bring the brain's commands back and forth to the body. It is divided
into two halves: the left and right hemispheres. Often, the left hemisphere is associated with logic
functions and the right hemisphere is associated with creative abilities. It is then divided further into
four parts: the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes. The frontal lobe helps control
reasoning, planning, parts of speech, locomotion, emotions, and problem solving. These features
overall allow the human person to coordinate and strategize effectively. Throughout the ages it has
developed into being larger and more capable of the functions it bestows. The parietal lobe helps
control movement, balance, and memorization. This lobe has also gotten larger and more powerful in
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The Human Brain Essay
The human brain is a big, intricate–yet delicate, structure in the human body. It is the key structure
in cognitive function. Any damage to the brain does not only "erase" memories but also may
"deceive" the brain to erroneously remember a new object as being familiar (2010). The innovative
researchers at Cambridge University investigated this phenomenon in their research on The
Paradoxial False Memory for Objects after Brain Damage.
The publication began by stating the widely acceptable premise that medial temporal lobe damage
results in the inability to remember new experiences soon after they are learned. They indicated that
the general belief is that this occurs because the ability to remember such information becomes
compromised...show more content...
This is followed by a testing phase in which the object is presented simultaneously with a new
distinctive object. In this experiment the participant is then required to distinguish between the
repeated object and the new object. The finding was that participants with temporal lobe damage
have impairment in making the distinction between the repeated experience and the novel
experience when both are presented side by side especially after a long delay between study and
test. The indication was that the delay presents interferences which affect the perception of the
experiences. It was concluded therefore that the inability to distinguish the repeated object and
novel object is a factor of how one object affects the other and how it is perceived.
The researchers went further to test this hypothesis by using a method of assessing object
recognition by "decoupling" the objects of exploration. The finding was that participants with intact
brain explored the novel object more than the repeated object and those with temporal lobe injury
explored both equally. Furthermore they introduced another factor by placing the participants in a
holding area or visually restricted environment. The study showed that the longer the delay, the more
intense the impairment. The researchers concluded that object recognition is not only a function of
the delay but a function of the complexity of the task or performance.
Researchers suggest that the anatomy and the patho–physiology of
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The Power of the Human Brain Essays
Introduction
Humans have been considered the highest form of living things on earth . This is not attributed to
the fact that the human body is strong or agile , because there are multiple animals that possess
strength and agility far beyond the imagination of humans . The main characteristic that
distinguishes humans from all other organisms is the brain . The brain is the powerhouse of the body
. However this is also the site of the mind . The mind has been said to give humans superior status
over other creatures . With this one significant characteristic, humans have the ability to reason ,
feel and adapt . Man has crossed many miles stones beyond the capabilities of any other living thing
ad there are many more feats to be reached...show more content...
The Cerebellum is located at the back of the brain , under the occipital and temporal lobes of the
cereral cortex . and contains about 50% of the neurons in the brain and has been nicknamed the
motor structure of the brain, due to the fact that a damaged cerebellum affects motor control and
posture .The cerebellum performs the following functions
Maintains Balance and Posture
Coordination of voluntary movement
Motor Learning
Cognitive functions
The Cerebellum is built from four different types of neurons which include granule cells, Purkinje
cells and two types of inhibitory interneurons (Golgi cells and basket cells)
The Brain Stem is on the bottom of the brain and is between the deeply rooted structures of the
cerebral hemisphere and the cervical spinal cord. It is split into three sections or departments ,
midbrain(mesencephalon), pons(metencephalon and medulla oblongata 9myelencephalon). The
brainstem which is storage for many control houses of the body that include functions like
swallowing, breathing and vasomotor control. Cranial nerve nuclei is located in the brainstem with
the exception of the ones associated with the olfaction and vision, these provide motor and sensory
functions to the different structures in the cranium, e.g. facial muscles, tongue ,larynx and pharynx ,
it also serves the purpose of supplying the senses of taste, equilibrium and hearing . Complete loss
of brainstem has been regarded by
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Essay about the human brain
In this paper one will learn the different parts of the brain and their functions. Although the brain isn't
the largest organ of the human body it is the most complex and controlling organ. It is amazing how
complicated the brain is. The brain controls every action within and out of your body. The brain has
main areas that contain different areas that have specific functions. For instance the basal ganglia
holds the lentiform and the caudate.
