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Optimizing (Agile) Testing in
  Complex Environment

    Dr. Ronen Bar-Nahor




                                1
The challenges in complex environment
  •   Legacy system
  •   Spaghetti code
  •   dependencies
  •   Technical debt (quality, architecture, etc)
  •   Minimal automation in system level (gui driven)
  •   Low level of unit testing
  •   “Integration hell”
  •   QA play defense
      –   Hunting defects
      –   Gates, sign-offs
      –   Documentation driven
      –   Keep automation for itself
                                                        22
Some of the most common challenges for QA in Agile

  • The manifesto
     – Working SW over documentation
     – Changes over following a plan
     – Interactions over process and tools
  • Shared team ownership on quality
  • How to be “part of the team” but still
     – maintaining testing as a center of expertise
                                                      Agile Team
     – Keep loyalty to the business
  • Lose of the “big picture”
                                                               QA
  • Testing on non-stable SW                     Business     group




                                                               3
What is one of the problems in waterfall testing ?




http://www.slideshare.net/nashjain/role-of-qa-and-testing-in-agile-presentation   4
in waterfall reality –                                  integration hell




                    So, Agile is all about early feedback

http://www.slideshare.net/nashjain/role-of-qa-and-testing-in-agile-presentation   5
How early we test ?


                                                                                                            PSP
Waterfall (Level 0)

                                                R       e           l   e   a      s         e

                                                                                                            PSP

Scrum Level 1
                      Sprint 1             Sprint 2                     Sprint 3                 Sprint 4

                                 PSP                          PSP                      PSP                  PSP

Scrum Level 2
                      Sprint 1             Sprint 2                     Sprint 3                 Sprint 4
                                 PSP                          PSP                      PSP                  PSP

Scrum Level 3
                      Sprint 1             Sprint 2                     Sprint 3                 Sprint 4
          R&D
          QA                 © Copyright of AgileSparks LTD                                            6
But, isn’t it more expensive to take many small chunks?
  It might be less locally efficient... But it’s cheaper
     overall!
  • the hidden cost of “holding” for too long is
     higher (1:10)
     –   Dev. context switch
     –   Defect reproduction
     –   Shaking the system
     –   management


  • Testing early exposes
    project risks and Increase business flexibility

                                                       7
So what is the real challenge ?


        effort




                          time

                                  8
So we want to get to this…


                            Burndown / Burnup
 120



 100



  80



  60                                                   DONE (BURNUP)
                                                       ACTUAL REMAINING EFFORT
                                                       PLANNED REMAINING EFFORT
  40



  20



   0
       1   2   3   4   5          6   7   8   9   10
                           Time




                                                                           9
And to avoid … the brown cloud



      Iteration     Iteration     Iteration     Iteration


      Product       Product       Product        Product



                       Stuff we defer:             From “Done”
                       Defects
                       refactoring
                                                   to “Done
                       Non Functional Testing
                       user documentation
                                                   Done”
                       UAT...
                                                  Shippable
                                                  Product
                                                      ?
                                                              10
So how we can avoid -




                                       effort
And achieve                                        time

                PSP              PSP              PSP              PSP




     Sprint 1         Sprint 2         Sprint 3         Sprint 4
                                                                          11
                                                                         11
Start with the user stories

 BIG Features




                              12
That take very long to get to testing…




                       Longer iterations?
                                         13
To smaller chunks that can quickly flow to test




                                                  14
And to make the story testable

  • INVEST
  • Break stories effectively
     – “Mona Lisa” (working system)
     – “Elephant Carpaccio” (working
       feature)
  • Ready-Ready stories !!!
  • Do not forget the “big
    picture”/integration test
    early as possible (Epic level)

                                       15
Make architecture testable

 • QA involved in this phase !
 • Every feature goes thru some high
   level design/architecture
 • Ensure architecture allows and support:
    – Automation
    – Good reporting for problem analysis
    – Isolation, componentization and low
      dependencies
    – Mocking framework
 • Discuss Strategy for Testing the
   architecture and the system



                                             16
Challenge the automation strategy

               Manual
                        GUI –
                        5-10%


                ATDD - Acceptance
                   Test Driven
                Development– 20%


