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Profiling PHP
  Applications
    July 2011 - Justin Carmony


            #uphpu
wifi: C7bluffdale -- c7dcguest
About Me

• CTO of Dating DNA
• CIO of CEVO LLC
• Make Websites & iPhone Apps
• Worked on Websites for Dell, nVidia,
  DirectTV, and other big clients.
Experience

• Lots of work with “Middle-Scale” websites.
• Lucky to Work on Fun Projects
• Lots of Web Service Stuff
• Learned most of this from other really
  smart people.
We’ll Use An Example
    and an awesome one at that...
We Have Similar Jobs
      Awesome, huh?
MythBusters
•   They get a Myth

•   Break it down to its
    different parts

•   They Conduct a Bunch
    of Tests

•   They Draw Conclusions

•   and have a Fun Time
Developers
•   We get Myths
    (Hey, this is slow)

•   We Break it down to
    the different pieces

•   We Conduct a Bunch of
    Tests.

•   We Draw Conclusions
    (and normally make
    changes)

•   and Have a Fun Time...
So Lets Get Started!
   php /lets/get/started.php now
First Off, Some
  PHP Myths
 and there are a lot of them!
Common Performance
  Claims (Myths)
•   echo instead of print()   •   single quotes, not double
                                  quotes
•   echo commas, not
    periods                   •   include instead of
                                  include_once
•   don’t use custom
    functions/classes         •   === faster than ==

•   pass by reference         •   for faster than foreach
    instead of by value
To Quote
Derick Rethans
   Author of Xdebug...
“I can only say one thing about this....

           Complete & Utter

         Bull****”
or in MythBusters Terminology....
I’m Serious, There are a
  LOT of these Myths
These Example Came from Google’s Top 10 results for
              “php performance tips”
These “Performance
Tips” Rarely Make a
     Difference
Thats Like Debating the Windshield Wipers’s
      Effect on this Car’s Performance
Intuition Based
 Optimizations
  i.e. how to not effectively
     improve performance




      Phrase Coined by Dave Smith
   http://thesmithfam.org/blog/2011/02/
Your Intuitions are
    WRONG
      90% of the time
Example:
Fuel Efficiency Myths
MythBusters Tested
• Keeping Your AC Off vs Windows Down
• Idling Better than Stop/Start
• Magical Aerodynamics
• Dirt-Free Filters
• Special Fuel Additives to Slow Burn
 All Busted! They Didn’t Make a Difference,
        Or Worsened Fuel Efficiency
How About
   Driving Angry?




 After Testing, Tory & Grant Used
33% More Fule While Driving Angry
Effective Profiling
   is based on
 Actual Results
There are Two Types
of Profiling “Modes”
Normal Profiling




   Lets Try this Configuration Change
and Measure the Performance Difference
Emergency Profiling




Aaaaaaaaaaaaah the Website is Down!!!!
    Why is it so slow??? Fix it!!!!!!
Same Techniques
      Apply to Both

• Some you’ll want to chose first depending
  on your situation.
• You’ll want to be careful when profiling in
  Production, you can make things worse.
Understanding the
   Full Picture
Browser                        Static Files
                                                       Database and/or
                                                         Data Store


                 Web Server


                                  PHP App


                                                Server OS


Web Services &
 Resources                                                      Hardware
                              Cache
Don’t Panic!
Goal: Find Slow Parts
  aka Bottlenecks
Profiling & Testing
 Different Parts
Tools!
Browser                        Static Files
                                                       Database and/or
                                                         Data Store


                 Web Server


                                  PHP App


                                                Server OS


Web Services &
 Resources                                                      Hardware
                              Cache
FireBug
FireBug
Google Page Speed
Other Tools

• YSlow
  http://developer.yahoo.com/yslow/
• Pingdom Tools
  http://tools.pingdom.com/
• WireShark / Fiddler2
Browser                        Static Files
                                                       Database and/or
                                                         Data Store


                 Web Server


                                  PHP App


                                                Server OS


Web Services &
 Resources                                                      Hardware
                              Cache
apachetop




apachetop -f /var/log/apache/example.com.access.log
Apachetop works
   with nginx
Apache’s mod_status
   <Location /server-status>
   SetHandler server-status

   Order Deny,Allow
   Deny from all
   Allow from 25.131.42.122
   </Location>

   # ExtendedStatus On
Apache’s mod_status
siege
siege

• Command Line Tool
• Run Concurrent HTTP Requests
• Runs on Linux & Mac OS
• Windows Users: Run a VM
• Great Way to Test End Result
siege