The brain isn't just "THE BRAIN" it is actually a group of many parts. They help to inform the brain
on the things going on with the human body. The brain is split in to two main parts, the left and the
right hemisphere. The left hemisphere has about the same areas as the right hemisphere. The only
...show more content...
The corpus callosum is a bundle of nerves that connects the two hemispheres. The area that passes
and processes information concerning touch, pain, temperature, and pressure on skin is the
thalamus. The limbic system controls your behavior and emotions. It is involved in emotions such
as fear, rage, pleasure, and sorrow. In the prefrontal area of the frontal lobe emotional traits are
controlled. In the temporal lobe expressed behavior is controlled. The parietal lobe discriminates
sensory. The occipital lobe is where visual interpretation takes place. Pons is a crossroad for nerves
going up to the cortex, to the cerebellum and then down the spinal cord. The cortex is the outer gray
area where thinking takes place. The olfactory cortex receives senses from the nose that it then sorts
out. The area that identifies what we see by working out movements, colors, and shapes is the visual
cortex. The area that receives taste senses is called gustatory cortex. The area responsible for
analyzing data, performing memory functions, learning new information, forming thoughts, and
making decisions is the cerebral cortex. The motor cortex is involved in muscle movement. The
cerebellum is vital when carrying out complicated, skilled movements. It is much like a mini brain.
If before you read this paper you thought the brain was a "one man machine" I'm sure your opinion
has changed after reading his paper. It is amazing how god has created the brain to have so many
areas
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Essay about Drugs Affect on Brain
Abstract Drugs some use them to escape pain, others use them for pleasure, and some use them to
just fit in. Either way drugs are a harmful substance that may seriously affect the body. Drugs mess
with the brain in ways that we couldn't even imagine. From destroying brain cells that help with
critical thinking to destroying cells that give us the ability to feel pleasure. Drugs take the place
of our natural body functions of the body. They fool receptors of the body and make it to where
our bodies produce less of what we need. Over a period of time this may produce very severe
consequences on the body. With all the risks involved with drugs it's a wonder why some people use
them.
Introduction The human brain is the...show more content...
In addition, the limbic system is responsible for our perception of other emotions, both positive and
negative, which explains the mood altering properties of many drugs. The cerebral cortex is divided
into areas that control specific functions. Different areas process information from our senses,
enabling us to see, feel, hear, and taste. The front part of the cortex, the frontal cortex or forebrain, is
the thinking center of the brain, it powers our ability to think, plan, solve problems, and make
decisions.
How drugs work in the brain Drugs are chemicals they work in the brain by tapping into the brain's
communication system and interfering with the way nerve cells normally send, receive, and process
information. Some drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, can activate neurons because their chemical
structure mimics that of a natural neurotransmitter. This fools receptors and allows the drugs to lock
onto and activate the nerve cells. Although these drugs mimic brain chemicals, they don't activate
nerve cells in the same way as a natural neurotransmitter, and they lead to abnormal messages being
transmitted through the network.
Other drugs, such as amphetamine or cocaine, can cause the nerve cells to release abnormally large
amounts of natural neurotransmitters or prevent the normal recycling of these brain chemicals. This
disruption produces
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Memory and the Brain Essay
How does memory work? Is it possible to improve your memory? In order to answer these
questions, one must look at the different types of memory and how memory is stored in a person's
brain.Memory is the mental process of retaining and recalling information or experiences. (1) It is
the process of taking events, or facts and storing them in the brain for later use. There are three types
of memory: sensory memory, short–term memory, and long–term memory.