                Unit and component
                (integration) – 70%



                                      17
Practical Incremental Approach for automation

                     New Test                          Refactored                  Refactored
                     Coverage         New Features     Code         New Features   Code         New Features

                                                       New Test                    Refactored
                                                       Coverage     New Features   Code         New Features

                                                                                    New Test
                       Sanity and                                                   Coverage    New Features
                       risky
        1                  2
                       areas                               3                            4
   Legacy Systems   Legacy Systems                    Legacy Systems               Legacy Systems

                                Malfunctioning Code
                                Low quality code covered by automated tests
                                High quality code covered by automated tests




      Apply automation as new features added (minimize debt)
      Automate Sanity and risky areas by independent team
      Manual regression testing only after risk analysis.



                                                                                                        18
Integrate system Continuously – staged approach
                                                                  Early
                                                                  Drops
Developer              Product Build            Cross                     User
                                                Products                  Acceptance
                                                                          Test
   • Code + Build +     • Build and Package        • End to end              • Pickup &
     Unit Testing       • Unit Testing               flows                     Deploy
     until stable       • Deploy and Test                                    • Test
   • Get latest and       • Integration /
     Merge                  Acceptance /
   • Local Build +          System
     test + code
     analysis …         • Code Quality Checks
   • Check-in           • Profiling
                        • Log Analysis




                      Failure Report




                                                                                    19
Meanwhile -> make it manually


   mini-         I    I   h     I   I   h   I    H

   hardening




     Continuously
      Independent
   Integration Team


                                                 20
                                                20
ATDD - Tests represent expectations and drive out
ambiguity
  • turn your user stories into acceptance tests
    (ready ready story)




  • Preferably those tests will eventually become
    automatic within the sprint   no need for
    feature freeze
                                                     21
                                                    21
ATDD also make progress visible

 • Are we there yet?                     No need
                                           for
                                       traceability
  Track progress                        matrix !!!
  based on the
  testing
  progress
                         Implemented
                         Story




                                                 22
                                                22
what practices we use During Iteration ?

  • whole team approach
     – Practice Collective Test Ownership
     – Common goals
     – One team, partnership !




                                             23
                                            23
Dev-QA collaboration

 • Planning together
    – Identify Steel Thread –
      key slice through the
      story (Happy Path usually)
    – Continue to other slices
 • Sharing test plans
   (unit/functional)
 • Automation ...
 • Visualize defects
   status


                                   24
Stop and fix - Stop starting start finishing
 • When do we need to stop and fix defects ?
    –   Does it block somebody or break the system (CI) ?
    –   Can it goes to production ?
    –   Did we pass a Threshold/One page?
    –   Violate release criteria ?


 • Done is Done
    – Associate defect to the story
    – 70/100-100/80


 • All remaining test are in the backlog !
    – System flows on epic level                             25


 • Measure cycle time !!!                                   25
The key   to control the Dev-QA gap in release level



          Coding Feature
          Done   Freeze DONE
           RD C             T




                                 Hardening
         R D C           T
        RD C         T
      RD C       T
    RD C       T
  R D C  T
                                             Time


                                                    26
Kanban – managing the end to end flow
•Visualize the workflow       •Explicit policies
•Limit WIP                    •Measure & optimize flow
       WIP Limit!
       Can’t start
        new DEV
         work!

                      Dev        A lot
                                          Empty     Empty
                      Done        of
                                          Test    downstream
                     almost      WIP in
                                          Done     (Bubble)
                      Full       Test




• Classic “solution” - Add more testers
                                                       27
What LIMITED WIP Does
                           Fix open
                           defects
                            on our
                           Stories
     WIP Limit!
     Can’t start
                                              Help us
      new DEV
                                                with
       work!
                                              Blocker



                                       Help us
                                      automate
                    How can I         tests for
                   help current       this story
                     stories?




