SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 105
Options for making
Affordable Housing a
Reality in Urban
India
Housing-
Role
Relevance
&
importance
Role and importance of Housing
• Housing - Remains basic human necessity:
• Housing- has numerous physical, social /economic implications
• Housing -known for providing identity, security, safety & quality of life,
• Housing --remain positively linked with overall human/national development—
• Housing -Enables enjoyment of numerous economic, social & cultural rights.
 Housing -Empowers poor ; securing active participation in national building
 Housing –Empower people to perform better -compared to without Housing.
 Housing – Reduces pressure on healthcare services by senior citizens,
 Housing –Provides greatest security against unforeseen calamities
 Housing - Rationalises growth / orderly development of a city/community/society.
• Housing - & Real estate sector contributed 9% to India’s GDP-employs 16% work force
• Housing-multiplier effect on generating wealth, promoting economy
 Housing -Promotes Industrialization/economy
 - involving more than 290 industries
 Housing- Provide large employment opportunities - to rural/urban workforce-skilled /unskilled.
• Housing-- Contributes to Local Government Finance
• -- Helps Labor-Intensive Domestic Production
• -- Create Stimulation for Small Business
• -- Promote Home-Based Income Opportunities
Role and importance of Housing
• Housing-provides space for family - for interacting, playing,
studying, learning
• Housing- Promotes public good - creating a healthy, vibrant and
productive society.
 Housing- Shapes any society, its quality, culture , economy
 Housing- key to restoring personal security, self-sufficiency/
dignity.
 Housing- index of growth, development ; welfare of a society.
 Housing- Closely associated with disease conditions & higher
mortality/ morbidity rates. (WHO)
 Housing- Space where more than 1/3 rd of human life span spent.
 Housing- during pandemics, Covid-19- provided space for,
working, education, healthcare .
 Housing- Major planning, development , management component
in a city,
 Housing- Occupying largest proportion of land in city
 Housing-- Having largest count among buildings in city
 Housing- Defining its personality/culture..
Role and importance of Housing
• Housing--Promotes Development of Land / Real Estate
Systems
 Housing--accounts for largest investment in any city.
 Housing- majority of intra-city travel/trips originate & terminate
in housing.
 Housing- remains focus of all human activities
 Housing-Demand never static- remains dynamic- ever evolving-
devolving,
 Housing- Remains in short supply
 -Large gap exists between demand & supply
-- Considering multiple dimensions/ implications of
housing – in terms of Physical, social, economic,
environmental and human living
- - providing housing to all sections of population
emerged --as priority for all communities /societies/
states/ nations.
Housing-
as a Basic
Right
Housing as a Right
Considering importance & context of housing - UN called for accepting
Shelter as a basic human Right— ;
----UN Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlements (1976),/ The Habitat Agenda
21 (1992), Agenda 1996--UN Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000
(1988)--- describes;.
-- Right to adequate housing universally recognised by community of nations
...All nations -- have some form of obligation in shelter sector
--exemplified by their --creation of ministries-- Creating housing agencies
--- allocation of funds to housing sector, - Specifying policies -
programme and projects --
Citizens of all States -- how poor they may be
-- have a right to expect their Governments
-- to be concerned about their shelter needs, and
-- to accept a fundamental obligation to
-- protect /improve houses and neighborhoods,
--rather than damage/destroy them.
Housing Status
 . UNHS finds ,
 Globally only 13% world’s cities (195) have affordable
housing-- 2014
 McKinsey estimated;
 -- 330 million urban households-- living in substandard
housing /financially stretched by housing costs
 -- number likely rise to
 -- 440 mhh /1.6 billion people, by 2025 and
 -- 2.5 billion people by 2050.
 Africa-- over 50% - population live in sub-standard
conditions
 India/China-- nearly 25%- population live in informal
settlements
POPULATION & URBANISATION
Population Scenario- India-2011
 Housing problem-- an interplay of factors involving—
 Population, Urbanization, Migration, Poverty& family pattern
 Population of India reached
 250 million in 1919
 500 million in 1966 (47 yrs. Later)
 1000 million in 2000 ( 34 yrs. Later)
 1027 million in 2001 (1yr Later)
 1210 million in 2011 (10 yrs. Later)
 1441 million in 2023 ( 12 years later)
 2050- Indian population- 1600 mil. -50% in Urban India.