Sensory memories are momentary recordings of information in our sensory systems. They are
memories evoked through a person's five senses: sight, smell, sound, taste, and touch. Although
sensory memory is very brief, different sensory memories last for different amounts of time. Iconic
...show more content...
Some scientists believe that parts of long term memory are permanent while others will
eventually weaken over time. (3) Long term memory can be divided into three sections:
procedural memory, declarative memory, and remote memory. Procedural memory includes
motor skills such as learning how to ride a bike or how to drive a car. "Such memories are slow to
acquire but more resistant to change or loss." (4) Declarative memory is used to remember facts,
such as names, dates and places. It is easy to learn but also easy to lose. Finally there is episodic
memory, which is the record of events that a person stores throughout his or her experience. Recent
studies show that these events, as soon as they occur, are sent to a temporary part of the brain called
the hippocampus, and that over time they are moved to the neocortex for permanent storage. (5).
When speaking about memory, one needs to look at the parts of the brain that are involved in
memory storage. The hippocampus is a place in the brain that is used to
"transfer memories from short–term to long term memory". (1) It also helps store spatial memories
with the thalamus. The thalamus is a "collection of nuclei that relays sensory information from the
lower centers to the cerebral cortex". (7) In addition to spatial memories, the thalamus helps store
emotional memories with the
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The Brain Essay

  • 1. How Does the Brain Work? When witnessing someone with a Neurological disorder, one counts his/her blessings. People with Neurological disorders struggle to function normally and knowing there is no cure to help them, it is frustrating. Cancer patients do struggle just like the patients with Neurological disorders but there is more patients with Neurological disorders than Cancer patients. The problem is more funding is given to Cancer research as opposed to Neurological research. A Patient with a Neurological disorder can be disabled their whole life without being able to do anything. It would only be fair to help those patients enjoy their life just like one does. If more funding was given to Neurological research, these patients could have a brighter future ahead of them. Fundings' should be taken away from Cancer research to help Neurologists find new cures or new treatments to Neurological disorders that affect the lives of many people in America. The brain is a very complex organ that researchers are still trying to fathom. " ... I DO know that scientists are working to understand HOW the brain works and are trying to figure out exactly how it is hard–wired, so they can then explain WHY we have certain reactions, develop diseases, etc." said Ms. Buchanan. The main parts are the Frontal lobe, Central sulcus, Cerebellum, Temporal lobe, Parietal lobe, Sylvian fissure, and Occipital lobe. Each of these parts are responsible for the various movements one does, the thinking process, memory and many Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 2. How The Brain Works Essay Current research shows that mental events cause physical events, and scientists believe examining single nerves is the key to understanding how the brain works as a complete unit. Understanding the brain at the nerve cell level will allow scientists to understand how human consciousness works (Blakeslee, 1992). Furthermore, the brain's thalamus is identified as the possible sensory connector because it fires 40 impulses per second that sweep through the entire brain (Blakeslee, 1995a). These findings are a serious implication to Dualism because it states the mind is not physical. If the mind is not physical, it cannot affect the physical body, so the Dualist theory of two–sided interactions between the body and mind are false. The...show more content... Linking the mind to the brain would invalidate Searle's (1980) explanation that artificial intelligence is impossible because the brain is irrelevant when the mind is concerned. In other words, programs require machines to run, but the mind is independent of the brain. Recent findings suggest that the brain is directly linked to the mind, so even creating AI machines will be possible in the future because the mind is obviously linked to the body through the brain and the nervous system. Although new theories on human consciousness will obviously assist AI engineers, those theories will question the reliability of Dualism because they suggest that mind is a material substance that takes a certain space and creates certain manifestations in the body. In reality, it is possible that the mind is a material substance. For example, the human eye cannot observe atoms, but they are physical substances, so there is no reason to define mind as an immaterial substance based on the fact that it cannot be perceived. Even though the mind is invisible to the human senses, it is possible to observe the mind. Armstrong's (1980) proposal is that the consciousness is the