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Product design and development
MMP1613
Lecturer:
Prof. Safian
Design and develop a product to help staffs and students of
UTM, easily go to the floors of SPS building.
By
Ali Karandish (MM121003)
Abdul Azeez Abdu Aliyu (MM121087)
M. Reza yavari (MM121095)
Abas Razavi kia (MM111132)
1
Product design and development
MMP1613
Lecturer:
Prof. Safian
Design and develop a product to help staffs and students of
UTM, easily go to the floors of SPS building.
By
Ali Karandish (MM121003)
Abdul Azeez Abdu Aliyu (MM121087)
M. Reza yavari (MM121095)
Abas Razavi kia (MM111132)
1
Product design and development
MMP1613
Lecturer:
Prof. Safian
Design and develop a product to help staffs and students of
UTM, easily go to the floors of SPS building.
By
Ali Karandish (MM121003)
Abdul Azeez Abdu Aliyu (MM121087)
M. Reza yavari (MM121095)
Abas Razavi kia (MM111132)
2
1 ABOUT OUR COMPANY ........................................................................................... 3
1.1 Product Portfolio..................................................................................................... 3
1.2 Market Segmentation .............................................................................................. 3
1.3 Project Team Organizations .................................................................................... 4
1.4 Company, Operation management and departments mission ................................... 5
1.4.1 Company Mission............................................................................................ 5
1.4.2 Vision Statement.............................................................................................. 6
1.4.3 Operations Management Mission..................................................................... 6
1.4.4 Departments Mission ....................................................................................... 6
2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION............................................................................................ 8
3 IDENTIFYING CUSTOMER NEEDS.......................................................................... 9
3.1 Interpreting raw data in terms of customer needs................................................... 14
4 PRODUCT SPECIFICATION .................................................................................... 20
4.1 Establishing target specifications .......................................................................... 20
4.2 Set ideal and marginally acceptable target values .................................................. 25
5 CONCEPT GENERATION ........................................................................................ 28
5.1 Clarify the Problem............................................................................................... 29
5.2 Search externally................................................................................................... 31
5.3 Search Internally................................................................................................... 34
5.4 Explore systematically .......................................................................................... 34
5.5 Concept Combination ........................................................................................... 36
6 CONCEPT SELECTION ............................................................................................ 46
6.1 Concept screening................................................................................................. 50
6.2 Concept scoring .................................................................................................... 51
7 CONCEPT TESTING ................................................................................................. 52
7.1 Defining the purpose of the concept testing........................................................... 53
7.2 Survey format ....................................................................................................... 53
7.3 Communicate the concept ..................................................................................... 54
7.4 Measure customer response................................................................................... 58
7.5 Interpret the results ............................................................................................... 58
8 PROTOTYPING......................................................................................................... 61
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8.1 Prototypes classifications ...................................................................................... 61
8.2 Analytical Prototypes............................................................................................ 61
9 PATENT..................................................................................................................... 66
9.1 The new technologies (Improvement) of this patent are:........................................ 66
10 CONCLUSION........................................................................................................... 68
11 REFERENCE.............................................................................................................. 69
12 APPENDIX A............................................................................................................. 70
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1 ABOUT OUR COMPANY
EED Co. is an Elevator and Escalator Design and manufacturing company which design it’s
products according to customer needs and each building requirements. This company
founded in March 2013 and utilize it’s Marketing, Designing, Manufacturing and Trading
Expertise.
It is planned to get customer needs and the specification in the first steps. We are always
engaging in the modification, enhancement and improvement of our current product, future
products and service for them all the time. Since the company established, innovation and
commitment to being the best in the categories in which we compete has guided the
company. The team is worked hard to provide the most perfect products and service to the
potential customers that meet the most rigorous quality and industrial standards.
1.1 Product Portfolio
We are an innovative and dynamic company providing various types of elevators for our
customers. We work closely with customers and designing and manufacturing various kinds
of elevators to satisfy different needs of our customers.
1.2 Market Segmentation
Customers can be usefully thought of as belonging to separate market segments. Dividing the
market into segments allows the firm to consider the actions of competitors. By segmenting
the market the firm can assess which product opportunities best address weaknesses in
offerings of competitors. After the current market analysis, the current market of various
kinds of products can be divided into two (2) parts:
1. Office
2. Residential place
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Therefore, we are going to introduce a new product into these markets.
1.3 Project Team Organizations
The most appropriate choice of organizational structure depends on which organizational
performance factors are most critical to success. Functional organizations tend to breed
specialization and deep expertise in the functional areas. Project organizations tend to enable
rapid and effective coordination among diverse functions. Matrix organizations, being
hybrids, have the potential to exhibit some of each of these characteristics. Functional
organizations may exhibit difficulty in coordinating project decisions which span the
functional areas. Project organization ends to enable strong cross-functional integration
because of the organizational links of the team members across the functions.
Choosing an appropriate organizational structure is definitely a difficult task. However, after
careful discussions and analyses, the team believed that project organization is most suitable.
The team is engaged in developing innovative products. therefore, project organization has
many advantages.
Project organizations tend to allow for conflicts to be resolved quickly and for individuals
from different functions to coordinate their activities efficiently. Relatively little time is spent
transferring information, assigning responsibilities, and coordinating tasks. For this reason,
project organizations are usually faster than functional organizations in developing innovative
products.
For example, portable computer manufacturers almost always organize their product
development team by project. This allows the teams to develop new products within the
extremely short periods required by the fast-paced computer market. Our team takes the form
of project organization, and all the team members are committed to the project.
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Therefore, for each section identified as a project and for each part one project manager
assigned for that part.
As it is illustrated in figure 1 the team members are announced based on their responsibility.
Figure 1: Organization Diagram
1.4 Company, Operation management and departments mission
1.4.1 Company Mission
The company is dedicated to design and manufacture a new type of elevator which can allow
users to use it in SPS building. Our team is engaged in facilitating the mobility of the
customers by the greatest extent. Moreover, it will ease and facilitate the customers’ needs by
caring about their requirements.
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1.4.2 Vision Statement
Develop a suitable equipment such as escalator, elevator (Lift) and etc. for different usage of
the staffs and students who (works in/goes to) SPS building.
1.4.3 Operations Management Mission
Produce the best products for the customers consistent with company‘s mission. In
accordance with most rigorous quality and industrial standards.
1.4.4 Departments Mission
Marketing Department
To execute market survey and gather market data.
To analyze gathered market data and provide customers‘ need.
Feedback to company in time.
To do market research and search market opportunity.
Concept Department
To generate various concepts to satisfy identified needs
To come up with solutions for problems during generating concepts
To select concept or concepts
To test the selected concept(s).
Design Department
To be engaged in the research and development of new products according to the
needs of customers. Design department work hard to lead in the research and
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engineering competencies in our primary market, and to design innovative products
with outstanding quality for providing the best service to customers.
To obtain the most market share and economic profit with competitive product design
that is consistent with our company mission and marketing objectives by attaching
close attention to new coming customer needs and service opportunities.
To determine the design process and provide constructive suggestions about the
production process and equipments to manufacturing department which will be
compatible with low-price and high quality products.
Economy Analysis Department
To identify parts which being used in the product.
To validate price of each part involves in final design.
To evaluate the final product price by assuming rough profit for the company and
distributers.
To confirm price. (Being acceptable in the market.)
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Chapter 2
2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION
The mission statement may include some or all the following information:
a) Brief (one-sentence) description of the product: This description identifies the basic
function of the product but avoids implying a specific product concept.
b) Benefit proposition: This element of the mission statement articulates the critical few
reasons a customer would buy the product. To some extent this is a hypothesis, which
will be validated during the concept development process.
c) Key business goals: In addition to the project goals which support the corporate
strategy, these goals generally include goals for time, cost and quality (e.g. timing of
the product introduction, desired financial performance, and market share targets).
d) Target market(s) for the product: There may be several target markets for the
product. This part of the mission statement identifies the primary market as well as
any secondary markets that should be considered in the development effort.
e) Assumptions and constraints that guide the development effort: Assumptions must be
made carefully; although they restrict the range of possible product concepts, they
help to maintain a manageable project scope.
f) Stakeholders: One way to ensure that many of the subtle development issues are
addressed is to explicitly list all of the product‘s stakeholders, that is, all of the groups
of people who are affected by the product‘s success or failure. The stakeholder list
begins with the end user (the ultimate external customer) and the external customer
who makes the buying decision about the product. Stakeholders also include the
customers of the product who reside within the firm, such as the sales force, the
service organization, and the production departments. The list of stakeholders serves
as a reminder for the team to consider the needs of everyone who will be influenced by the
product.
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Chapter 3
3 IDENTIFYING CUSTOMER NEEDS
Identifying customer needs is an essential part of the product development process and is
most closely related to concept generation, concept selection, competitive benchmarking, and
establishment of product specification. The customer needs activity is shown below in
relation to these other front-end product development activities, which collectively can be
thought of as the concept development phase. From this customer need, we decided to
develop a new type of elevator with additional function or features. That means, besides the
functions of the current elevator. Therefore, before we develop the specification of this
additional function, we have to indentify first what the customer needs are from this new type
of elevator. Customer needs are important for one project team to achieve the final project
success and should be the first priority in the product concept development process. In order
to know well and clearly what the customers really want, our team decided to do more
contact with our customers to get enough information.
Figure 2: The customer-needs activity in relation to other concept development
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Identifying customer needs is itself a process, which involves five steps shown as follows:
1. Gather raw data from customers.
2. Interpret the raw data in terms of customer needs.
3. Organize the needs into a hierarchy of primary, secondary, and (if necessary) tertiary
needs.
4. Establish the relative importance of the needs.
5. Reflect on the results and the process.
In order to gather raw data from customers, after careful discussion and research within our
team, we decided to adopt three methods which involve marketing survey, questionnaire
investigation and observing the product in use. We finally made a set of questionnaires
regarding the common and new functions of elevator, escalator.
Figure 3: Group of interviewers by age (%)
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Identifying customer needs is itself a process, which involves five steps shown as follows:
1. Gather raw data from customers.
2. Interpret the raw data in terms of customer needs.
3. Organize the needs into a hierarchy of primary, secondary, and (if necessary) tertiary
needs.
4. Establish the relative importance of the needs.
5. Reflect on the results and the process.
In order to gather raw data from customers, after careful discussion and research within our
team, we decided to adopt three methods which involve marketing survey, questionnaire
investigation and observing the product in use. We finally made a set of questionnaires
regarding the common and new functions of elevator, escalator.
Figure 3: Group of interviewers by age (%)
Age
10
Identifying customer needs is itself a process, which involves five steps shown as follows:
1. Gather raw data from customers.
2. Interpret the raw data in terms of customer needs.
3. Organize the needs into a hierarchy of primary, secondary, and (if necessary) tertiary
needs.
4. Establish the relative importance of the needs.
5. Reflect on the results and the process.
In order to gather raw data from customers, after careful discussion and research within our
team, we decided to adopt three methods which involve marketing survey, questionnaire
investigation and observing the product in use. We finally made a set of questionnaires
regarding the common and new functions of elevator, escalator.
Figure 3: Group of interviewers by age (%)
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Figure 4: Group of interviewers by Gender (%)
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Figure 4: Group of interviewers by Gender (%)
Gender
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Figure 4: Group of interviewers by Gender (%)
1212
Respondents
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131313
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3.1 Interpreting raw data in terms of customer needs
Customer needs are expressed as written statements and are the result of interpreting the need
underlying the raw data gathered from the customers. We need to interpret the needs into
more specific and technical statements to get more clear understanding about what customers
want from elevator (lift).