• Create txt file with lists of URLs to hit
• Run Command:
  siege -c 10 -r 10 -f urls.txt
• c = concurrent
  r = # of requests
  f = path to URL file
siege
siege
Other Tools
• nginx stub status (similar to mod_status)
  http://wiki.nginx.org/HttpStubStatusModule
• Apache Bench & http_load -- CLI
• JMeter -- Java Desktop App
Browser                        Static Files
                                                       Database and/or
                                                         Data Store


                 Web Server


                                  PHP App


                                                Server OS


Web Services &
 Resources                                                      Hardware
                              Cache
My Favorite New Tools:
  XHProf & XHGui
XHProf

• Developed by Facebook
• Works well for both Development
  & Production* Profiling
• pecl extension
• Decent UI for viewing Results
   * - Use Sampling & Special CPU Flags for Production
    http://mirror.facebook.net/facebook/xhprof/doc.html
XHGui
• Improved GUI
• Easy to Setup
• Built In Sampling
• Advanced Configuration
• MySQL Backend
• I recommend using this!
   https://github.com/preinheimer/xhprof
More Fun to Show
     Demo Time
Xdebug Profiler
• Install Xdebug
• Enable Xdebug Profiling
• Outputs a Cachegrind Log
• Use KCachegrind / WinCachegrind /
  Webgrind to view
• For the Rich, MacCallGrind for $150
Enabling Xdebug
           Profiling
xdebug.profiler_enable=1
xdebug.profiler_output_dir=/tmp
xdebug.profiler_output_name=cachegrind.out.%p


     Xdebug Profiling Not for Production
           (unless you have a 100TB HDD laying around)
Webgrind
Timing Points

• Most Frameworks have Built-In Profiling /
  Timing Points
• Most ORMs have them as well
• You can do them yourself
• A must for Database Queries
Timing Points
$start = microtime(true); // true to get as float

/* Do your Crazy Code, i.e. query */

$end = microtime(true);

$time = round($end - $start, 4);
Other Tools

• Inclued
  http://php.net/manual/en/book.inclued.php
• Memtrack
  http://php.net/manual/en/
  book.memtrack.php
Browser                        Static Files
                                                       Database and/or
                                                         Data Store


                 Web Server


                                  PHP App


                                                Server OS


Web Services &
 Resources                                                      Hardware
                              Cache
Databases
• Typically, First Thing to Slow Down
• Things to that will Kill the DB:
   • Missing Indexes
   • Nested Queries
   • Large Joins
   • Locked Queries
Jet Profiler

• MySQL Profiler
• Free Version (Okay) & Paid (Awesome)
• Not Cheap ($399)
 • But Worth It
• Analytics Over Time
Jet Profiler
MySQL Commands

• explain <query>
• show processlist
• show variables
• show status
mtop
Browser                        Static Files
                                                       Database and/or
                                                         Data Store


                 Web Server


                                  PHP App


                                                Server OS


Web Services &
 Resources                                                      Hardware
                              Cache
vmstat
command: vmstat 1
vmstat

• swap > 0 means swapping
  Memory Issue
• cpu sys + us really high
  CPU / Code / PHP Problem
• cpu wa > 10
  Disk IO Problem*
      * - Technically could be Network IO as well, but typically
           one of the last and more rare bottlenecks to hit
vnstat
command: vnstat -l -i eth0
top
htop
strace
iotop
Other Tools

• netstat
• iostat
• mpstat
• pidstat
• (on ubuntu, install via sysstat package)
Other Tools

• grep, awk, sed
• IPs Connected:
  netstat -plan | grep :80 | awk '{print $5}' |
  sed 's/::ffff://g' | awk -F: '{print $1}' | sort |
  uniq -c | sort -n
Monitoring
           Munin




http://munin-monitoring.org/
Monitoring
     Wormly




http://wormly.com/
Whew, Lots of Tools
 and a lot more out there not in this talk
    Find any cool ones, let me know!
Normal Profiling

• Start with XHProf/XHGui and FireBug
• Avoid Premature Optimization
   • Complicated Change
   • Little Reward
• Use siege, or alternative, to simulate load.
Emergency Profiling

• Start with OS Level Testing Tools (htop,
  vmstat, vnstat) to check Server
  Performance
• Determine which Resource(s) are being
  over utilized
• Finding the bottleneck is key
Emergency Profiling

• What Changed?
   • Increased Traffic?
   • New Feature?
   • Something Failed/Down?
• Don’t Panic & Start Wildly Guessing
Few Final Thoughts
The Better You
 Understand
   The Problem
The Better You Can
     Fix It
Don’t
Put Off Profiling
Until there is an
Emergency
You Can Throw
  Hardward at the
Problem, but Avoid IT
Ask Others for Ideas
        aka