observer of the current state of mind. While the human mind is automatically aware of its perceptions in the brain, a person's consciousness is aware of the mind's awareness of those perceptions (Armstrong, 1980). However, Armstrong's theory has two implications for Dualism. While Dualism defines mind as a Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 3. The Human Brain Essay The Human Brain The human being is considered to be the ultimate form of life on the earth. This is not because the human body is strong and agile. Many other animals posses skills much superior to humans and are able to perform feats humans can only dream of. The one thing that distinguishes humans from all of the other organisms on this planet is the brain. The brain is the site that controls the human body. However, unlike in animals, in man, the brain is also the site of the mind. The mind gives humans superiority over other creatures. It provides humans with the ability to reason, to feel and to adapt. Because of this, man has achieved so much, and has also realized that much more is still ahead. During...show more content... This increase in knowledge is partly due to the recent advances in nuclear medicine. Although X–ray machines have been the chief mechanical tools for internal observations of the human body since Wilhelm Roentgen discovered X–rays in 1901, the development of computers made it possible for better and more accurate techniques to be applied to scan the human body. These methods employ various scanners like the CAT, PET, MRI and SPECT. The CAT is an acronym for Computerized Axial Tomography. This method of scanning generally involves X–rays and enables scientists to view the inside of the head in a three dimensional format on a computer screen. PET stands for Positron Emission Tomography and it is much more complicated than the CAT scan. PET machines bombard the subject with doses of positrons–– the anti–matter equivalents of the electrons. As the positrons enter the body, they encounter electrons which are escaping from radioactive elements which have been injected into the bloodstream. When the positrons and the electrons collide, they give off energy which is recorded by a computer. The result is a far more detailed 3–D picture of the brain than the one obtained from the CAT machine. To obtain an even better image, physicians use the MRI, which stands for Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. With these three Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 4. The Structure Of The Brain Essay Structure of the brain The brain is made up of 4 main parts and they are: в—Џthe cerebral cortex, в—Џlimbic system, в—Џthe cerebellum в—Џand the brain stem The cerebral cortex The cerebral cortex is split into two cerebral hemispheres (the left and right hemispheres). Sometimes the right hemisphere is related to creativity and the left hemisphere is related to logic abilities. It is divided into four sections called lobes, the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe. This is the largest part of the brain. The cerebral cortex is associated with determining intelligence, influencing your personality, motor function, planning and organization, processing sensory information and language processing. The cerebral cortex has sensory as well as motor areas therefore it is responsible for processing sensory information and motor functionality responses. The frontal Lobe The frontal lobe is the biggest lobe. It is involved in motor functions. The frontal lobe helps us to make decisions as well as assisting to solve problems. It is also connected language and speech functions. The frontal lobe is located at the front of that brain. It is also the biggest lobe in the brain. The frontal lobe is the part of the brain that controls important intellectual skills, such as emotional expression, memory and judgment. Parietal Lobe The parietal lobe is behind the frontal lobe and above the temporal lobe. It is responsible for receiving and processing sensory information and Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 5. How Does the Brain Work? Essay How do we learn? What makes us smart and how do we remember what we have learned, what can I do to motivate myself and others, what makes us do the things we do? These are all questions that a student teacher needs to have answered in order to be able to teach effectively. Following are some explanations that have guided my understanding of how I have learned and how I can become more effective in my teaching practice. The brain is a good place to start when we talk about learning. "It is sometimes referred to as a muscle of thinking." (Biology about.com)There are lots of different parts to the brain, but the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain are the biggest parts of the brain. There are billions of nerve cells...show more content... The area that controls language (forebrain) shows most development in infancy and early childhood, when children are starting to gain more and more language (Krause,2010).In my years of working as a child care worker I have observed that, some children of the same age seemed to arrive at different developmental stages at different times. For example one child aged