There are five guidelines for writing need statements shown as follows:
a) Express the need in terms of what the product has to do, not in terms of how it might do it.
Customers often express their preferences by describing a solution concept or an
implementation approach; however, the need statement should be expressed in terms
independent of a particular technological solution.
b) Express the need as specifically as the raw data. Needs can be expressed at many different
levels of detail. To avoid loss of information, express the need at the same level of detail as
the raw data.
c) Use positive, not negative, phrasing. Subsequent translation of a need into a product
specification is easier if the need is expressed as a positive statement.
d) Express the need as an attribute of the product. Wording needs as statements about the
product ensures consistency and facilitates subsequent translation into product specifications.
e) Avoid the words must and should. The words must and should imply a level of importance
for the need.
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Table 1: Interpretation of raw data to customer needs
question Customer statement Interpreted need
Typical Uses
I need to move faster when
going to next level.
I find it very difficult to lift
up or down heavy
equipment brought to SPS.
I use to lose a lot of energy
while going up.
Moving on the lift is faster
than on stairs.
The lift carries heavy load.
Lift need no use of energy.
Likes - current lift
I like escalator, it feels
better.
I can install elevator in my
building.
It is easy to use
I like the durability of the
lift.
It is comfortable to move on
lift.
The lift can be
accommodated in any small
space.
The lift is easy to operate
The lift has long life span
Like - current lift
I can not fall down on lift
while moving in the lift.
The lift can move safely and
ease
Dislikes – current lift
I don’t like lift when electric
power goes off.
It is difficult to put in SPS,
need re-design of the
building.
The lift can work without
electricity.
Lift can easily install inside
structure or outside a
building in any small space.
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Disable can not operate it. The lift is automatic and
moves freely.
Suggested improvement
Would be good if it can
operate independent of
electricity.
Lift can operate without
electricity.
Suggested improvement
It should be affordable.
It should have emergency
notification as it’s faulty.
It would be better if only
staff and students of UTM
can use the lift.
It would be good if the lift
user can see everyone
outside
The lift is sold at reasonable
price.
The user can pass out simply
without any external help in
case of emergency.
The lift is secured
The lift is transparent
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Table 2: Organization of Needs Into Hierarchy
1-The lift moves easily
* The lift can move faster
***The lift can reached destination at
shortest time
*** The lift can move without user’s
effort
** The lift can move regardless of the
load
2- The lift is easy to operate
***The lift can be used by everyone
**The user can easily push ON the lift
* the user can move in/out of the lift
easily
3-The lift is easy to install
**The lift accommodate small space
*The lift is small in size
*!The lift is lighter in weight
**The lift can work inside or outside the
building
*The lift do not require machine room
4-The lift carry heavy load
**The lift can carry many people
*The lift can carry materials
or equipment
*The lift is strong
5-The lift moves freely
***the lift is automatic
*The user can move without lost of
energy
*The lift move with no user’s effort
6-The lift works with little power
**The lift works with domestic power
supply
*the lift works with small generator
*!The lift store charges
!The lift use battery
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7-The lift last long time
*The lift works for several years
*!The lift servicing take long time
**!The lift dose not affected by weather
change
*The lift is durable
8-The lift is safe
*The user can not fall down on lift
**The lift will not break down
*The lift will not push in/out the user
*!The user will simply walk out when
electric power off
9-The lift is easy to use
***The lift can be use by disable people
**the lift can be used by aged people
*The lift can be use by children
*The lift can go to any height
10-The lift is affordable
**The lift has reasonable price
*Any user can buy the lift
11-The lift is comfortable
*The lift is neither hot or cold
*The users in the lift are independent on
each other
*The user can sit down on the lift
*The user can rest his body on the lift
12-The lift works in any environment
**The lift material resist corrosion
**The lift material resist temperature
change
**The lift does not damage by rain
13-The lift has different colors
*The lift is painted
**The lift can be differentiated from
building
***The lift can easily seen
14-The lift is attractive
*The lift has good looking
*The lift is shining
*The lift is decorated
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15-The lift is secured
*The lift users can be restricted
*The lift can be used at certain time
*The lift cannot be miss-used
**The lift can be lock
*The lift can only be used by some
specific people
16-The lift user can see everyone
outside
*The lift is uncovered
**The lift is transparent
Note that:
1. Feature is undesirable; they would not consider a product with this feature.
2. Feature is not important, but they would not mind having it.
3. Feature would be nice to have, but is not necessary.
4. Feature is highly desirable, but they would consider a product without it.
5. Feature is critical; they would not consider a product without this feature.
From this process, we have already interviewed the important customers in our primary and
secondary market. Though face-to-face interaction with customers, we further identify the
problems and disadvantages of current stairs, and further clearly understand the needs of
customers, which give our team many inspirations and reference to develop our innovative
product (Lift).
This process of identifying customer needs is very important before a team starting a new
product design and development. The successful implementation of this process will give
birth to too many advantages. It can ensure that the new product is focused on the customer
needs and finally can provide best quality and service to customers. Besides, it is an integral
part of the concept development phase of the product development process. The resulting
customer needs are useful to guide the team in establishing product specifications, generating
product concepts, and selecting a product concept for further development.
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Chapter 4
4 PRODUCT SPECIFICATION
4.1 Establishing target specifications
The target specifications are established after the customer needs have been identified but
before product concepts have been generated and the most promising one(s) selected. The
target specifications are the goals of the development team, describing a product that the team
believes would succeed in the marketplace. Later these specifications will be refined based on
the limitations of the product concept actually selected.
The process of establishing the target specifications contains four steps:
i. Prepare the list of metrics.
ii. Collect competitive benchmarking information.
iii. Set ideal and marginally acceptable target values.
iv. Reflect on the results and the process
After the process of identifying customer needs, the information finally will be used to
develop our product specifications. These product specifications are done to represent as
unambiguous agreement on what we will attempt to achieve in order to satisfy the customer
needs. This will represent the precise description of each feature of the product what the lift
is designed to achieve. The most useful metrics are those that reflect as directly as possible
the degree to which the product satisfies the customer needs. The relationship between needs
and metrics is central to the entire concept of specifications. The working assumption is that a
translation from customer needs to a set of precise, measureable specifications is possible and
that meeting specifications will therefore lead to satisfaction of the associated customer
needs. It is achieved the list of metrics which is shown in Table 4-1. A good way to generate
the list of metrics is to contemplate each need in turn and to consider what precise,
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measureable characteristic of the product will reflect the degree to which the product satisfies
that need. In the ideal case, there is one and only one metric for each need. In practice, this is
frequently not possible.
A few guidelines should be considered when constructing the list of metrics:
i. Metrics should be complete. Ideally each customer need would correspond to a single
metric, and the value of that metric would correlate perfectly with satisfaction of that need. In
practice, several metrics may be necessary to completely reflect a single customer need.
ii. Metrics should be dependable, not independent, variables. As to customer needs,
specifications also indicate what the product must do, but not how the specifications will be
achieved. Designers use many types of variables in product development; some are
dependent, and some are independent. Metrics specify the overall performance of a product
and should therefore be the dependent variables in the design problem. By using dependent
variables for the specifications, designers are left with the freedom to achieve the
specifications using the best approach possible.
iii. Metrics should be practical. Ideally, metrics will be directly observable or analyzable
properties of the product that can be evaluated by the team.
iv. Some needs cannot easily be translated into quantifiable metrics. In these cases, team
simply repeats the need statement as a specification and notes that the metric is subjective
and would be evaluated by a panel of customers.
v. The metrics should include the popular criteria for comparison in the marketplace.
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Table 3: List of Metrics
Metric
No.
Need Nos. Metric Imp. Units
1 1 Speed 4 m/s
2 2,5,15 Controller 5 Subj.
3 2,9 Control Cabinet Car 5 Subj.
4 3 Time to assemble 2 s
5 4 Load 5 kg
6 4 Persons 4 list
7 5 Machine 4 Subj.
8 5 Drive 5 Subj.
9 6 Current Intensity 4 A
10 6 Current Voltage 4 V
11 7 Lift Cycle Failure 5 cycle
12 8 Landing Accuracy 3 mm
13 5,9 Maximum Number of Stops 2 Subj.
14 9 Maximum travel Height 4 m
15 10 Unit Manufacturing Cost 5 MYR
16 11,13,14,16 Car Decoration 1 Subj.
17 12 Car Material 5 List
18 14 Entrance size 2 List
19 12 Resistance of Corrosion 4 mg/cm2
.year
20 12 Resistance of High Temperature 4 ◦
c
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After making the list of metrics, the next step is to establish the needs-metrics matrix. The
needs-metrics matrix shows a simpler relationship between needs and metrics. The
relationship between needs and metrics is central to the entire product concept of
specifications. Our needs-metrics matrix is shown in Table 3.
Table 4: Need-Metric Matrix
After completing the list of metrics and the needs-metrics matrix, in the next step we can
construct the competitive benchmarking chart based on metrics. Unless the team expects to
enjoy a total requirement, the relationship of the new product to competitive products is
paramount in determining commercial success. While the team will have entered the product
development process with some idea of how it wishes to complete in the marketplace, the
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target specifications are the language the team uses to discuss and agree on the detailed
positioning of its product relative to existing products, both its own and competitors‘.
Information on competing products must be gathered to support these positioning decisions.
The benchmarking chart is conceptually very simple. For each competitive product, the values
of the metrics are simply entered down a column. Gathering these data can be very time
consuming, involving (at the least) purchasing, testing, disassembling, and estimating the
production costs of the most important competitive products. However, this investment of
time is essential, as no product development team can expect to succeed without having this
type of information.
Our competitive benchmarking chart based on metrics is shown in Table 5.
Table 5: Competitive Bench Marking Chart
Metric Imp. Units
SYNERGY
LNE
Malaysia
Eclipse
Residential
Elevator
Load 5 Kg 450 400 454
Persons 4 List 6 _ _
Speed 4 m/s 1.0 0.4 0.2
controller 5 Subj. CMC4 _ _
Control Cabinet Car 5 Subj.
Next to landing door at
last stop
Next to landing
door at last stop
Next to landing
door at last stop
Time to install 2 weeks 4 6 2
Machine 4 Subj.
Synchronous Gearless
Machine
_ _
Drive 5 Subj.
Frequency Inverter
VWF
Electric Traction
Machine
Geared Roller
Chain variable
Frequency
Current Intensity 4 A 15 8.3 20
25
Current Voltage 4 V 400 415 230
Service Life time 5 years _ _ 40
Landing accuracy 3 mm +/_3 _ _
Maximum number of Stops 2 List 21 24 4
Maximum Travel Height 4 m 30 24 18.29
Unit Manufacturing Cost 5 RM _ 70,000 300, 000
Car Decoration 1 Subj. Millenium Classic Variety of Finishes
Car Material 5 List Stainless Steel Stainless Steel Stainless Steel
Resistance to Corrosion 4 Mg/m2.year
Resistance to Temperature 4 oC _ _ - 10 to 40
Entrance Type 2 List
Fully Automated 1 or
2
Fully Automated 1
or 2
Fully Automated 1
or 2
4.2 Set ideal and marginally acceptable target values
After finishing the above steps, our team continued to synthesize the available information in
order to actually set the target values for the metrics. Two types of target value are useful: an
ideal value and a marginally acceptable value. The ideal value is the best result the team
could hope for.
The marginally acceptable value is the value of the metric that would just barely make the
product commercially viable. Both of these targets are useful in guiding the subsequent stages
of concept generation and concept selection, and for refining the specifications after the
product concept have been selected.