                                                        28
How do we Visualize the work status in more depth?
   120




   100

                    Total Scope
   80
                                  Average Cycle Time
             TODO
   60
                                      Work in
                                      Process       Burnup
   40                                  (WIP)

   20


                                                           Done
    0
         1     2      3    4      5       6     7      8      9        10



                                                                  29
Elaborating the WIP
  120




  100


                                          Heavy load on QA
  80        TODO
                            Dev
  60




  40                                      Test

  20Heavy load on Dev
                                                             Done
   0
        1     2         3   4     5   6         7        8     9     10


                                                                    30
120

If we use a WIP Limit...
 100




 80




                TODO
 60



                             Dev
 40
                                   Test
           Work Cycle Time
            Average                           Done
 20
              in
           Proce
  0
             ss
           (WIP)
       1    2     3     4    5      6     7   8      9        10

                                                         31
The next level – Tracking also the upstream




                                               32
                                              32
Good luck !!!

        ronen@agilesparks.com
            052-5522749



                                 33
                                33
summary


 So how we can avoid -




                                        effort
And achieve                                         time

                 PSP              PSP              PSP              PSP




      Sprint 1         Sprint 2         Sprint 3         Sprint 4
                                                                           34
                                                                          34

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Dr. Ronen Bar-Nahor - Optimizing Agile Testing in Complex Environments