 Metropolitan Centers -5 (1951)- -53 (2011)-68(2031)
 10 m plus- nil (1951)- 3 (2011) -7 (2031)-9 (2051
 Urban India --first time added more persons(91m) than
 Rural India (90m) - decade- 2001-2011
 During last 100 years, India witnessed—
- -Urbanization level X 3 times
- --Urban settlements X 4 times
- --Total Population X 5 times
- -Rural population X 3.5 times
- - Urban population X 15 times
HOUSING
through - 5
year
Plans/policies
Various Five Year Plans
Five Year Plans formulated
 focused on -launching programs and
policies
 – for promoting housing for all in
general &
 for poor in particular
 -National Housing policy-1988,
 National Housing Policy, 1994,
 National Housing & Habitat Policy, 1998
 NationalUrban Housing & Habitat Policy,
2007
Programmes Focus
Slum Clearance and Improvement Scheme
1959
Focus on clearance
Environment Improvement of Urban Slums -
EIUS 1972
Focus on environmental improvement,
provision of taps, hand pumps, street lights,
toilets, etc.
Minimum Needs Programme- 1975 Provision of basic services for slum dwellers
Urban Community Development- 1985 Focus on involving communities,-- funding
from ODA, UK Govt.
Urban Basic Services -1985 Focus on provision of civic services--, funding
from UNICEF
National Slum Development Programme - NSDP
1996
Additional Central Assistance to state
governments for slum improvement
Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana - VAMBAY - 2001 Provisioning houses for slum dwellers below
poverty line ( BPL ), central scheme with
50:50
JNNURM Mission II – Basic Services for Urban
Poor BSUP --2006
Built Housing Units with services for slum
dwellers
Rajiv Awas Yojana RAY -- 2010 Full city approach, slum free city plan,
variety of components, flexible in nature
First Urban Focussed National Housing
& Habitat Policy (NUHHP) aiming at:
1. `Providing Affordable Housing for All
2. With focus on Urban Poor.
3. Using ‘Regional Approach’
4. Government Role -- ‘facilitator’&
‘regulator.
5. Involving Private sector ’
6. Earmarking dedicated land for
EWS/LIG groups in new housing projects
7. Retaining Governments role in
social housing
8 making available affordable housing
for EWS / LIG categories -- on
ownership / rental basis
National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy-
2007
URBAN
HOUSING
SHORTAGE
Housing Shortage-10th FYP
 Housing perpetually in shortage
Demand always chasing Supply
Housing demand always evolving- never
static
Technical Group set up MHUPA--, estimated
 Urban housing shortage at 24.71 mdu
-- end of 10th Five Year Plan
-- for 66.30 million urban HH
Group estimated :
--88% shortage - EWS category
-- 11% in LIG whereas
-- MIG/HIG shortage -- merely 0.04 million
dwelling units.
Housing shortage in different categories :
- ---99.9% of total EWS,
--10.5% in LIG
--0.2% in MIG/HIG categories
Housing Shortage-11th FYP
Technical Committee also found (MOHPA)-
• 1. Housing Shortage at 26.53 mhh in 2012.
• 2. 2.56 mhh living in non-serviceable/ katcha
houses
• 3. additional requirement of du-- 1.82 mdu
• 4. Following current trend of increase in backlog
- 34 million houses -- required by year 2022 for
•-- achieving national goal of affordable shelter
for all.