26
There are five ways to express the values of the metrics:
i. At least X: These specifications establish targets for the lower bound on a metric, but
higher is still better.
ii. At most X: These specifications establish targets for the upper bound on a metric, with
smaller values being better.
iii. Between X and Y: These specifications establish both upper and lower bounds for the
values of a metric.
iv. Exactly X: These specifications establish a target of a particular value of a metric, with
any deviation degrading performance.
v. A set of discrete values: Some metrics will have values corresponding to several discrete
choices.
Our target specifications are shown in Table 4 as follows:
Metric
Imp. Units
Valve
Load 5 Kg > 400
Persons 4 List >6
Speed 4 m/s >1
controller 5 Subj.
Control Cabinet Car 5 Subj.
Next to landing door at last
stop
Time to install 2 weeks < 2
Machine 4 Subj.
Drive 5 Subj.
Current Intensity 4 A <8
Current Voltage 4 V <200
27
Service Life time 5 Years > 40
Landing accuracy 3 mm < +/_3
Maximum number of Stops 2 List 5
Maximum Travel Height 4 m
Unit Manufacturing Cost 5 RM < 70,000
Car Decoration 1 Subj.
Car Material 5 List
Stainless Steel, Glass
composite
Resistance to Corrosion 4 Mg/m2.year
Resistance to Temperature 4 oC > _ 10
Entrance Type 2 List Fully Automated 2 entrance
The final specifications are developed by assessing the actual technological constraints and
the expected production costs by using analytical and physical models. Form the product
specification, we have known that this new product (lift) can avoid the disadvantages of
current products (stairs), and provide new functions and convenience to our customers. We
have finished the product specification, now we can proceed with the next step, which is the
concept generation.
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Chapter 5
5 CONCEPT GENERATION
A product concept is an approximate description of the technology, working principles and
form of the product. It is a concise description of how the product will satisfy the customer
needs. A concept is usually expressed as a sketch or as a rough three-dimensional model and
is often accompanied by a brief textual description. The degree to which a product satisfies
customers and can be successfully commercialized depends to a large measure on the quality
of the underlying concept.
A good concept is sometimes poorly implemented in subsequent development phases, but a
poor concept can rarely be manipulated to achieve commercial success. Fortunately, concept
generation is relatively inexpensive and can be done relatively quickly in comparison to the
rest of the development process.
As the concept generation is not expensive there is a better chance to generate as much as
concepts as possible, so that new ideas being derived from them. The concept generation
process begins with a set of customer needs and target specifications and results in a set of
product concepts from which the team will make a final selection.
Good concept generation leaves the team with confidence that the full space of alternatives
has been explored, thorough exploration of alternatives early in the development process
greatly reduces the likelihood that the team will stumble upon a superior concept late in the
development process or that a competitor will introduce a product with dramatically better
performance than the product under development.
A structured approach to concept generation reduces the incidence of these problems by
encouraging the gathering of information from many disparate information sources, by
guiding the team in the thorough exploration of alternatives, and by providing a mechanism
for integrating partial solutions.
29
A five-step concept generation method is shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5: The five-step concept generation method
5.1 Clarify the Problem
Clarifying the problem consists of developing a general understanding and then breaking the
problem down into sub-problems if necessary. The mission statement for the project, the
customer needs list, and the preliminary product specification are the ideal inputs to the
concept generation process, although often these pieces of information are still being refined
30
as the concept generation phase begins. Ideally the team has been involved both in the
identification of the customer needs and in the setting of the target product specifications.
Many design challenges are too complex to solve as a single problem and can be usefully
divided into several simpler sub-problems. Dividing a problem into simpler sub-problems is
called problem decomposition. The first step in decomposing a problem functionally is to
represent it as a single black box operating on material, energy, single flows, and something
else. The black box represents the overall function of the product. The next step in functional
decomposition is to divide the single black box into sub-functions to create a more specific
description of what the elements of the product might do in order to implement the overall
function of the product. Each sub-function can generally be further divided into even simpler
sub-functions.
Figure 6: Black Box
31
Figure 7: Functional Decomposition Refinement showing sub functions
5.2 Search externally
External search is aimed at finding existing solutions to both the overall problem and the sub-
problems identified during the problem clarification step. While external search is listed as
the second step in the concept generation method, this sequential labeling is deceptive;
external search occurs continually throughout the development process. Implementing an
existing solution is usually quicker and cheaper than developing a new solution.
Liberal use of existing solution allows the team to focus its creative energy on the critical
sub-problems for which there are no satisfactory prior solutions. Furthermore, a conventional
solution to one sub-problem can frequently be combined with a novel solution to another sub-
problem to yield a superior design. For this reason external search includes detailed
evaluation not only of directly competitive products but also of technologies used in products
with related sub-functions.
32
The external search for solutions is essentially an information-gathering process. Available
time and resources can be optimized by using an external-and-focus strategy:
First expand the scope of the search by broadly gathering information that might be related
to the problem and then focus the scope of the search by exploring the promising directions in
more detail. Too much of either approach will make the external search inefficient.
There are at least five good ways to gather information from external sources:
lead user interview
expert consultation
patent searches
literature searches
and competitive benchmarking.
Figure 8 : search externally 1
33
Figure 9: search externally 2
Figure 10: search externally 3
34
5.3 Search Internally
Internal search is the use of group members personal and team knowledge and creativity to
generate solution concepts. It is referred to as brain storming as well; this type of search is
internal in this way all the ideas are placed on the table from the knowledge already in the
possession of the team. This activity is the most open ended activity of any other tasks in
product development.
Here are four guidelines which are useful for improving internal search:
1- Suspend judgment
2- Generate a lot of Ideas
3- Welcome ideas that may seem infeasible
4- Use graphical and physical media
5.4 Explore systematically
Systematic exploration is aimed at navigating the space of possibilities by organizing and
synthesizing the solution fragments. There are two specific tools for managing and the
complexity and organizing the thinking of the team.
Concept classification tree
Concept combination table
The classification tree helps divide the possible solutions into independent categories. The
combination table guided our team in selectively considering combination of fragments.
A classification tree for the elevator/escalator energy source concept fragments is shown in
following figure in next page.
35
Figure 11. Energy source concept fragments.
Figure 12: A new problem decomposition transfere the electrical energy to
hydraulic/mechanical energy
36
5.5 Concept Combination
The concept combination table provides a way to consider combinations of solution
fragments systematically. As it is illustrated in the figure 13 to 18 various concepts has been
provided and designed to help the team to choose which concept is more efficient to utilize in
the SPS building as a lift (elevator) or escalator. The concepts have gained with the aid of
study the external and internal search.
Figure 13: Concept combination table for lift/escalator to design for SPS building.
As it is illustrated in the figure 13 a mechanical round shape elevator can be design which is
using screws and nuts as a moving system. This type of elevator is not common at all but it
can be a new idea for future elevators. However, the cost and investment of manufacturing of
these types of elevator are an important issue.
37
Figure 14: A schematic 3D design and 2D view of the generated concept.
In this solution the elevator cabin is moving by rotation of screw and the rotation of screw
will provided by an electromotor.
38
Figure 15: 2nd
design of concept combination table for lift/escalator to design for SPS
building.
Figure 15 shows a hydraulic round shape elevator which is able to move by piston and
cylinder moving system. This type of elevator is very common in many building but the
limitation of using this system is that, the hydraulic system cannot be used in high buildings.
It is just available for less than 4 floor buildings. Moreover, hydraulic elevators are safer and
cheaper in compare with the other types of elevators.
39
Figure 16: A schematic 3D design and 2D view of the generated concept 2.
In this concept the elevator is move to the different floor by using hydraulic system. The car
of the elevator moves up and down by the rod (Piston) inside the cylinder.
40
Figure 17: 3rd
design of concept combination table for lift/escalator to design for SPS
building.
An elevator with mechanical system and rectangular shape which is moving by cable and
spool has been gained with the 3rd
combination table. This is the most normal type of elevator
which is common to many buildings; this type of elevator can be use in high buildings.
41
Figure 18: A schematic 3D design and 2D view of the generated concept 3.
A cable and spool elevator as it is obvious from figure 18, has been generated by concept
combination table illustrated in figure 17 having two rail ways in two sides of the elevator
and using cable to move up and down, these elevators have a sinker to process better.
42
Figure 19: 4th
design of concept combination table for lift/escalator to design for SPS
building.
Figure 19 shows a combination of mechanical energy rectangular shape elevator which is
utilizing rack and pinion system as a movement system. It is also a new idea of elevator but
according to our externally searches some types of these elevators are using in small 2 floor
houses to move old people from one floor to other floors.
43
Figure 20: A schematic 3D design and 2D view of the generated concept 4.
This concept is utilizing two racks and two strong pinion which is moving by the aid of an
electromotor, the pinions move the elevator to the required floors. This is a developed concept
generation to use in the 3 and 4 floor buildings.
44
Figure 21: 5th
design of concept combination table for lift/escalator to design for SPS
building.
According to the customer needs survey, the escalator was one of the favorite concept of
moving the customers (Staff/students) who goes to SPS building. Therefore, the escalator
concept combination table has been prepared to generate an escalator as a concept. However
after checking the SPS stairs and the second and third floor of this building, our team realized
that installing of escalator is so hard and almost impossible according to the following
reasons.
The thickness of second and third floor is not enough
Escalators need one stairs to go up and one stairs to go down
Not enough space in the SPS main hall.
It is hard to install escalator from first floor to second floor, but it is impossible to
install it from second floor to the third floor according to the SPS building design.
However, we decided to generate this idea as a concept.
45
Figure 22: A schematic 3D design and 2D view of the generated concept 5.
Figure 22 illustrates concept 5. This concept is an escalator which is using to move people
mostly in crowded places such as metro and terminals. This concept is designed to check if it
is able to be select as the best concept in the next step or not. Next step will be concept
selection.
46
Chapter 6
6 CONCEPT SELECTION
Concept selection is the process of evaluating concepts with respect to customer needs and
other criteria, comparing the relative strengths and weakness of the concepts, and selecting
one or more concepts for further investigation, testing, or development.
Whether or not the concept selection process is explicit, all teams use some methods to
choose among concepts. The methods are shown as follows:
i. External decisions: Concepts are turned over to the customer, client, or some other external
entity for selection.
ii. Product champion: An influential member of the product development team chooses a
concept based on personal preference.
iii. Intuition: The concept is chosen by its feel. Explicit criteria or trade-offs are not used. The
concept just seems better.
iv. Multi voting: Each member of the team votes for several concepts. The concept with the
most votes is selected.
47
v. Pros and cons: the team lists the strengths and weaknesses of each concept and makes a
choice based upon group opinion.
vi. Prototype and test: the organization builds and tests prototypes of each concept, making a
selection based upon test data.
vii. Decision matrices: The team rates each concept against pre-specified selection criteria,
which may be weighted.
A structured concept selection method offers the following potential benefits:
i. A customer-focused product
ii. A competitive design
iii. Better product-process coordination
iv. Reduced time to product introduction
v. Effective group decision making
vi. Documentation of the decision process
48
Five sketches have been genrated to compare and select one concept to develop for SPS
building.
49
50
6.1 Concept screening
Concept screening is based on a method developed by the late Stuart Pugh in the 1980s and is
often called Pugh concept selection (Pugh, 1900). The purposes of this stage are to narrow
the number of concepts quickly and to improve the concepts.
Table 6: Selection Matrix
51
6.2 Concept scoring
After finishing with the concept screening, the next step is proceeding with concept scoring.
Concept scoring is used when increased resolution will better differentiate of the selection
criteria and focuses on more refines comparisons with respect to each criterion. Concept
scoring uses weighted selection criteria and finer rating scale. Concept scoring can be skipped
if concept screening produces a dominant concept.