  • 1. Optimizing (Agile) Testing in Complex Environment Dr. Ronen Bar-Nahor 1
  • 2. The challenges in complex environment • Legacy system • Spaghetti code • dependencies • Technical debt (quality, architecture, etc) • Minimal automation in system level (gui driven) • Low level of unit testing • “Integration hell” • QA play defense – Hunting defects – Gates, sign-offs – Documentation driven – Keep automation for itself 22
  • 3. Some of the most common challenges for QA in Agile • The manifesto – Working SW over documentation – Changes over following a plan – Interactions over process and tools • Shared team ownership on quality • How to be “part of the team” but still – maintaining testing as a center of expertise Agile Team – Keep loyalty to the business • Lose of the “big picture” QA • Testing on non-stable SW Business group 3
  • 4. What is one of the problems in waterfall testing ? http://www.slideshare.net/nashjain/role-of-qa-and-testing-in-agile-presentation 4
  • 5. in waterfall reality – integration hell So, Agile is all about early feedback http://www.slideshare.net/nashjain/role-of-qa-and-testing-in-agile-presentation 5
  • 6. How early we test ? PSP Waterfall (Level 0) R e l e a s e PSP Scrum Level 1 Sprint 1 Sprint 2 Sprint 3 Sprint 4 PSP PSP PSP PSP Scrum Level 2 Sprint 1 Sprint 2 Sprint 3 Sprint 4 PSP PSP PSP PSP Scrum Level 3 Sprint 1 Sprint 2 Sprint 3 Sprint 4 R&D QA © Copyright of AgileSparks LTD 6
  • 7. But, isn’t it more expensive to take many small chunks? It might be less locally efficient... But it’s cheaper overall! • the hidden cost of “holding” for too long is higher (1:10) – Dev. context switch – Defect reproduction – Shaking the system – management • Testing early exposes project risks and Increase business flexibility 7
  • 8. So what is the real challenge ? effort time 8
  • 9. So we want to get to this… Burndown / Burnup 120 100 80 60 DONE (BURNUP) ACTUAL REMAINING EFFORT PLANNED REMAINING EFFORT 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Time 9
  • 10. And to avoid … the brown cloud Iteration Iteration Iteration Iteration Product Product Product Product Stuff we defer: From “Done” Defects refactoring to “Done Non Functional Testing user documentation Done” UAT... Shippable Product ? 10
  • 11. So how we can avoid - effort And achieve time PSP PSP PSP PSP Sprint 1 Sprint 2 Sprint 3 Sprint 4 11 11
  • 12. Start with the user stories BIG Features 12
  • 13. That take very long to get to testing… Longer iterations? 13
  • 14. To smaller chunks that can quickly flow to test 14
  • 15. And to make the story testable • INVEST • Break stories effectively – “Mona Lisa” (working system) – “Elephant Carpaccio” (working feature) • Ready-Ready stories !!! • Do not forget the “big picture”/integration test early as possible (Epic level) 15
  • 16. Make architecture testable • QA involved in this phase ! • Every feature goes thru some high level design/architecture • Ensure architecture allows and support: – Automation – Good reporting for problem analysis – Isolation, componentization and low dependencies – Mocking framework • Discuss Strategy for Testing the architecture and the system 16
  • 17. Challenge the automation strategy Manual GUI – 5-10% ATDD - Acceptance Test Driven Development– 20% Unit and component (integration) – 70% 17
  • 18. Practical Incremental Approach for automation New Test Refactored Refactored Coverage New Features Code New Features Code New Features New Test Refactored Coverage New Features Code New Features New Test Sanity and Coverage New Features risky 1 2 areas 3 4 Legacy Systems Legacy Systems Legacy Systems Legacy Systems Malfunctioning Code Low quality code covered by automated tests High quality code covered by automated tests Apply automation as new features added (minimize debt) Automate Sanity and risky areas by independent team Manual regression testing only after risk analysis. 18
  • 19. Integrate system Continuously – staged approach Early Drops Developer Product Build Cross User Products Acceptance Test • Code + Build + • Build and Package • End to end • Pickup & Unit Testing • Unit Testing flows Deploy until stable • Deploy and Test • Test • Get latest and • Integration / Merge Acceptance / • Local Build + System test + code analysis … • Code Quality Checks • Check-in • Profiling • Log Analysis Failure Report 19
  • 20. Meanwhile -> make it manually mini- I I h I I h I H hardening Continuously Independent Integration Team 20 20
  • 21. ATDD - Tests represent expectations and drive out ambiguity • turn your user stories into acceptance tests (ready ready story) • Preferably those tests will eventually become automatic within the sprint no need for feature freeze 21 21
  • 22. ATDD also make progress visible • Are we there yet? No need for traceability Track progress matrix !!! based on the testing progress Implemented Story 22 22
  • 23. what practices we use During Iteration ? • whole team approach – Practice Collective Test Ownership – Common goals – One team, partnership ! 23 23
  • 24. Dev-QA collaboration • Planning together – Identify Steel Thread – key slice through the story (Happy Path usually) – Continue to other slices • Sharing test plans (unit/functional) • Automation ... • Visualize defects status 24
  • 25. Stop and fix - Stop starting start finishing • When do we need to stop and fix defects ? – Does it block somebody or break the system (CI) ? – Can it goes to production ? – Did we pass a Threshold/One page? – Violate release criteria ? • Done is Done – Associate defect to the story – 70/100-100/80 • All remaining test are in the backlog ! – System flows on epic level 25 • Measure cycle time !!! 25
  • 26. The key to control the Dev-QA gap in release level Coding Feature Done Freeze DONE RD C T Hardening R D C T RD C T RD C T RD C T R D C T Time 26
  • 27. Kanban – managing the end to end flow •Visualize the workflow •Explicit policies •Limit WIP •Measure & optimize flow WIP Limit! Can’t start new DEV work! Dev A lot Empty Empty Done of Test downstream almost WIP in Done (Bubble) Full Test • Classic “solution” - Add more testers 27
  • 28. What LIMITED WIP Does Fix open defects on our Stories WIP Limit! Can’t start Help us new DEV with work! Blocker Help us automate How can I tests for help current this story stories? 28
  • 29. How do we Visualize the work status in more depth? 120 100 Total Scope 80 Average Cycle Time TODO 60 Work in Process Burnup 40 (WIP) 20 Done 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 29
  • 30. Elaborating the WIP 120 100 Heavy load on QA 80 TODO Dev 60 40 Test 20Heavy load on Dev Done 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 30
  • 31. 120 If we use a WIP Limit... 100 80 TODO 60 Dev 40 Test Work Cycle Time Average Done 20 in Proce 0 ss (WIP) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 31
  • 32. The next level – Tracking also the upstream 32 32
  • 33. Good luck !!! ronen@agilesparks.com 052-5522749 33 33
  • 34. summary So how we can avoid - effort And achieve time PSP PSP PSP PSP Sprint 1 Sprint 2 Sprint 3 Sprint 4 34 34