6 Highest shortage in UP-3.07 million du
Vacant Houses
 -- Number of vacant houses in India –
 24.7 million (13.6 million rural and 11.1 million urban),
 -- Every sixth urban house in India vacant or
 -- 90% of number of rented houses in country- --2011 census figures,
 Delhi 9.60 percent
 Mumbai 10.00 percent
 Kolkata 06.60 percent
 Chennai 03.32 percent
 Jaipur 13.78 percent
 Raipur 1.19 percent
 Bhopal 13.51 percent
 Ahmedabad 12.17 percent
 Surat 14.60 percent
 Rajkot 13.42 percent
 Pune 17.87 percent
 Nashik 15.14 percent
 Bangalore 10.36 percent
 Kochi 13.85 percent
Housing
Shortage
Vacant
Houses
SLUMS
IN
INDIA
Slum & Non-Slum HHs India 2011
Compact area of at least 300 population or about 60-70 households of --poorly
built congested tenements,-- in unhygienic environment-- usually with inadequate
infrastructure -- lacking in proper sanitary and-- drinking water facilities.
Indicator
Number of
households
(in lakh)
Total (Urban) 789
Slum 137
Non-Slum 652
Number of households (in %)
Slum 17.4
Non-Slum 82.6
Increasing Deprivation
In year 2001, India had 523.7 lakh
slum dwellers
In year 2011, India had 654.9 lakh
slum dwellers
25.1 percent decadal growth rate of
slum dwellers
Increasing Spatial Spread of Slums
Yr 2001--
1,743 towns
in India
reported
Slums
Yr 2011,
2,613 towns
in India
reported
Slums
Yr 2021 ?
• Supply of shelter not kept pace with demand
• Situation worsening due to:
 increasing number of migrants.
 Pressure on land, urban services /infrastructures
 Growth of slums and squatter settlements
• growth of slums a sign of :
 inability to afford land / shelter through market and
 failure to ensure equitable access to the poor.
• As per Census 2001:
 42.6 million ( 23.1%) people living in slums -spread over 640 towns.
 24.1 % population in 27 metro cities in declared slums
Bombay (54.1%) and Kolkata (32.5%) recording higher proportions.
•Slums suffer from
 absence of adequate water supply,
 disposal of human waste
 40 % without access to safe drinking water and
 over 90 % without access to safe sanitation.
•Slums constitute major chunk of urban population
In future
INDIAN HOUSING SCENARIO
APPROACHING AFFORDABLE HOUSING
Defining Affordability
 Housing-Remains cost/time-intensive- perpetually in short supply
 -Affordable Housing as a concept/ opportunity/large demand --
attracting attention of Providers / Developers
--Affordability difficult to define precisely
- vested with large variables involving--
- Cost, Quality ; Area/Volume of dwelling unit ,
 Cost of living, family income, Savings, EMI ,
 Support services, infrastructure,
 O&M expenditure , Time/cost of travel to workplace, etc.
1.UNHABITAT--Affordable housing as-- “housing ---which is adequate in
quality and location and-- does not cost so much that -- it prohibits its
occupants from meeting other basic living costs- or threatens their enjoyment
of basic human rights”
 2.‘RICS’ Report- on Making Urban Housing Work in India’-defines
affordability as;-:provision of ‘adequate shelter’ --- on sustainable basis,--
ensuring security of tenure-and within means of common urban households.
 Affordable Housing -which is provided to those -whose needs are not met
by open market
Affordable Housing
3. KPMG Report on Affordable Housing- A key Growth
Driver in the Real Estate Sector’ -- defined Affordable
Housing in three main parameters
income
size of dwelling unit
affordability
4. US Department of Housing and Urban Development
defines, housing affordability in terms of
-expenditure of household on housing as proportion
of annual income - should not exceed 30% of total
income.
Affordable Housing
5. Task Force on Affordable Housing set up by Ministry of Housing and Poverty
Alleviation, 2008, has defined affordable housing in terms of;
 size of dwelling and
household income
6. JnNURM Mission has defined affordable housing in terms of:
-- size of dwelling units –
super built up area/carpet area
-- EMI/Rent-- not exceeding 30-40% of gross monthly income of buyer.
7 Under PMAY
. An all weather single unit or a unit-- in a multi-storeyed super structure --
having carpet area of up to 30 sq. m.-- with adequate basic civic services/
infrastructure like toilet, water, electricity etc.