Table 7:Concept-Scoring matrix
Concept
Reference B C D
Selection criteria Weight Rating
Weight
ed
Score
Ratin
g
Weight
ed
Score
Ratin
g
Weigh
ted
Score
Rating
Weight
ed
Score
Ease of use 15% 3 0.45 4 0.6 3 0.45 3 0.45
Ease of
manufacture
25% 3 0.75 5 1.25 3 0.75 2 0.5
Safety 10% 3 0.30 3 0.3 3 0.3 4 0.4
Capacity 15% 3 0.45 2 0.3 4 0.6 3 0.45
Ergonomic 10% 3 0.30 4 0.4 3 0.3 4 0.4
Higher speed 10% 3 0.30 3 0.3 4 0.4 3 0.3
Ease of
assembling
15% 3 0.45 4 0.6 3 0.45 3 0.45
Total
Score
rank
3
3
3.75
1
3.25
2
2.95
4
Continue
?
No Develop No No
52
7 CONCEPT TESTING
The focus of this chapter is on testing done during the concept development phase. In this
part, the development team solicits a response to a description o the product concept from
potential customers in SPS building. This type of testing is used by choosing one concept
which is obtained from previous chapter and the preferable position of the elevator for the
SPS building to gather information from potential customers on how to improve a concept,
and to estimate the sales potential of our elevator.
The preferable positions suggested to the customer was two elevators outside of the SPS
building and one elevator inside the main hall of SPS building. The Customers (Staffs and
Students) have been answered our question which is accessible in the interview. The
interview file is attached to the CD of this report. Also the answer sheets had been proposed
in the appendix A.
There is seven-step method for testing product concept:
1- Define the purpose of the concept test.
2- Choose a survey population.
3- Choose a survey format.
4-Communicate the concept.
5- Measure customer response.
6- Interpret the results.
7- Reflect on the results and the process
53
7.1 Defining the purpose of the concept testing
Concept testing is an essentially an experimental activity, and as with any experiment
knowing the purpose of the experiment is essential to designing an effective experimental
method.
The purpose of this testing is finding out the customers need, want and comfort according to
following aims:
The team wanted to realize
Where is the preferable position of installing the elevator?
How the concept can be improve to meet the customer needs?
Estimate that how many people are going to use our elevator?
Should development be continued?
7.2 Survey format
The following formats are commonly use in concept testing:
Face-to-face interaction
Telephone
Postal mail
Electronic mail
Internet
The selected format by our team is Face-to-face interaction, in this method an interview
interacts directly with the respondent. Face to face interaction can take the form of intercepts.
We have interviewed people who was working in SPS building or the students who was there
for doing their tasks and make a video conversation which showed in the class during
presentation.
54
7.3 Communicate the concept
The choice of survey format is linked to the way in which the concept will be communicated.
Concept can be communicated in any of the following ways, listed below:
Verbal description
Sketch
Photos and rendering
Storyboard
Video
Simulation
Interactive multimedia
Physical appearance model
Working prototype
In this part we have used verbal description, Sketches, photos and rendering to ask our
customers about the following question.
1- Do you work in the SPS/Do you study in UTM?
----------------------------------------------------
<if the respond is no, thank the respondent and end the survey>
2- Do you usually go to the second or third floor?
----------------------------------------------------
<if the respond is no, thank the respondent and end the survey>
3- If in the SPS building is an elevator would you prefer to use the
elevator or the stairs?
----------------------------------------------------
55
4- How safe do you think an elevator can be (In compare with Stairs)?
----------------------------------------------------
5- How easy to use do you think an elevator can be (In compare with stairs)?
----------------------------------------------------
7- Would you please tell me your experience about using stairs in
compare with using an elevator?
-----------------------------------------------------
There is a brochure (map/Photo) about our products.
The product is an elevator which is designed for SPS building. The
elevator is faster, safer and cheaper in compare with the other elevator.
It is also designed to use in crowded place with the huge number of people
transferring.
If the elevator install in the SPS building main hall, how often would u use it?
I would:
Definitely use O Probably use O Might or might not use O Probably not use O
definitely not use O
-----------------------------------------------------------
If the elevator install outside of the SPS building (See the map/photo), how often would u
use it?
I would:
Definitely use O Probably use O Might or might not use O Probably not use O
definitely not use O
-----------------------------------------------------------
56
Photos which is utilized in the interviews:
Figure 23: The plan and photo which is used to ask the above questions from customers
57
Figure 24: The photo which is illustrating the position of elevator in the SPS building.
As you it is shown in the figure 23, the schematic of SPS building had been designed by
CATIA, to provide a better understanding of customers. Moreover the position of elevator is
illustrated in figure 24.
As it is obvious in the figure, the SPS hall is the most crowded place in compare with other
saloons in the whole building, in addition, it is better to design the elevators near the stairs to
use them in emergency (failure) of elevator. These are some reasons which our team
discussed with customers and fulfilled their needs.
58
7.4 Measure customer response
When a concept test is performed early in the concept development phase, customer response
is usually measured by asking the respondent to choose from two or more alternative
concepts.
The most commonly used purchase-intent ( using the product ) scale hase five response
categories:
Definitely use
Probably use
Might or might not use
Probably not use
definitely not use
7.5 Interpret the results
According to the potential customer’s opinion:
Our team have decided to install the elevator(lift) in the main hall (Central hall) and
according to prof. saffian’s guide, we have designed the elevator in a position which there is
no need to destroy any construction. More information of the elevator position is available in
the following video which is prepared by CATIA Which is added in CD of this report.
59
Table 8: The percentage of responses of users (Staff and students) to use the elevator in the
main hall of SPS building.
Table 9: The percentage of responses of users (Staff and students) to use the elevator in the
outside of SPS building.
59
Table 8: The percentage of responses of users (Staff and students) to use the elevator in the
main hall of SPS building.
Table 9: The percentage of responses of users (Staff and students) to use the elevator in the
outside of SPS building.
59
Table 8: The percentage of responses of users (Staff and students) to use the elevator in the
main hall of SPS building.
Table 9: The percentage of responses of users (Staff and students) to use the elevator in the
outside of SPS building.
60
It is required to produce an elevator which is able to move quickly and deliver the passengers
safely. As it was obvious from the video conversations the customers were worried about the
elevators safety issues.
It will be available by adding a system to save the power electricity and use this power when
the electricity is gone. Using efficient breaks make the elevator safe in the time when the
cable of elevator is torn or the hydraulic system is damage.
61
8 PROTOTYPING
Prototype Definition:
Prototype is defined as “an approximation of the product along one or more dimensions of
interest.”
8.1 Prototypes classifications
Prototypes can be usefully classified along two dimensions.
1- Physical Prototypes:
It includes Models that look and feel like the product. Proof-of-concept prototypes used to
test an idea quickly, and experimental hardware used to validate the functionality of a
product.
2- Analytical Prototypes:
Analytical prototypes represent the product in a non-tangible, usually mathematical or visual
manner. Interesting aspects of the product are analyzed rather than built.
8.2 Analytical Prototypes
Analytical prototypes are generally more flexible than physical prototypes. Because it is a
mathematical approximation of a product. In most cases, changing a parameter in an
analytical prototype is easier than changing an attribute of a physical prototype.
62
Analytical Prototypes:
The advantages of 3D CAD Modeling include the ability to easy visualize the three
dimensional form of design; the ability to create photo-realistic image for assessment
of product appearance.
The ability to automatically compute physical properties such as mass and volume;
and the efficiency arising from the creation of one and only one canonical description
of the design, from which other, more focused descriptions, such as cross-sectional
view and fabrication drawings, can be created.
Through the use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools, 3D CAD models have
begun to serve as analytical prototypes. In some settings this can eliminate one or
more physical prototypes.
63
Figure 25: Von mises stress analysis with CAE module of CATIA software to finding out
whether the size and material of elevator is efficient to move 600 Kg loads or not.
(Analysis without guide rails).
As it is illustrated in the figure 25 CAE softwares allows us to have an analytical prototype to
find out the optimum sizes of the cylinder and piston of a hydraulic elevator, the optimization
if design is gained by changing the sizes of rod or by changing the materials. However, this
aim can be gained by the software itself.
64
Figure 25: Von mises stress analysis with CAE module of CATIA software to finding out
whether the size and material of elevator is efficient to move 600 Kg loads or not.
(Analysis with guide rails this time).
The steps of analytical prototype in the software:
Design the 3D CAD model.
Analysis the capacity of elevator in terms of sizes of people and sizes of elevator to
provide the users comforts.
Give the required weight which is going to be loaded on the elevator.
65
Selecting the fixed position for example guide rails and cylinder.
Selecting the loading positions, (Where the loads are going to apply).
Simulate and get the results. In this part the software will automatically check the
design In terms of size, materials and forces loads then give us the stresses analysis.
66
9 PATENT
Patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by government to an inventor for a period of time,
in exchange for the public disclosure of the invention. The procedure to grants patents vary
widely between countries according to national laws and international agreements. Patent
application must include one or more claims that define the invention.
Patent is classified into utility, design and plant patents. Utility and design patents are
relevant for most engineered goods. Because design patents have very limited value, we
considered Utility patents for our products.
9.1 The new technologies (Improvement) of this patent are:
These new technologies that our team decided to develop is in accordance of the customers
need (staffs and UTM students)
A system to save the power electricity and use this power when the electricity is
gone. (Emergency power supply)
By using sensors the elevator is capable to save passengers from danger.
Using efficient (Smart) breaks, which help the speed of elevator keep constant. (when
the hydraulic system is damage).
Another issue which can mention as a patent is the new design of the SPS elevator, as
a patent. Because of the different position of the elevator’s door. In the first floor the
elevator’s door will be open from the front side. However, in the second and third
floor the doors will be open from the side of the elevator. Which make this elevator
unique in compare with the other types of elevator.
67
Detail description of patent:
• Suspension arrangement for a
hydraulic elevator, comprising an
elevator car (1)
• A car frame (4,15,19) supporting
the elevator car.
• Substantially vertical guide rails (2)
along which the car frame travels,
moved by means of at least one
elevator rope (3).
• The first end (10) of each elevator
rope (3) is fixed to a rope
anchorage (11).
• In the car frame of the elevator, and
a hydraulic cylinder (5) and a
piston (7) with at least one
diverting pulley (8,28) on its top
end for the elevator rope (3).
• The arrangement comprising at
least one additional diverting pulley
(9) around which the elevator rope
(3) coming from the diverting
pulley (8,28)
• On the top end of the piston (7) is
passed to its second rope
anchorage, characterized in that
each elevator rope (3) has been
directed from the rope anchorage
(11) first over the diverting pulley
(8) on the top end of the piston.
68
10 CONCLUSION
It is required to produce an elevator which is able to move quickly and deliver the
passengers safely. As it was obvious from the video conversations the customers were
worried about the elevators safety issues.
It will be available by adding a system to save the power electricity and use this
power when the electricity is gone.
Also by using sensors the elevator is capable to save passengers from danger.
for example when someone is standing between the elevator’s door. Another example
of using sensors is when the instruments are damage the sensors can alarm and the
elevator can automatically stop before the particular part damage.
Using efficient breaks make the elevator safe in the time when the cable of elevator is
torn or the hydraulic system is damage.
The team decides to install just one elevator in the main hall according to the video
conversation with customers; most of them were able to use one elevator in the main
hall. However, after the installation the elevator in main hall of SPS, building our
team will get the suggestions, complains and comments of users to improve the
product. If the users suggest to have new elevator for outside of building. This time
our team will work on that. Due to this fact that our company is decided to have the
best warranty and after sale services to its customers.