twelve months , could walk and move around obstacles with ease, her language was average for a child of her age ,yet another child of the same age was only able to sit on her bottom, did not attempt to walk or even crawl, but her language was outstanding. The brain is such a complex organ, I have learned the basic structure of the brain, and am able to better understand why some children in childcare were able to do things, others could not. It seems childhood is a crucial time for children and brain development, even though genetics play a great part in the way our brain is structured, a healthy diet, plenty of sleep and a good variety of experiences all play a part in the way our brain develops from early childhood (Krauss, 2010). There are two main Psychological theories of learning I would like to discuss, the first being Vygotsky's (social constructivism), the second Piaget's (personal constructivism) theories .Constructivists learning theories basically centre on the believe that the student is an active learner and has to build on his/her own learning. Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 6. Brain Stem Essay Brain stem is considered to be one of the most primitive parts of the brain that is crucial to human survival. As thoroughly explicated by most scholars and anatomist throughout the centuries, it regulates the most fundamental physiological activities of the human body which are essential for maintaining and sustaining life. This is how each function is utilized in medical practice to define death through different research and experiments. Brain stem regulates alertness, arousal, breathing, blood pressure, digestion, heart rate and other autonomic functions. (Lawrence, 2006) It also contains most of the 12 cranial nerves responsible for sensory and motor functions of the face and special senses, meaning hearing, vision, taste, smell and ...show more content... Net ( 2010), "For many years the subventricular zone has been suspected to be the origin of specific malignant brain tumors called gliomas, the most deadly type of which is glioblastoma." (To Function, Brain Stem Cells May Rely on a Specific Molecule, para. 2). Researchers have shown that brain stem cells in the subvetricular zone have been characterized a certain molecule called Protein Tlx. It is a transcription factor that stimulates the activity of various genes as stated by Stem Cell Digest.Net. They used mice during this experiment and when they tested adult mice; they found out that Tlx was expressed solely in its brain stem cell. When the scientists switched off Tlx, they discovered that there were no hidden stem cells in the brain and the neurons stopped or ceased. In reference to Stem Cell Digest.Net; recent studies by teams headed by Professor GГјnter Schutz, and Professor Peter Lichter in Germany at the German Cancer Research Center tested the opposite of the above mentioned experiment. They did about everything the same except they Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 7. Essay The Aging Brain The Aging Brain Why does the human brain age? Brain aging is a part of human life and a big part of society as the awareness for brain aging increases. Over time memory tends to become less efficient as we age and the neurons in the brain decreases (Bendheim, P.E. (2009). By 2050 in the US, 20 percent of the population will be 65 years or older. And as the elderly population increases, so will the incidence of age–related neurological disorders (Perlmutter, David. (2004). Therefor it is important to understand the aging brain, and how to keep the brain functioning as one ages. As age increases, we can expect some loss of heart, lung, joint, and sexual functioning. Some loss of brain cells and mental efficiency is a normal part of...show more content... In many cases mild age–related memory loss is considered normal, but more severe memory impairments are not. What is a stroke and how is it related to the aging brain? A stroke happens when the blood supply to your brain is interrupted or it is reduced, depriving the brain tissues of oxygen and food (Bendheim, P.E. (2009). Within minutes of a stroke brain cells begin to die. Early action can minimize brain damage and potential complications. A stroke can cause temporary or permanent disabilities, depending on how long the brain suffers the lack of blood flow (Perlmutter, David. (2004). Some complications after a stroke are; paralyzation (loss of muscle movement), memory loss, and trouble talking. Paralyzation is due to the lack of blood flow to the brain, a patient can lose movement in one side of the body. Stroke can damage too many parts of the brain, and it can start an early brain aging. A stroke can cause a patient to loss control over the way muscles in the mouth move, have difficult talking and eating (Bendheim, P.E. (2009). But one can try to prevent a stroke by taking care of their high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking. Dementia is also part of the aging brain. One in seven people ages 71 and older has dementia, but that figure rises to Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 8. Meditation and the Brain Essay Meditation and the Brain When discussing the relationship of brain and behavior, the