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Psychological Safety:
A Pre-Condition
for Continuous
Improvement
Hosted by
Host: Morgan Wright
Customer Marketing Manager
Morgan.Wright@KaiNexus.com
Presenter: Mark Graban
Author, The Mistakes That Make Us
Senior Advisor, KaiNexus
Mark@KaiNexus.com
4
KaiNexus.com
3 Book Winners!
To enter future webinar-related
giveaways, post or re-post about
one of our webinars on LinkedIn
using hashtag #KaiNexus
About Mark Graban
• Senior Advisor, KaiNexus (Since June 2011)
• Author, Speaker, Consultant
• Host of podcasts, including “My Favorite Mistake”
• Also the author of:
• Lean Hospitals
• Healthcare Kaizen
• Practicing Lean
• Measures of Success
• B.S. Industrial Engineering, Northwestern Univ.
• M.S. Mechanical Engineering, MIT
• M.B.A., MIT
PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY
A Pre-Condition for Continuous Improvement
Slides & More: MarkGraban.com/KaiNexus2023
For Anonymous Interactive Polling:
Menti.com
Enter code
84 16 92 6
PDCA?
WHY?
Toyota Production System
“We define TPS as an
organizational culture of
highly engaged people
solving problems or
innovating to drive
performance.”
Amy Edmondson
Harvard Business School
The Fearless Organization
Jamie Bonini
Toyota / TSSC
HOW DO WE
ENGAGE PEOPLE?
“highly engaged people”
“IT’S YOUR
PROFESSIONAL
OBLIGATION TO
SPEAK UP”
Speaking up isn’t a matter
of character or courage…
it’s a function of
CULTURE
Speaking up isn’t a matter
of character or courage…
it’s a function of
CULTURE
What’s Required for Andon Pulls?
PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY
+
PROBLEM SOLVING
For a World-Class “Lean” Culture
“[Toyota believes] people must …
feel psychologically and
physically safe … they must
believe that any concerns they
have will be taken very seriously”
What is Psychological Safety?
• “Psychological safety is a belief that
one will not be punished or humiliated
• for speaking up with
– ideas
– questions
– concerns or
– mistakes.” Amy Edmondson
Harvard Business School
The Fearless Organization
Google’s Project Aristotle
• What makes teams there most successful?
PSYCHOLOGICAL
SAFETY
What is Psychological Safety?
“A culture of
rewarded
vulnerability”
Timothy R. Clark
LeaderFactor
The 4 Stages of Psychological Safety
What is Vulnerability?
EXPOSURE TO
THE RISK OF
HARM OR LOSS
SAY SOMETHING KEEP QUIET
Do I Feel Psychologically Safe?
Does a Team Have Psychological Safety?
EACH.
PERSON.
DECIDES.
Cultivating Psychological Safety?
THIS IS A
SAFE SPACE
You Can Improve Psychological Safety
Modeling
Vulnerable
Acts
Rewarding
Vulnerable
Acts
MAKE THESE HABITS HAPPEN
“You can’t have a
culture of
continuous
improvement
without learning
from mistakes.”
Greg Jacobson
CEO and co-founder, KaiNexus
You Can Improve Psychological Safety
Modeling
Vulnerable
Acts
Rewarding
Vulnerable
Acts
Larry Culp, CEO of General Electric
“I want to hear the
bad news. I want
to hear it fast.”
Larry Culp, CEO of General Electric
“The moment of truth:
Do you shoot the
messenger, or do you
listen even if you are
unhappy?”
Root Cause of C.I. Struggles?
PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY
+
PROBLEM SOLVING
ALWAYS
START
WITH 5S
ALWAYS
START
WITH 5S?
ALWAYS START
WITH
PSYCHOLOGICAL
SAFETY
When We Only Have One…
PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY
+
PROBLEM SOLVING
A Powerful Combination
PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY
+
PROBLEM SOLVING
Serious Safety Events (U.S. Hospital)
What’s Required for C.I.?
PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY
+
PROBLEM SOLVING
Can We Be Experimentalists?
Is it Safe to Say?
WE COULD BE WRONG
LET’S TEST IT AND SEE…
THAT DIDN’T WORK AS…
You Can Measure Psychological Safety
80th percentile
Possible scoring range is -100 to +100
Teams Progress Through 4 Stages
1. Inclusion Safety: Can I be my authentic self?
2. Learner Safety: Can I learn and grow?
3. Contributor Safety: Can I contribute and create value?
4. Challenger Safety: Can I be candid about change?
… all without fear of being embarrassed,
marginalized, or punished in some way.
You Can Measure the 4 Stages
Percentile: 74th 81st 76th 77th
Possible scoring range is -100 to +100
You Can’t Jump Ahead to Stage 4!
Research-
based
progression
You Can Improve Psychological Safety
Modeling
Vulnerable
Acts
Rewarding
Vulnerable
Acts
Stage 1: Inclusion Safety
• I am accepted as a member of my team
• I am treated with respect
• I feel included by the people I work with
WITHOUT
INCLUSION SAFETY
The pain centers of the brain are activated
Stage 2: Learner Safety
• I am allowed to learn from my mistakes
• I feel comfortable asking questions
• My team supports my efforts to learn
WITHOUT
LEARNER SAFETY
Our instinct to self-censor kicks in
Stage 3: Contributor Safety
• My team allows me to do my job
• My team values my contribution
• I am encouraged to contribute as much as I
can in my role
WITHOUT
CONTRIBUTOR SAFETY
We freeze our discretionary efforts due to
fear of social and emotional harm
Stage 4: Challenger Safety
• I can take reasonable risks without being
punished
• I feel safe disagreeing with the way my team
does things
• I have the freedom to challenge the status quo
WITHOUT
CHALLENGER SAFETY
There’s a high cost to
curiosity and creativity
AND CAREERS!
What’s Required for C.I.?
PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY
+
PROBLEM SOLVING
This Results In
HIGHLY ENGAGED PEOPLE
+
IMPROVING & INNOV
ATING
LET’S DO IT
Register or get notified of future webinars: www.KaiNexus.com/webinars
NEXT WEBINAR:
Why Kindness is the Key to Lean Leadership
July 11, 2023 — 1 pm ET
Karyn Ross
blog.kainexus.com
The KaiNexus Podcast
• www.KaiNexus.com/podcasts
• Subscribe via:
– Apple Podcasts
– Google Podcasts
– Overcast
– Stitcher
– Other apps & services
Q&A Time
• Slides & More:
http://www.markgraban.com/KaiNexus2023
• Email: Mark@KaiNexus.com
• Podcast: MistakesPodcast.com
• Book: MistakesBook.com

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Psychological Safety as a Foundation for Continuous Improvement