69
11 REFERENCE
1. Karl T. Ulrich, Steven D. Eppinger, Product design and development, 5th
edition,
2012.
2. Ullman, David G. The Mechanical Design Process, Mc Graw-Hill, 4th edition, 2009.
3. Khurana, A; Rosenthal, S.R. "Towards Holistic "Front Ends" in New Product
Development". Journal of Product Innovation Management, 1998.
70
12 APPENDIX A
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Product Development

  • 1. 1 Product design and development MMP1613 Lecturer: Prof. Safian Design and develop a product to help staffs and students of UTM, easily go to the floors of SPS building. By Ali Karandish (MM121003) Abdul Azeez Abdu Aliyu (MM121087) M. Reza yavari (MM121095) Abas Razavi kia (MM111132) 1 Product design and development MMP1613 Lecturer: Prof. Safian Design and develop a product to help staffs and students of UTM, easily go to the floors of SPS building. By Ali Karandish (MM121003) Abdul Azeez Abdu Aliyu (MM121087) M. Reza yavari (MM121095) Abas Razavi kia (MM111132) 1 Product design and development MMP1613 Lecturer: Prof. Safian Design and develop a product to help staffs and students of UTM, easily go to the floors of SPS building. By Ali Karandish (MM121003) Abdul Azeez Abdu Aliyu (MM121087) M. Reza yavari (MM121095) Abas Razavi kia (MM111132)
  • 2. 2 1 ABOUT OUR COMPANY ........................................................................................... 3 1.1 Product Portfolio..................................................................................................... 3 1.2 Market Segmentation .............................................................................................. 3 1.3 Project Team Organizations .................................................................................... 4 1.4 Company, Operation management and departments mission ................................... 5 1.4.1 Company Mission............................................................................................ 5 1.4.2 Vision Statement.............................................................................................. 6 1.4.3 Operations Management Mission..................................................................... 6 1.4.4 Departments Mission ....................................................................................... 6 2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION............................................................................................ 8 3 IDENTIFYING CUSTOMER NEEDS.......................................................................... 9 3.1 Interpreting raw data in terms of customer needs................................................... 14 4 PRODUCT SPECIFICATION .................................................................................... 20 4.1 Establishing target specifications .......................................................................... 20 4.2 Set ideal and marginally acceptable target values .................................................. 25 5 CONCEPT GENERATION ........................................................................................ 28 5.1 Clarify the Problem............................................................................................... 29 5.2 Search externally................................................................................................... 31 5.3 Search Internally................................................................................................... 34 5.4 Explore systematically .......................................................................................... 34 5.5 Concept Combination ........................................................................................... 36 6 CONCEPT SELECTION ............................................................................................ 46 6.1 Concept screening................................................................................................. 50 6.2 Concept scoring .................................................................................................... 51 7 CONCEPT TESTING ................................................................................................. 52 7.1 Defining the purpose of the concept testing........................................................... 53 7.2 Survey format ....................................................................................................... 53 7.3 Communicate the concept ..................................................................................... 54 7.4 Measure customer response................................................................................... 58 7.5 Interpret the results ............................................................................................... 58 8 PROTOTYPING......................................................................................................... 61
  • 3. 3 8.1 Prototypes classifications ...................................................................................... 61 8.2 Analytical Prototypes............................................................................................ 61 9 PATENT..................................................................................................................... 66 9.1 The new technologies (Improvement) of this patent are:........................................ 66 10 CONCLUSION........................................................................................................... 68 11 REFERENCE.............................................................................................................. 69 12 APPENDIX A............................................................................................................. 70
  • 4. 3 1 ABOUT OUR COMPANY EED Co. is an Elevator and Escalator Design and manufacturing company which design it’s products according to customer needs and each building requirements. This company founded in March 2013 and utilize it’s Marketing, Designing, Manufacturing and Trading Expertise. It is planned to get customer needs and the specification in the first steps. We are always engaging in the modification, enhancement and improvement of our current product, future products and service for them all the time. Since the company established, innovation and commitment to being the best in the categories in which we compete has guided the company. The team is worked hard to provide the most perfect products and service to the potential customers that meet the most rigorous quality and industrial standards. 1.1 Product Portfolio We are an innovative and dynamic company providing various types of elevators for our customers. We work closely with customers and designing and manufacturing various kinds of elevators to satisfy different needs of our customers. 1.2 Market Segmentation Customers can be usefully thought of as belonging to separate market segments. Dividing the market into segments allows the firm to consider the actions of competitors. By segmenting the market the firm can assess which product opportunities best address weaknesses in offerings of competitors. After the current market analysis, the current market of various kinds of products can be divided into two (2) parts: 1. Office 2. Residential place
  • 5. 4 Therefore, we are going to introduce a new product into these markets. 1.3 Project Team Organizations The most appropriate choice of organizational structure depends on which organizational performance factors are most critical to success. Functional organizations tend to breed specialization and deep expertise in the functional areas. Project organizations tend to enable rapid and effective coordination among diverse functions. Matrix organizations, being hybrids, have the potential to exhibit some of each of these characteristics. Functional organizations may exhibit difficulty in coordinating project decisions which span the functional areas. Project organization ends to enable strong cross-functional integration because of the organizational links of the team members across the functions. Choosing an appropriate organizational structure is definitely a difficult task. However, after careful discussions and analyses, the team believed that project organization is most suitable. The team is engaged in developing innovative products. therefore, project organization has many advantages. Project organizations tend to allow for conflicts to be resolved quickly and for individuals from different functions to coordinate their activities efficiently. Relatively little time is spent transferring information, assigning responsibilities, and coordinating tasks. For this reason, project organizations are usually faster than functional organizations in developing innovative products. For example, portable computer manufacturers almost always organize their product development team by project. This allows the teams to develop new products within the extremely short periods required by the fast-paced computer market. Our team takes the form of project organization, and all the team members are committed to the project.
  • 6. 5 Therefore, for each section identified as a project and for each part one project manager assigned for that part. As it is illustrated in figure 1 the team members are announced based on their responsibility. Figure 1: Organization Diagram 1.4 Company, Operation management and departments mission 1.4.1 Company Mission The company is dedicated to design and manufacture a new type of elevator which can allow users to use it in SPS building. Our team is engaged in facilitating the mobility of the customers by the greatest extent. Moreover, it will ease and facilitate the customers’ needs by caring about their requirements.
  • 7. 6 1.4.2 Vision Statement Develop a suitable equipment such as escalator, elevator (Lift) and etc. for different usage of the staffs and students who (works in/goes to) SPS building. 1.4.3 Operations Management Mission Produce the best products for the customers consistent with company‘s mission. In accordance with most rigorous quality and industrial standards. 1.4.4 Departments Mission Marketing Department To execute market survey and gather market data. To analyze gathered market data and provide customers‘ need. Feedback to company in time. To do market research and search market opportunity. Concept Department To generate various concepts to satisfy identified needs To come up with solutions for problems during generating concepts To select concept or concepts To test the selected concept(s). Design Department To be engaged in the research and development of new products according to the needs of customers. Design department work hard to lead in the research and
  • 8. 7 engineering competencies in our primary market, and to design innovative products with outstanding quality for providing the best service to customers. To obtain the most market share and economic profit with competitive product design that is consistent with our company mission and marketing objectives by attaching close attention to new coming customer needs and service opportunities. To determine the design process and provide constructive suggestions about the production process and equipments to manufacturing department which will be compatible with low-price and high quality products. Economy Analysis Department To identify parts which being used in the product. To validate price of each part involves in final design. To evaluate the final product price by assuming rough profit for the company and distributers. To confirm price. (Being acceptable in the market.)
  • 9. 8 Chapter 2 2 PROJECT DESCRIPTION The mission statement may include some or all the following information: a) Brief (one-sentence) description of the product: This description identifies the basic function of the product but avoids implying a specific product concept. b) Benefit proposition: This element of the mission statement articulates the critical few reasons a customer would buy the product. To some extent this is a hypothesis, which will be validated during the concept development process. c) Key business goals: In addition to the project goals which support the corporate strategy, these goals generally include goals for time, cost and quality (e.g. timing of the product introduction, desired financial performance, and market share targets). d) Target market(s) for the product: There may be several target markets for the product. This part of the mission statement identifies the primary market as well as any secondary markets that should be considered in the development effort. e) Assumptions and constraints that guide the development effort: Assumptions must be made carefully; although they restrict the range of possible product concepts, they help to maintain a manageable project scope. f) Stakeholders: One way to ensure that many of the subtle development issues are addressed is to explicitly list all of the product‘s stakeholders, that is, all of the groups of people who are affected by the product‘s success or failure. The stakeholder list begins with the end user (the ultimate external customer) and the external customer who makes the buying decision about the product. Stakeholders also include the customers of the product who reside within the firm, such as the sales force, the service organization, and the production departments. The list of stakeholders serves as a reminder for the team to consider the needs of everyone who will be influenced by the product.
  • 10. 9 Chapter 3 3 IDENTIFYING CUSTOMER NEEDS Identifying customer needs is an essential part of the product development process and is most closely related to concept generation, concept selection, competitive benchmarking, and establishment of product specification. The customer needs activity is shown below in relation to these other front-end product development activities, which collectively can be thought of as the concept development phase. From this customer need, we decided to develop a new type of elevator with additional function or features. That means, besides the functions of the current elevator. Therefore, before we develop the specification of this additional function, we have to indentify first what the customer needs are from this new type of elevator. Customer needs are important for one project team to achieve the final project success and should be the first priority in the product concept development process. In order to know well and clearly what the customers really want, our team decided to do more contact with our customers to get enough information. Figure 2: The customer-needs activity in relation to other concept development
  • 11. 10 Identifying customer needs is itself a process, which involves five steps shown as follows: 1. Gather raw data from customers. 2. Interpret the raw data in terms of customer needs. 3. Organize the needs into a hierarchy of primary, secondary, and (if necessary) tertiary needs. 4. Establish the relative importance of the needs. 5. Reflect on the results and the process. In order to gather raw data from customers, after careful discussion and research within our team, we decided to adopt three methods which involve marketing survey, questionnaire investigation and observing the product in use. We finally made a set of questionnaires regarding the common and new functions of elevator, escalator. Figure 3: Group of interviewers by age (%) 10 Identifying customer needs is itself a process, which involves five steps shown as follows: 1. Gather raw data from customers. 2. Interpret the raw data in terms of customer needs. 3. Organize the needs into a hierarchy of primary, secondary, and (if necessary) tertiary needs. 4. Establish the relative importance of the needs. 5. Reflect on the results and the process. In order to gather raw data from customers, after careful discussion and research within our team, we decided to adopt three methods which involve marketing survey, questionnaire investigation and observing the product in use. We finally made a set of questionnaires regarding the common and new functions of elevator, escalator. Figure 3: Group of interviewers by age (%) Age 10 Identifying customer needs is itself a process, which involves five steps shown as follows: 1. Gather raw data from customers. 2. Interpret the raw data in terms of customer needs. 3. Organize the needs into a hierarchy of primary, secondary, and (if necessary) tertiary needs. 4. Establish the relative importance of the needs. 5. Reflect on the results and the process. In order to gather raw data from customers, after careful discussion and research within our team, we decided to adopt three methods which involve marketing survey, questionnaire investigation and observing the product in use. We finally made a set of questionnaires regarding the common and new functions of elevator, escalator. Figure 3: Group of interviewers by age (%)
  • 12. 11 Figure 4: Group of interviewers by Gender (%) 11 Figure 4: Group of interviewers by Gender (%) Gender 11 Figure 4: Group of interviewers by Gender (%)
  • 15. 14 3.1 Interpreting raw data in terms of customer needs Customer needs are expressed as written statements and are the result of interpreting the need underlying the raw data gathered from the customers. We need to interpret the needs into more specific and technical statements to get more clear understanding about what customers want from elevator (lift). There are five guidelines for writing need statements shown as follows: a) Express the need in terms of what the product has to do, not in terms of how it might do it. Customers often express their preferences by describing a solution concept or an implementation approach; however, the need statement should be expressed in terms independent of a particular technological solution. b) Express the need as specifically as the raw data. Needs can be expressed at many different levels of detail. To avoid loss of information, express the need at the same level of detail as the raw data. c) Use positive, not negative, phrasing. Subsequent translation of a need into a product specification is easier if the need is expressed as a positive statement. d) Express the need as an attribute of the product. Wording needs as statements about the product ensures consistency and facilitates subsequent translation into product specifications. e) Avoid the words must and should. The words must and should imply a level of importance for the need.