materialist view of human experience runs into conflict with the historically dominant religious accounts. Recent studies, however, suggests that there may be a "middle view" between the two world–views. Religions, especially Buddhism, stress the role of meditation in one's spiritual growth. Meditation has tangible psychological and physiological benefits, though, which can be explained strictly in neurobiological terms. Understanding of how meditation affects the brain, and, by extension, human behavior, also gives insight into consciousness, the role of feedback loops, and the nature of the I–function. The goal of Buddhist meditation is to...show more content... Instead of seeing a "soul" or a "mind" as the seat of personal identity, in Buddhism, the self is to be found in processes. Meditation, then, has the therapeutic effect of disengaging the practitioner from self–consciousness, freeing the mind. The view of the world without the construct of a permanent essence enables one to "experience reality as it really is" (3). It is important to note that Buddhism does not distinguish mental processes from other senses. Just as seeing takes a visual object, the mind takes a mental object (1). Just as the eye is free to take in different visual objects, the mind is free, as well. While meditation aims to develop "single–pointedness of mind," it is ultimately to free it from external objects. The focus is on the process of breathing, in Zen, and, eventually, one can reach a state where one is not considering anything (2). Zen considers the "blank–mind" stage to be a higher form of consciousness because it is free from attachments. Indeed, one of the goals of meditation is the "mindful state," which is awareness of objects, mind–states, and physical states but not attachment to them. Buddhism puts a great emphasis on empirical understanding of the world (3), through meditation and through observation, and the "mindful state" is one which recognizes distractions and attachments, and acknowledges them, in order to achieve awareness of one's true nature. While a person in meditation does not dwell on possible objects of Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 9. The Brain Essay From the beginning of time man's actions were just as diverse as the ever–changing life conditions around him. For centuries man's actions were unexplained and unquestionable. Indeed, the brain was not thoroughly explored and explained until the late 1600s. Up until then the human person was regarded by the essence of their soul. Rene Descartes, a philosopher, began to explore the notions of the human "soul" and in 1637 wrote a book entitled Discourse on Method that explained his philosophy. In it he states his observations about how animals can move and react without the concept of a soul. This "soul" was actually the human brain and a little later, Thomas Willis, a scientist and member of the Oxford Circle, performed experiments to...show more content... "The brain is made up of three central parts: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain, which are then broken into other categories which makeup communication as a whole." "The brain through the ages has been declared to have a life of its own as it shapes the functions of our bodies." "The brain integrates sensory information and directs motor responses" that allow us to perform various actions." The cerebrum, which controls thought and action, is the biggest part of the human brain. It is also very wrinkled and this feature is noted for the potential increased size of the brain and the number of neurons that help bring the brain's commands back and forth to the body. It is divided into two halves: the left and right hemispheres. Often, the left hemisphere is associated with logic functions and the right hemisphere is associated with creative abilities. It is then divided further into four parts: the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes. The frontal lobe helps control reasoning, planning, parts of speech, locomotion, emotions, and problem solving. These features overall allow the human person to coordinate and strategize effectively. Throughout the ages it has developed into being larger and more capable of the functions it bestows. The parietal lobe helps control movement, balance, and memorization. This lobe has also gotten larger and more powerful in Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 10. The Human Brain Essay The human brain is a big, intricate–yet delicate, structure in the human body. It is the key structure in cognitive function. Any damage to the brain does not only "erase" memories but also may "deceive" the brain to erroneously remember a new object as being familiar (2010). The innovative researchers at Cambridge University investigated this phenomenon in their research on The Paradoxial False Memory for Objects after Brain Damage. The publication began by stating the widely acceptable premise that medial temporal lobe damage results in the inability to remember new experiences soon after they are learned. They indicated that the general belief is that this occurs because the ability to remember such information becomes compromised...show more content... This is followed by a