Brainstorming
Good Luck!
Questions?
Thanks!
     Twitter: JustinCarmony

         IRC: carmony
     #uphpu #phpc #joind.in

             Website:
http://www.justincarmony.com/blog

              Email:
    justin@justincarmony.com

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Profiling php applications

  • 1. Profiling PHP Applications July 2011 - Justin Carmony #uphpu wifi: C7bluffdale -- c7dcguest
  • 2. About Me • CTO of Dating DNA • CIO of CEVO LLC • Make Websites & iPhone Apps • Worked on Websites for Dell, nVidia, DirectTV, and other big clients.
  • 3. Experience • Lots of work with “Middle-Scale” websites. • Lucky to Work on Fun Projects • Lots of Web Service Stuff • Learned most of this from other really smart people.
  • 4. We’ll Use An Example and an awesome one at that...
  • 5.
  • 6. We Have Similar Jobs Awesome, huh?
  • 7. MythBusters • They get a Myth • Break it down to its different parts • They Conduct a Bunch of Tests • They Draw Conclusions • and have a Fun Time
  • 8.
  • 9. Developers • We get Myths (Hey, this is slow) • We Break it down to the different pieces • We Conduct a Bunch of Tests. • We Draw Conclusions (and normally make changes) • and Have a Fun Time...
  • 10.
  • 11. So Lets Get Started! php /lets/get/started.php now
  • 12. First Off, Some PHP Myths and there are a lot of them!
  • 13. Common Performance Claims (Myths) • echo instead of print() • single quotes, not double quotes • echo commas, not periods • include instead of include_once • don’t use custom functions/classes • === faster than == • pass by reference • for faster than foreach instead of by value
  • 14. To Quote Derick Rethans Author of Xdebug...
  • 15. “I can only say one thing about this.... Complete & Utter Bull****”
  • 16. or in MythBusters Terminology....
  • 17. I’m Serious, There are a LOT of these Myths These Example Came from Google’s Top 10 results for “php performance tips”
  • 19. Thats Like Debating the Windshield Wipers’s Effect on this Car’s Performance
  • 20. Intuition Based Optimizations i.e. how to not effectively improve performance Phrase Coined by Dave Smith http://thesmithfam.org/blog/2011/02/
  • 21. Your Intuitions are WRONG 90% of the time
  • 23. MythBusters Tested • Keeping Your AC Off vs Windows Down • Idling Better than Stop/Start • Magical Aerodynamics • Dirt-Free Filters • Special Fuel Additives to Slow Burn All Busted! They Didn’t Make a Difference, Or Worsened Fuel Efficiency
  • 24. How About Driving Angry? After Testing, Tory & Grant Used 33% More Fule While Driving Angry
  • 25. Effective Profiling is based on Actual Results
  • 26. There are Two Types of Profiling “Modes”
  • 27. Normal Profiling Lets Try this Configuration Change and Measure the Performance Difference
  • 28. Emergency Profiling Aaaaaaaaaaaaah the Website is Down!!!! Why is it so slow??? Fix it!!!!!!
  • 29. Same Techniques Apply to Both • Some you’ll want to chose first depending on your situation. • You’ll want to be careful when profiling in Production, you can make things worse.
  • 30. Understanding the Full Picture
  • 31. Browser Static Files Database and/or Data Store Web Server PHP App Server OS Web Services & Resources Hardware Cache
  • 33. Goal: Find Slow Parts aka Bottlenecks
  • 34. Profiling & Testing Different Parts
  • 36. Browser Static Files Database and/or Data Store Web Server PHP App Server OS Web Services & Resources Hardware Cache
  • 40. Other Tools • YSlow http://developer.yahoo.com/yslow/ • Pingdom Tools http://tools.pingdom.com/ • WireShark / Fiddler2
  • 41. Browser Static Files Database and/or Data Store Web Server PHP App Server OS Web Services & Resources Hardware Cache
  • 43. Apachetop works with nginx
  • 44. Apache’s mod_status <Location /server-status> SetHandler server-status Order Deny,Allow Deny from all Allow from 25.131.42.122 </Location> # ExtendedStatus On
  • 46. siege
  • 47. siege • Command Line Tool • Run Concurrent HTTP Requests • Runs on Linux & Mac OS • Windows Users: Run a VM • Great Way to Test End Result
  • 48. siege • Create txt file with lists of URLs to hit • Run Command: siege -c 10 -r 10 -f urls.txt • c = concurrent r = # of requests f = path to URL file