  • 16. 15 Table 1: Interpretation of raw data to customer needs question Customer statement Interpreted need Typical Uses I need to move faster when going to next level. I find it very difficult to lift up or down heavy equipment brought to SPS. I use to lose a lot of energy while going up. Moving on the lift is faster than on stairs. The lift carries heavy load. Lift need no use of energy. Likes - current lift I like escalator, it feels better. I can install elevator in my building. It is easy to use I like the durability of the lift. It is comfortable to move on lift. The lift can be accommodated in any small space. The lift is easy to operate The lift has long life span Like - current lift I can not fall down on lift while moving in the lift. The lift can move safely and ease Dislikes – current lift I don’t like lift when electric power goes off. It is difficult to put in SPS, need re-design of the building. The lift can work without electricity. Lift can easily install inside structure or outside a building in any small space.
  • 17. 16 Disable can not operate it. The lift is automatic and moves freely. Suggested improvement Would be good if it can operate independent of electricity. Lift can operate without electricity. Suggested improvement It should be affordable. It should have emergency notification as it’s faulty. It would be better if only staff and students of UTM can use the lift. It would be good if the lift user can see everyone outside The lift is sold at reasonable price. The user can pass out simply without any external help in case of emergency. The lift is secured The lift is transparent
  • 18. 17 Table 2: Organization of Needs Into Hierarchy 1-The lift moves easily * The lift can move faster ***The lift can reached destination at shortest time *** The lift can move without user’s effort ** The lift can move regardless of the load 2- The lift is easy to operate ***The lift can be used by everyone **The user can easily push ON the lift * the user can move in/out of the lift easily 3-The lift is easy to install **The lift accommodate small space *The lift is small in size *!The lift is lighter in weight **The lift can work inside or outside the building *The lift do not require machine room 4-The lift carry heavy load **The lift can carry many people *The lift can carry materials or equipment *The lift is strong 5-The lift moves freely ***the lift is automatic *The user can move without lost of energy *The lift move with no user’s effort 6-The lift works with little power **The lift works with domestic power supply *the lift works with small generator *!The lift store charges !The lift use battery
  • 19. 18 7-The lift last long time *The lift works for several years *!The lift servicing take long time **!The lift dose not affected by weather change *The lift is durable 8-The lift is safe *The user can not fall down on lift **The lift will not break down *The lift will not push in/out the user *!The user will simply walk out when electric power off 9-The lift is easy to use ***The lift can be use by disable people **the lift can be used by aged people *The lift can be use by children *The lift can go to any height 10-The lift is affordable **The lift has reasonable price *Any user can buy the lift 11-The lift is comfortable *The lift is neither hot or cold *The users in the lift are independent on each other *The user can sit down on the lift *The user can rest his body on the lift 12-The lift works in any environment **The lift material resist corrosion **The lift material resist temperature change **The lift does not damage by rain 13-The lift has different colors *The lift is painted **The lift can be differentiated from building ***The lift can easily seen 14-The lift is attractive *The lift has good looking *The lift is shining *The lift is decorated
  • 20. 19 15-The lift is secured *The lift users can be restricted *The lift can be used at certain time *The lift cannot be miss-used **The lift can be lock *The lift can only be used by some specific people 16-The lift user can see everyone outside *The lift is uncovered **The lift is transparent Note that: 1. Feature is undesirable; they would not consider a product with this feature. 2. Feature is not important, but they would not mind having it. 3. Feature would be nice to have, but is not necessary. 4. Feature is highly desirable, but they would consider a product without it. 5. Feature is critical; they would not consider a product without this feature. From this process, we have already interviewed the important customers in our primary and secondary market. Though face-to-face interaction with customers, we further identify the problems and disadvantages of current stairs, and further clearly understand the needs of customers, which give our team many inspirations and reference to develop our innovative product (Lift). This process of identifying customer needs is very important before a team starting a new product design and development. The successful implementation of this process will give birth to too many advantages. It can ensure that the new product is focused on the customer needs and finally can provide best quality and service to customers. Besides, it is an integral part of the concept development phase of the product development process. The resulting customer needs are useful to guide the team in establishing product specifications, generating product concepts, and selecting a product concept for further development.
  • 21. 20 Chapter 4 4 PRODUCT SPECIFICATION 4.1 Establishing target specifications The target specifications are established after the customer needs have been identified but before product concepts have been generated and the most promising one(s) selected. The target specifications are the goals of the development team, describing a product that the team believes would succeed in the marketplace. Later these specifications will be refined based on the limitations of the product concept actually selected. The process of establishing the target specifications contains four steps: i. Prepare the list of metrics. ii. Collect competitive benchmarking information. iii. Set ideal and marginally acceptable target values. iv. Reflect on the results and the process After the process of identifying customer needs, the information finally will be used to develop our product specifications. These product specifications are done to represent as unambiguous agreement on what we will attempt to achieve in order to satisfy the customer needs. This will represent the precise description of each feature of the product what the lift is designed to achieve. The most useful metrics are those that reflect as directly as possible the degree to which the product satisfies the customer needs. The relationship between needs and metrics is central to the entire concept of specifications. The working assumption is that a translation from customer needs to a set of precise, measureable specifications is possible and that meeting specifications will therefore lead to satisfaction of the associated customer needs. It is achieved the list of metrics which is shown in Table 4-1. A good way to generate the list of metrics is to contemplate each need in turn and to consider what precise,
  • 22. 21 measureable characteristic of the product will reflect the degree to which the product satisfies that need. In the ideal case, there is one and only one metric for each need. In practice, this is frequently not possible. A few guidelines should be considered when constructing the list of metrics: i. Metrics should be complete. Ideally each customer need would correspond to a single metric, and the value of that metric would correlate perfectly with satisfaction of that need. In practice, several metrics may be necessary to completely reflect a single customer need. ii. Metrics should be dependable, not independent, variables. As to customer needs, specifications also indicate what the product must do, but not how the specifications will be achieved. Designers use many types of variables in product development; some are dependent, and some are independent. Metrics specify the overall performance of a product and should therefore be the dependent variables in the design problem. By using dependent variables for the specifications, designers are left with the freedom to achieve the specifications using the best approach possible. iii. Metrics should be practical. Ideally, metrics will be directly observable or analyzable properties of the product that can be evaluated by the team. iv. Some needs cannot easily be translated into quantifiable metrics. In these cases, team simply repeats the need statement as a specification and notes that the metric is subjective and would be evaluated by a panel of customers. v. The metrics should include the popular criteria for comparison in the marketplace.
  • 23. 22 Table 3: List of Metrics Metric No. Need Nos. Metric Imp. Units 1 1 Speed 4 m/s 2 2,5,15 Controller 5 Subj. 3 2,9 Control Cabinet Car 5 Subj. 4 3 Time to assemble 2 s 5 4 Load 5 kg 6 4 Persons 4 list 7 5 Machine 4 Subj. 8 5 Drive 5 Subj. 9 6 Current Intensity 4 A 10 6 Current Voltage 4 V 11 7 Lift Cycle Failure 5 cycle 12 8 Landing Accuracy 3 mm 13 5,9 Maximum Number of Stops 2 Subj. 14 9 Maximum travel Height 4 m 15 10 Unit Manufacturing Cost 5 MYR 16 11,13,14,16 Car Decoration 1 Subj. 17 12 Car Material 5 List 18 14 Entrance size 2 List 19 12 Resistance of Corrosion 4 mg/cm2 .year 20 12 Resistance of High Temperature 4 ◦ c
  • 24. 23 After making the list of metrics, the next step is to establish the needs-metrics matrix. The needs-metrics matrix shows a simpler relationship between needs and metrics. The relationship between needs and metrics is central to the entire product concept of specifications. Our needs-metrics matrix is shown in Table 3. Table 4: Need-Metric Matrix After completing the list of metrics and the needs-metrics matrix, in the next step we can construct the competitive benchmarking chart based on metrics. Unless the team expects to enjoy a total requirement, the relationship of the new product to competitive products is paramount in determining commercial success. While the team will have entered the product development process with some idea of how it wishes to complete in the marketplace, the
  • 25. 24 target specifications are the language the team uses to discuss and agree on the detailed positioning of its product relative to existing products, both its own and competitors‘. Information on competing products must be gathered to support these positioning decisions. The benchmarking chart is conceptually very simple. For each competitive product, the values of the metrics are simply entered down a column. Gathering these data can be very time consuming, involving (at the least) purchasing, testing, disassembling, and estimating the production costs of the most important competitive products. However, this investment of time is essential, as no product development team can expect to succeed without having this type of information. Our competitive benchmarking chart based on metrics is shown in Table 5. Table 5: Competitive Bench Marking Chart Metric Imp. Units SYNERGY LNE Malaysia Eclipse Residential Elevator Load 5 Kg 450 400 454 Persons 4 List 6 _ _ Speed 4 m/s 1.0 0.4 0.2 controller 5 Subj. CMC4 _ _ Control Cabinet Car 5 Subj. Next to landing door at last stop Next to landing door at last stop Next to landing door at last stop Time to install 2 weeks 4 6 2 Machine 4 Subj. Synchronous Gearless Machine _ _ Drive 5 Subj. Frequency Inverter VWF Electric Traction Machine Geared Roller Chain variable Frequency Current Intensity 4 A 15 8.3 20
  • 26. 25 Current Voltage 4 V 400 415 230 Service Life time 5 years _ _ 40 Landing accuracy 3 mm +/_3 _ _ Maximum number of Stops 2 List 21 24 4 Maximum Travel Height 4 m 30 24 18.29 Unit Manufacturing Cost 5 RM _ 70,000 300, 000 Car Decoration 1 Subj. Millenium Classic Variety of Finishes Car Material 5 List Stainless Steel Stainless Steel Stainless Steel Resistance to Corrosion 4 Mg/m2.year Resistance to Temperature 4 oC _ _ - 10 to 40 Entrance Type 2 List Fully Automated 1 or 2 Fully Automated 1 or 2 Fully Automated 1 or 2 4.2 Set ideal and marginally acceptable target values After finishing the above steps, our team continued to synthesize the available information in order to actually set the target values for the metrics. Two types of target value are useful: an ideal value and a marginally acceptable value. The ideal value is the best result the team could hope for. The marginally acceptable value is the value of the metric that would just barely make the product commercially viable. Both of these targets are useful in guiding the subsequent stages of concept generation and concept selection, and for refining the specifications after the product concept have been selected.