testing phase in which the object is presented simultaneously with a new distinctive object. In this experiment the participant is then required to distinguish between the repeated object and the new object. The finding was that participants with temporal lobe damage have impairment in making the distinction between the repeated experience and the novel experience when both are presented side by side especially after a long delay between study and test. The indication was that the delay presents interferences which affect the perception of the experiences. It was concluded therefore that the inability to distinguish the repeated object and novel object is a factor of how one object affects the other and how it is perceived. The researchers went further to test this hypothesis by using a method of assessing object recognition by "decoupling" the objects of exploration. The finding was that participants with intact brain explored the novel object more than the repeated object and those with temporal lobe injury explored both equally. Furthermore they introduced another factor by placing the participants in a holding area or visually restricted environment. The study showed that the longer the delay, the more intense the impairment. The researchers concluded that object recognition is not only a function of the delay but a function of the complexity of the task or performance. Researchers suggest that the anatomy and the patho–physiology of Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 11. The Power of the Human Brain Essays Introduction Humans have been considered the highest form of living things on earth . This is not attributed to the fact that the human body is strong or agile , because there are multiple animals that possess strength and agility far beyond the imagination of humans . The main characteristic that distinguishes humans from all other organisms is the brain . The brain is the powerhouse of the body . However this is also the site of the mind . The mind has been said to give humans superior status over other creatures . With this one significant characteristic, humans have the ability to reason , feel and adapt . Man has crossed many miles stones beyond the capabilities of any other living thing ad there are many more feats to be reached...show more content... The Cerebellum is located at the back of the brain , under the occipital and temporal lobes of the cereral cortex . and contains about 50% of the neurons in the brain and has been nicknamed the motor structure of the brain, due to the fact that a damaged cerebellum affects motor control and posture .The cerebellum performs the following functions Maintains Balance and Posture Coordination of voluntary movement Motor Learning Cognitive functions The Cerebellum is built from four different types of neurons which include granule cells, Purkinje cells and two types of inhibitory interneurons (Golgi cells and basket cells) The Brain Stem is on the bottom of the brain and is between the deeply rooted structures of the cerebral hemisphere and the cervical spinal cord. It is split into three sections or departments , midbrain(mesencephalon), pons(metencephalon and medulla oblongata 9myelencephalon). The brainstem which is storage for many control houses of the body that include functions like swallowing, breathing and vasomotor control. Cranial nerve nuclei is located in the brainstem with the exception of the ones associated with the olfaction and vision, these provide motor and sensory functions to the different structures in the cranium, e.g. facial muscles, tongue ,larynx and pharynx , it also serves the purpose of supplying the senses of taste, equilibrium and hearing . Complete loss of brainstem has been regarded by Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 12. Essay about the human brain In this paper one will learn the different parts of the brain and their functions. Although the brain isn't the largest organ of the human body it is the most complex and controlling organ. It is amazing how complicated the brain is. The brain controls every action within and out of your body. The brain has main areas that contain different areas that have specific functions. For instance the basal ganglia holds the lentiform and the caudate. The brain isn't just "THE BRAIN" it is actually a group of many parts. They help to inform the brain on the things going on with the human body. The brain is split in to two main parts, the left and the right hemisphere. The left hemisphere has about the same areas as the right hemisphere. The only ...show more content... The corpus callosum is a bundle of nerves that connects the two hemispheres. The area that passes and processes information concerning touch, pain, temperature, and pressure on skin is the thalamus. The limbic system controls your behavior and emotions. It is involved in emotions such as fear, rage, pleasure, and sorrow. In the prefrontal area of the frontal lobe emotional traits are controlled. In the temporal lobe expressed behavior is controlled. The parietal lobe discriminates sensory. The occipital lobe is where visual interpretation takes place. Pons is a crossroad for nerves going up to the cortex, to the cerebellum and then down the spinal cord. The