  • 49. siege
  • 50. siege
  • 51. Other Tools • nginx stub status (similar to mod_status) http://wiki.nginx.org/HttpStubStatusModule • Apache Bench & http_load -- CLI • JMeter -- Java Desktop App
  • 52. Browser Static Files Database and/or Data Store Web Server PHP App Server OS Web Services & Resources Hardware Cache
  • 53. My Favorite New Tools: XHProf & XHGui
  • 54. XHProf • Developed by Facebook • Works well for both Development & Production* Profiling • pecl extension • Decent UI for viewing Results * - Use Sampling & Special CPU Flags for Production http://mirror.facebook.net/facebook/xhprof/doc.html
  • 55. XHGui • Improved GUI • Easy to Setup • Built In Sampling • Advanced Configuration • MySQL Backend • I recommend using this! https://github.com/preinheimer/xhprof
  • 56. More Fun to Show Demo Time
  • 57. Xdebug Profiler • Install Xdebug • Enable Xdebug Profiling • Outputs a Cachegrind Log • Use KCachegrind / WinCachegrind / Webgrind to view • For the Rich, MacCallGrind for $150
  • 58. Enabling Xdebug Profiling xdebug.profiler_enable=1 xdebug.profiler_output_dir=/tmp xdebug.profiler_output_name=cachegrind.out.%p Xdebug Profiling Not for Production (unless you have a 100TB HDD laying around)
  • 60. Timing Points • Most Frameworks have Built-In Profiling / Timing Points • Most ORMs have them as well • You can do them yourself • A must for Database Queries
  • 61. Timing Points $start = microtime(true); // true to get as float /* Do your Crazy Code, i.e. query */ $end = microtime(true); $time = round($end - $start, 4);
  • 62. Other Tools • Inclued http://php.net/manual/en/book.inclued.php • Memtrack http://php.net/manual/en/ book.memtrack.php
  • 63. Browser Static Files Database and/or Data Store Web Server PHP App Server OS Web Services & Resources Hardware Cache
  • 64. Databases • Typically, First Thing to Slow Down • Things to that will Kill the DB: • Missing Indexes • Nested Queries • Large Joins • Locked Queries
  • 65. Jet Profiler • MySQL Profiler • Free Version (Okay) & Paid (Awesome) • Not Cheap ($399) • But Worth It • Analytics Over Time
  • 67. MySQL Commands • explain <query> • show processlist • show variables • show status
  • 68. mtop
  • 69. Browser Static Files Database and/or Data Store Web Server PHP App Server OS Web Services & Resources Hardware Cache
  • 71. vmstat • swap > 0 means swapping Memory Issue • cpu sys + us really high CPU / Code / PHP Problem • cpu wa > 10 Disk IO Problem* * - Technically could be Network IO as well, but typically one of the last and more rare bottlenecks to hit
  • 73. top
  • 74. htop
  • 76. iotop
  • 77. Other Tools • netstat • iostat • mpstat • pidstat • (on ubuntu, install via sysstat package)
  • 78. Other Tools • grep, awk, sed • IPs Connected: netstat -plan | grep :80 | awk '{print $5}' | sed 's/::ffff://g' | awk -F: '{print $1}' | sort | uniq -c | sort -n
  • 79. Monitoring Munin http://munin-monitoring.org/
  • 80. Monitoring Wormly http://wormly.com/
  • 81. Whew, Lots of Tools and a lot more out there not in this talk Find any cool ones, let me know!
  • 82. Normal Profiling • Start with XHProf/XHGui and FireBug • Avoid Premature Optimization • Complicated Change • Little Reward • Use siege, or alternative, to simulate load.
  • 83. Emergency Profiling • Start with OS Level Testing Tools (htop, vmstat, vnstat) to check Server Performance • Determine which Resource(s) are being over utilized • Finding the bottleneck is key
  • 84. Emergency Profiling • What Changed? • Increased Traffic? • New Feature? • Something Failed/Down? • Don’t Panic & Start Wildly Guessing
  • 86. The Better You Understand The Problem The Better You Can Fix It
  • 87. Don’t Put Off Profiling Until there is an Emergency
  • 88. You Can Throw Hardward at the Problem, but Avoid IT
  • 89. Ask Others for Ideas aka Brainstorming
  • 92. Thanks! Twitter: JustinCarmony IRC: carmony #uphpu #phpc #joind.in Website: http://www.justincarmony.com/blog Email: justin@justincarmony.com

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