  • 27. 26 There are five ways to express the values of the metrics: i. At least X: These specifications establish targets for the lower bound on a metric, but higher is still better. ii. At most X: These specifications establish targets for the upper bound on a metric, with smaller values being better. iii. Between X and Y: These specifications establish both upper and lower bounds for the values of a metric. iv. Exactly X: These specifications establish a target of a particular value of a metric, with any deviation degrading performance. v. A set of discrete values: Some metrics will have values corresponding to several discrete choices. Our target specifications are shown in Table 4 as follows: Metric Imp. Units Valve Load 5 Kg > 400 Persons 4 List >6 Speed 4 m/s >1 controller 5 Subj. Control Cabinet Car 5 Subj. Next to landing door at last stop Time to install 2 weeks < 2 Machine 4 Subj. Drive 5 Subj. Current Intensity 4 A <8 Current Voltage 4 V <200
  • 28. 27 Service Life time 5 Years > 40 Landing accuracy 3 mm < +/_3 Maximum number of Stops 2 List 5 Maximum Travel Height 4 m Unit Manufacturing Cost 5 RM < 70,000 Car Decoration 1 Subj. Car Material 5 List Stainless Steel, Glass composite Resistance to Corrosion 4 Mg/m2.year Resistance to Temperature 4 oC > _ 10 Entrance Type 2 List Fully Automated 2 entrance The final specifications are developed by assessing the actual technological constraints and the expected production costs by using analytical and physical models. Form the product specification, we have known that this new product (lift) can avoid the disadvantages of current products (stairs), and provide new functions and convenience to our customers. We have finished the product specification, now we can proceed with the next step, which is the concept generation.
  • 29. 28 Chapter 5 5 CONCEPT GENERATION A product concept is an approximate description of the technology, working principles and form of the product. It is a concise description of how the product will satisfy the customer needs. A concept is usually expressed as a sketch or as a rough three-dimensional model and is often accompanied by a brief textual description. The degree to which a product satisfies customers and can be successfully commercialized depends to a large measure on the quality of the underlying concept. A good concept is sometimes poorly implemented in subsequent development phases, but a poor concept can rarely be manipulated to achieve commercial success. Fortunately, concept generation is relatively inexpensive and can be done relatively quickly in comparison to the rest of the development process. As the concept generation is not expensive there is a better chance to generate as much as concepts as possible, so that new ideas being derived from them. The concept generation process begins with a set of customer needs and target specifications and results in a set of product concepts from which the team will make a final selection. Good concept generation leaves the team with confidence that the full space of alternatives has been explored, thorough exploration of alternatives early in the development process greatly reduces the likelihood that the team will stumble upon a superior concept late in the development process or that a competitor will introduce a product with dramatically better performance than the product under development. A structured approach to concept generation reduces the incidence of these problems by encouraging the gathering of information from many disparate information sources, by guiding the team in the thorough exploration of alternatives, and by providing a mechanism for integrating partial solutions.
  • 30. 29 A five-step concept generation method is shown in Figure 5. Figure 5: The five-step concept generation method 5.1 Clarify the Problem Clarifying the problem consists of developing a general understanding and then breaking the problem down into sub-problems if necessary. The mission statement for the project, the customer needs list, and the preliminary product specification are the ideal inputs to the concept generation process, although often these pieces of information are still being refined
  • 31. 30 as the concept generation phase begins. Ideally the team has been involved both in the identification of the customer needs and in the setting of the target product specifications. Many design challenges are too complex to solve as a single problem and can be usefully divided into several simpler sub-problems. Dividing a problem into simpler sub-problems is called problem decomposition. The first step in decomposing a problem functionally is to represent it as a single black box operating on material, energy, single flows, and something else. The black box represents the overall function of the product. The next step in functional decomposition is to divide the single black box into sub-functions to create a more specific description of what the elements of the product might do in order to implement the overall function of the product. Each sub-function can generally be further divided into even simpler sub-functions. Figure 6: Black Box
  • 32. 31 Figure 7: Functional Decomposition Refinement showing sub functions 5.2 Search externally External search is aimed at finding existing solutions to both the overall problem and the sub- problems identified during the problem clarification step. While external search is listed as the second step in the concept generation method, this sequential labeling is deceptive; external search occurs continually throughout the development process. Implementing an existing solution is usually quicker and cheaper than developing a new solution. Liberal use of existing solution allows the team to focus its creative energy on the critical sub-problems for which there are no satisfactory prior solutions. Furthermore, a conventional solution to one sub-problem can frequently be combined with a novel solution to another sub- problem to yield a superior design. For this reason external search includes detailed evaluation not only of directly competitive products but also of technologies used in products with related sub-functions.
  • 33. 32 The external search for solutions is essentially an information-gathering process. Available time and resources can be optimized by using an external-and-focus strategy: First expand the scope of the search by broadly gathering information that might be related to the problem and then focus the scope of the search by exploring the promising directions in more detail. Too much of either approach will make the external search inefficient. There are at least five good ways to gather information from external sources: lead user interview expert consultation patent searches literature searches and competitive benchmarking. Figure 8 : search externally 1
  • 34. 33 Figure 9: search externally 2 Figure 10: search externally 3
  • 35. 34 5.3 Search Internally Internal search is the use of group members personal and team knowledge and creativity to generate solution concepts. It is referred to as brain storming as well; this type of search is internal in this way all the ideas are placed on the table from the knowledge already in the possession of the team. This activity is the most open ended activity of any other tasks in product development. Here are four guidelines which are useful for improving internal search: 1- Suspend judgment 2- Generate a lot of Ideas 3- Welcome ideas that may seem infeasible 4- Use graphical and physical media 5.4 Explore systematically Systematic exploration is aimed at navigating the space of possibilities by organizing and synthesizing the solution fragments. There are two specific tools for managing and the complexity and organizing the thinking of the team. Concept classification tree Concept combination table The classification tree helps divide the possible solutions into independent categories. The combination table guided our team in selectively considering combination of fragments. A classification tree for the elevator/escalator energy source concept fragments is shown in following figure in next page.
  • 36. 35 Figure 11. Energy source concept fragments. Figure 12: A new problem decomposition transfere the electrical energy to hydraulic/mechanical energy
  • 37. 36 5.5 Concept Combination The concept combination table provides a way to consider combinations of solution fragments systematically. As it is illustrated in the figure 13 to 18 various concepts has been provided and designed to help the team to choose which concept is more efficient to utilize in the SPS building as a lift (elevator) or escalator. The concepts have gained with the aid of study the external and internal search. Figure 13: Concept combination table for lift/escalator to design for SPS building. As it is illustrated in the figure 13 a mechanical round shape elevator can be design which is using screws and nuts as a moving system. This type of elevator is not common at all but it can be a new idea for future elevators. However, the cost and investment of manufacturing of these types of elevator are an important issue.
  • 38. 37 Figure 14: A schematic 3D design and 2D view of the generated concept. In this solution the elevator cabin is moving by rotation of screw and the rotation of screw will provided by an electromotor.
  • 39. 38 Figure 15: 2nd design of concept combination table for lift/escalator to design for SPS building. Figure 15 shows a hydraulic round shape elevator which is able to move by piston and cylinder moving system. This type of elevator is very common in many building but the limitation of using this system is that, the hydraulic system cannot be used in high buildings. It is just available for less than 4 floor buildings. Moreover, hydraulic elevators are safer and cheaper in compare with the other types of elevators.
  • 40. 39 Figure 16: A schematic 3D design and 2D view of the generated concept 2. In this concept the elevator is move to the different floor by using hydraulic system. The car of the elevator moves up and down by the rod (Piston) inside the cylinder.
  • 41. 40 Figure 17: 3rd design of concept combination table for lift/escalator to design for SPS building. An elevator with mechanical system and rectangular shape which is moving by cable and spool has been gained with the 3rd combination table. This is the most normal type of elevator which is common to many buildings; this type of elevator can be use in high buildings.
  • 42. 41 Figure 18: A schematic 3D design and 2D view of the generated concept 3. A cable and spool elevator as it is obvious from figure 18, has been generated by concept combination table illustrated in figure 17 having two rail ways in two sides of the elevator and using cable to move up and down, these elevators have a sinker to process better.
  • 43. 42 Figure 19: 4th design of concept combination table for lift/escalator to design for SPS building. Figure 19 shows a combination of mechanical energy rectangular shape elevator which is utilizing rack and pinion system as a movement system. It is also a new idea of elevator but according to our externally searches some types of these elevators are using in small 2 floor houses to move old people from one floor to other floors.
  • 44. 43 Figure 20: A schematic 3D design and 2D view of the generated concept 4. This concept is utilizing two racks and two strong pinion which is moving by the aid of an electromotor, the pinions move the elevator to the required floors. This is a developed concept generation to use in the 3 and 4 floor buildings.
  • 45. 44 Figure 21: 5th design of concept combination table for lift/escalator to design for SPS building. According to the customer needs survey, the escalator was one of the favorite concept of moving the customers (Staff/students) who goes to SPS building. Therefore, the escalator concept combination table has been prepared to generate an escalator as a concept. However after checking the SPS stairs and the second and third floor of this building, our team realized that installing of escalator is so hard and almost impossible according to the following reasons. The thickness of second and third floor is not enough Escalators need one stairs to go up and one stairs to go down Not enough space in the SPS main hall. It is hard to install escalator from first floor to second floor, but it is impossible to install it from second floor to the third floor according to the SPS building design. However, we decided to generate this idea as a concept.
  • 46. 45 Figure 22: A schematic 3D design and 2D view of the generated concept 5. Figure 22 illustrates concept 5. This concept is an escalator which is using to move people mostly in crowded places such as metro and terminals. This concept is designed to check if it is able to be select as the best concept in the next step or not. Next step will be concept selection.
  • 47. 46 Chapter 6 6 CONCEPT SELECTION Concept selection is the process of evaluating concepts with respect to customer needs and other criteria, comparing the relative strengths and weakness of the concepts, and selecting one or more concepts for further investigation, testing, or development. Whether or not the concept selection process is explicit, all teams use some methods to choose among concepts. The methods are shown as follows: i. External decisions: Concepts are turned over to the customer, client, or some other external entity for selection. ii. Product champion: An influential member of the product development team chooses a concept based on personal preference. iii. Intuition: The concept is chosen by its feel. Explicit criteria or trade-offs are not used. The concept just seems better. iv. Multi voting: Each member of the team votes for several concepts. The concept with the most votes is selected.
  • 48. 47 v. Pros and cons: the team lists the strengths and weaknesses of each concept and makes a choice based upon group opinion. vi. Prototype and test: the organization builds and tests prototypes of each concept, making a selection based upon test data. vii. Decision matrices: The team rates each concept against pre-specified selection criteria, which may be weighted. A structured concept selection method offers the following potential benefits: i. A customer-focused product ii. A competitive design iii. Better product-process coordination iv. Reduced time to product introduction v. Effective group decision making vi. Documentation of the decision process
  • 49. 48 Five sketches have been genrated to compare and select one concept to develop for SPS building.