cortex is the outer gray area where thinking takes place. The olfactory cortex receives senses from the nose that it then sorts out. The area that identifies what we see by working out movements, colors, and shapes is the visual cortex. The area that receives taste senses is called gustatory cortex. The area responsible for analyzing data, performing memory functions, learning new information, forming thoughts, and making decisions is the cerebral cortex. The motor cortex is involved in muscle movement. The cerebellum is vital when carrying out complicated, skilled movements. It is much like a mini brain. If before you read this paper you thought the brain was a "one man machine" I'm sure your opinion has changed after reading his paper. It is amazing how god has created the brain to have so many areas Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 13. Essay about Drugs Affect on Brain Abstract Drugs some use them to escape pain, others use them for pleasure, and some use them to just fit in. Either way drugs are a harmful substance that may seriously affect the body. Drugs mess with the brain in ways that we couldn't even imagine. From destroying brain cells that help with critical thinking to destroying cells that give us the ability to feel pleasure. Drugs take the place of our natural body functions of the body. They fool receptors of the body and make it to where our bodies produce less of what we need. Over a period of time this may produce very severe consequences on the body. With all the risks involved with drugs it's a wonder why some people use them. Introduction The human brain is the...show more content... In addition, the limbic system is responsible for our perception of other emotions, both positive and negative, which explains the mood altering properties of many drugs. The cerebral cortex is divided into areas that control specific functions. Different areas process information from our senses, enabling us to see, feel, hear, and taste. The front part of the cortex, the frontal cortex or forebrain, is the thinking center of the brain, it powers our ability to think, plan, solve problems, and make decisions. How drugs work in the brain Drugs are chemicals they work in the brain by tapping into the brain's communication system and interfering with the way nerve cells normally send, receive, and process information. Some drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, can activate neurons because their chemical structure mimics that of a natural neurotransmitter. This fools receptors and allows the drugs to lock onto and activate the nerve cells. Although these drugs mimic brain chemicals, they don't activate nerve cells in the same way as a natural neurotransmitter, and they lead to abnormal messages being transmitted through the network. Other drugs, such as amphetamine or cocaine, can cause the nerve cells to release abnormally large amounts of natural neurotransmitters or prevent the normal recycling of these brain chemicals. This disruption produces Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 14. Memory and the Brain Essay How does memory work? Is it possible to improve your memory? In order to answer these questions, one must look at the different types of memory and how memory is stored in a person's brain.Memory is the mental process of retaining and recalling information or experiences. (1) It is the process of taking events, or facts and storing them in the brain for later use. There are three types of memory: sensory memory, short–term memory, and long–term memory. Sensory memories are momentary recordings of information in our sensory systems. They are memories evoked through a person's five senses: sight, smell, sound, taste, and touch. Although sensory memory is very brief, different sensory memories last for different amounts of time. Iconic ...show more content... Some scientists believe that parts of long term memory are permanent while others will eventually weaken over time. (3) Long term memory can be divided into three sections: procedural memory, declarative memory, and remote memory. Procedural memory includes motor skills such as learning how to ride a bike or how to drive a car. "Such memories are slow to acquire but more resistant to change or loss." (4) Declarative memory is used to remember facts, such as names, dates and places. It is easy to learn but also easy to lose. Finally there is episodic memory, which is the record of events that a person stores throughout his or her experience. Recent studies show that these events, as soon as they occur, are sent to a temporary part of the brain called the hippocampus, and that over time they are moved to the neocortex for permanent storage. (5). When speaking about memory, one needs to look at the parts of the brain that are involved in memory storage. The hippocampus is a place in the brain that is used to "transfer memories from short–term to long term memory". (1) It also helps store spatial memories with the thalamus. The thalamus is a "collection of nuclei that relays sensory information from the lower centers to the cerebral cortex". (7) In addition to spatial memories, the thalamus helps store emotional memories with the Get more content on HelpWriting.net