  • 50. 49
  • 51. 50 6.1 Concept screening Concept screening is based on a method developed by the late Stuart Pugh in the 1980s and is often called Pugh concept selection (Pugh, 1900). The purposes of this stage are to narrow the number of concepts quickly and to improve the concepts. Table 6: Selection Matrix
  • 52. 51 6.2 Concept scoring After finishing with the concept screening, the next step is proceeding with concept scoring. Concept scoring is used when increased resolution will better differentiate of the selection criteria and focuses on more refines comparisons with respect to each criterion. Concept scoring uses weighted selection criteria and finer rating scale. Concept scoring can be skipped if concept screening produces a dominant concept. Table 7:Concept-Scoring matrix Concept Reference B C D Selection criteria Weight Rating Weight ed Score Ratin g Weight ed Score Ratin g Weigh ted Score Rating Weight ed Score Ease of use 15% 3 0.45 4 0.6 3 0.45 3 0.45 Ease of manufacture 25% 3 0.75 5 1.25 3 0.75 2 0.5 Safety 10% 3 0.30 3 0.3 3 0.3 4 0.4 Capacity 15% 3 0.45 2 0.3 4 0.6 3 0.45 Ergonomic 10% 3 0.30 4 0.4 3 0.3 4 0.4 Higher speed 10% 3 0.30 3 0.3 4 0.4 3 0.3 Ease of assembling 15% 3 0.45 4 0.6 3 0.45 3 0.45 Total Score rank 3 3 3.75 1 3.25 2 2.95 4 Continue ? No Develop No No
  • 53. 52 7 CONCEPT TESTING The focus of this chapter is on testing done during the concept development phase. In this part, the development team solicits a response to a description o the product concept from potential customers in SPS building. This type of testing is used by choosing one concept which is obtained from previous chapter and the preferable position of the elevator for the SPS building to gather information from potential customers on how to improve a concept, and to estimate the sales potential of our elevator. The preferable positions suggested to the customer was two elevators outside of the SPS building and one elevator inside the main hall of SPS building. The Customers (Staffs and Students) have been answered our question which is accessible in the interview. The interview file is attached to the CD of this report. Also the answer sheets had been proposed in the appendix A. There is seven-step method for testing product concept: 1- Define the purpose of the concept test. 2- Choose a survey population. 3- Choose a survey format. 4-Communicate the concept. 5- Measure customer response. 6- Interpret the results. 7- Reflect on the results and the process
  • 54. 53 7.1 Defining the purpose of the concept testing Concept testing is an essentially an experimental activity, and as with any experiment knowing the purpose of the experiment is essential to designing an effective experimental method. The purpose of this testing is finding out the customers need, want and comfort according to following aims: The team wanted to realize Where is the preferable position of installing the elevator? How the concept can be improve to meet the customer needs? Estimate that how many people are going to use our elevator? Should development be continued? 7.2 Survey format The following formats are commonly use in concept testing: Face-to-face interaction Telephone Postal mail Electronic mail Internet The selected format by our team is Face-to-face interaction, in this method an interview interacts directly with the respondent. Face to face interaction can take the form of intercepts. We have interviewed people who was working in SPS building or the students who was there for doing their tasks and make a video conversation which showed in the class during presentation.
  • 55. 54 7.3 Communicate the concept The choice of survey format is linked to the way in which the concept will be communicated. Concept can be communicated in any of the following ways, listed below: Verbal description Sketch Photos and rendering Storyboard Video Simulation Interactive multimedia Physical appearance model Working prototype In this part we have used verbal description, Sketches, photos and rendering to ask our customers about the following question. 1- Do you work in the SPS/Do you study in UTM? ---------------------------------------------------- <if the respond is no, thank the respondent and end the survey> 2- Do you usually go to the second or third floor? ---------------------------------------------------- <if the respond is no, thank the respondent and end the survey> 3- If in the SPS building is an elevator would you prefer to use the elevator or the stairs? ----------------------------------------------------
  • 56. 55 4- How safe do you think an elevator can be (In compare with Stairs)? ---------------------------------------------------- 5- How easy to use do you think an elevator can be (In compare with stairs)? ---------------------------------------------------- 7- Would you please tell me your experience about using stairs in compare with using an elevator? ----------------------------------------------------- There is a brochure (map/Photo) about our products. The product is an elevator which is designed for SPS building. The elevator is faster, safer and cheaper in compare with the other elevator. It is also designed to use in crowded place with the huge number of people transferring. If the elevator install in the SPS building main hall, how often would u use it? I would: Definitely use O Probably use O Might or might not use O Probably not use O definitely not use O ----------------------------------------------------------- If the elevator install outside of the SPS building (See the map/photo), how often would u use it? I would: Definitely use O Probably use O Might or might not use O Probably not use O definitely not use O -----------------------------------------------------------
  • 57. 56 Photos which is utilized in the interviews: Figure 23: The plan and photo which is used to ask the above questions from customers
  • 58. 57 Figure 24: The photo which is illustrating the position of elevator in the SPS building. As you it is shown in the figure 23, the schematic of SPS building had been designed by CATIA, to provide a better understanding of customers. Moreover the position of elevator is illustrated in figure 24. As it is obvious in the figure, the SPS hall is the most crowded place in compare with other saloons in the whole building, in addition, it is better to design the elevators near the stairs to use them in emergency (failure) of elevator. These are some reasons which our team discussed with customers and fulfilled their needs.
  • 59. 58 7.4 Measure customer response When a concept test is performed early in the concept development phase, customer response is usually measured by asking the respondent to choose from two or more alternative concepts. The most commonly used purchase-intent ( using the product ) scale hase five response categories: Definitely use Probably use Might or might not use Probably not use definitely not use 7.5 Interpret the results According to the potential customer’s opinion: Our team have decided to install the elevator(lift) in the main hall (Central hall) and according to prof. saffian’s guide, we have designed the elevator in a position which there is no need to destroy any construction. More information of the elevator position is available in the following video which is prepared by CATIA Which is added in CD of this report.
  • 60. 59 Table 8: The percentage of responses of users (Staff and students) to use the elevator in the main hall of SPS building. Table 9: The percentage of responses of users (Staff and students) to use the elevator in the outside of SPS building. 59 Table 8: The percentage of responses of users (Staff and students) to use the elevator in the main hall of SPS building. Table 9: The percentage of responses of users (Staff and students) to use the elevator in the outside of SPS building. 59 Table 8: The percentage of responses of users (Staff and students) to use the elevator in the main hall of SPS building. Table 9: The percentage of responses of users (Staff and students) to use the elevator in the outside of SPS building.
  • 61. 60 It is required to produce an elevator which is able to move quickly and deliver the passengers safely. As it was obvious from the video conversations the customers were worried about the elevators safety issues. It will be available by adding a system to save the power electricity and use this power when the electricity is gone. Using efficient breaks make the elevator safe in the time when the cable of elevator is torn or the hydraulic system is damage.
  • 62. 61 8 PROTOTYPING Prototype Definition: Prototype is defined as “an approximation of the product along one or more dimensions of interest.” 8.1 Prototypes classifications Prototypes can be usefully classified along two dimensions. 1- Physical Prototypes: It includes Models that look and feel like the product. Proof-of-concept prototypes used to test an idea quickly, and experimental hardware used to validate the functionality of a product. 2- Analytical Prototypes: Analytical prototypes represent the product in a non-tangible, usually mathematical or visual manner. Interesting aspects of the product are analyzed rather than built. 8.2 Analytical Prototypes Analytical prototypes are generally more flexible than physical prototypes. Because it is a mathematical approximation of a product. In most cases, changing a parameter in an analytical prototype is easier than changing an attribute of a physical prototype.
  • 63. 62 Analytical Prototypes: The advantages of 3D CAD Modeling include the ability to easy visualize the three dimensional form of design; the ability to create photo-realistic image for assessment of product appearance. The ability to automatically compute physical properties such as mass and volume; and the efficiency arising from the creation of one and only one canonical description of the design, from which other, more focused descriptions, such as cross-sectional view and fabrication drawings, can be created. Through the use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools, 3D CAD models have begun to serve as analytical prototypes. In some settings this can eliminate one or more physical prototypes.
  • 64. 63 Figure 25: Von mises stress analysis with CAE module of CATIA software to finding out whether the size and material of elevator is efficient to move 600 Kg loads or not. (Analysis without guide rails). As it is illustrated in the figure 25 CAE softwares allows us to have an analytical prototype to find out the optimum sizes of the cylinder and piston of a hydraulic elevator, the optimization if design is gained by changing the sizes of rod or by changing the materials. However, this aim can be gained by the software itself.
  • 65. 64 Figure 25: Von mises stress analysis with CAE module of CATIA software to finding out whether the size and material of elevator is efficient to move 600 Kg loads or not. (Analysis with guide rails this time). The steps of analytical prototype in the software: Design the 3D CAD model. Analysis the capacity of elevator in terms of sizes of people and sizes of elevator to provide the users comforts. Give the required weight which is going to be loaded on the elevator.
  • 66. 65 Selecting the fixed position for example guide rails and cylinder. Selecting the loading positions, (Where the loads are going to apply). Simulate and get the results. In this part the software will automatically check the design In terms of size, materials and forces loads then give us the stresses analysis.
  • 67. 66 9 PATENT Patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by government to an inventor for a period of time, in exchange for the public disclosure of the invention. The procedure to grants patents vary widely between countries according to national laws and international agreements. Patent application must include one or more claims that define the invention. Patent is classified into utility, design and plant patents. Utility and design patents are relevant for most engineered goods. Because design patents have very limited value, we considered Utility patents for our products. 9.1 The new technologies (Improvement) of this patent are: These new technologies that our team decided to develop is in accordance of the customers need (staffs and UTM students) A system to save the power electricity and use this power when the electricity is gone. (Emergency power supply) By using sensors the elevator is capable to save passengers from danger. Using efficient (Smart) breaks, which help the speed of elevator keep constant. (when the hydraulic system is damage). Another issue which can mention as a patent is the new design of the SPS elevator, as a patent. Because of the different position of the elevator’s door. In the first floor the elevator’s door will be open from the front side. However, in the second and third floor the doors will be open from the side of the elevator. Which make this elevator unique in compare with the other types of elevator.
  • 68. 67 Detail description of patent: • Suspension arrangement for a hydraulic elevator, comprising an elevator car (1) • A car frame (4,15,19) supporting the elevator car. • Substantially vertical guide rails (2) along which the car frame travels, moved by means of at least one elevator rope (3). • The first end (10) of each elevator rope (3) is fixed to a rope anchorage (11). • In the car frame of the elevator, and a hydraulic cylinder (5) and a piston (7) with at least one diverting pulley (8,28) on its top end for the elevator rope (3). • The arrangement comprising at least one additional diverting pulley (9) around which the elevator rope (3) coming from the diverting pulley (8,28) • On the top end of the piston (7) is passed to its second rope anchorage, characterized in that each elevator rope (3) has been directed from the rope anchorage (11) first over the diverting pulley (8) on the top end of the piston.
  • 69. 68 10 CONCLUSION It is required to produce an elevator which is able to move quickly and deliver the passengers safely. As it was obvious from the video conversations the customers were worried about the elevators safety issues. It will be available by adding a system to save the power electricity and use this power when the electricity is gone. Also by using sensors the elevator is capable to save passengers from danger. for example when someone is standing between the elevator’s door. Another example of using sensors is when the instruments are damage the sensors can alarm and the elevator can automatically stop before the particular part damage. Using efficient breaks make the elevator safe in the time when the cable of elevator is torn or the hydraulic system is damage. The team decides to install just one elevator in the main hall according to the video conversation with customers; most of them were able to use one elevator in the main hall. However, after the installation the elevator in main hall of SPS, building our team will get the suggestions, complains and comments of users to improve the product. If the users suggest to have new elevator for outside of building. This time our team will work on that. Due to this fact that our company is decided to have the best warranty and after sale services to its customers.
  • 70. 69 11 REFERENCE 1. Karl T. Ulrich, Steven D. Eppinger, Product design and development, 5th edition, 2012. 2. Ullman, David G. The Mechanical Design Process, Mc Graw-Hill, 4th edition, 2009. 3. Khurana, A; Rosenthal, S.R. "Towards Holistic "Front Ends" in New Product Development". Journal of Product Innovation Management, 1998.
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