States -- to determine area of EWS
-- with ceiling of 30/60 sq.m of carpet area- as the limit for EWS/LIG
category
- Annual Income not to exceed 3lakh for EWS and 6 lakh for LIG
Affordable Housing
8. Jones Lang LaSalle defined affordable housing in terms of
-volume of habitation instead of area
- provision of basic amenities
- cost of house ( including purchase cost / maintenance cost) and
-location of shelter
This definition enlarges scope / dimensions of affordable housing by
::
I.i. Adopting volume based approach instead of area-- providing more
flexibility in designing .
ii. Specifying minimum physical/ social infrastructure -- ensuring quality
of life
iii Making cost of shelter broad based by including-- operational
/maintenance cost for a reasonable period- to actual cost of house.
iv Making project attractive/affordable-- by limiting cost / travel time --
between place of work / place of living
Challenges
Issues-- in
Affordable
Housing
Challenges in Affordable Housing
 Housing Shortage--Gap between Demand/supply--Ever
widening gap between demand and supply of affordable
housing--.
 Rising COST-- costs rising disproportionately to household
incomes, particularly in -lower income households
 Scarce Land-- Scarcity of land for affordable housing
 Energy poverty--, due to high operational cost and low
household income, high energy prices and poor building
energy efficiency makes housing unaffordable.
 Demographic changes-- arising out of,
 -- Reduced Household size
 -- Rapid Population growth
 -- rapid in-migration,
 -- Ageing population,.
Issues- Affordable Housing
 Low availability of developed land
 Rising Threshold Cost of Construction
 High degree of Government charges
 Rigid Land Use Planning
 Irrational Building Bye-Laws
 Delayed Project approvals
 Inadequate Access to Cheaper Housing Finance
 Multiplicity of Agencies involved
 Outdated Legal Framework
 Marginalizing Private Sector
 Outdated Construction Technologies
 Poor project Management
 One Solution Fit All Approach – Focus on Creating ownership
 Lack of Research and Development
 Absence of Reliable data about Housing stock- Qualitative/quantitative
 Absence of Reliable data about Beneficiaries
 Large Stock of Vacant Houses
 Ignoring Rental Market
 Unskilled Manpower
 Uncontrolled Urban Sprawl
Issues- Land
a) Lack of availability of Urban Land
-- 2.4% of global land and 17.6% of world population,
- India under perpetual shortage of land
Cost of urban land rising rapidly rapid due to—
- urbanization and industrialization,-- speculation
- Irrational legal framework, irrational planning tools and building
bye-laws-- restricting supply of developed urban land
- making shelter highly unaffordable
 Major issues leading to shortage of urban land :
i) Excessive parastatal controls on development of land.
ii) Lack of marketable land parcels
iii) High degree of encroachments on public land
iv) Poor land information system
v) Cumbersome legal and procedural framework for sourcing land
vi) Restrictions imposed by planning and development framework
vii) High cost of land & cost of land transactions
Land Reservations for Housing Urban
Poor
Issues – Cost, Government Charges
b) Rising Threshold Cost of Construction –
Major contributors include:
-- cost of building materials,
-- cost of labour,
-- cost of transportation
- Government Taxes, levies, fees
c) High degree of Government charges –
Charges levied on housing/ construction-
- constitute substantial proportion of total cost, which include charges/ fee for:
-- licensing of colonies
,-- change of land use,
-- layout approval
-- building plan approvals
-- internal development charges
--external development charges,
-- registration of land
--registration for finished house
.—Labour Cess
Issues- Planning, Bye-laws
d) Rigid land use planning –
--Master Plans, Development Plans,
--Controlled Area Plans and Zoning Regulations control
-- mechanism of planning and development
- informal sector / affordable housing-
exclusion from --planning strategies and development options.
e) Irrational Building Bye-Laws and Subdivision Regulations-
-Low Floor Area Ratio
--Low densities
--Low height
--Large Floor Area of dwelling units -----leading to;
- high degree of operational inefficiencies
- underutilization of land
- restricting number of dwelling units
- restricting cost-effective/state of art
--- building materials-- construction technologies.
Issues- Approvals, Finance
f) Considerable time taken for approval of projects/
/building plans (16-24months) due to:
-complicated procedures/ cumbersome processes
---large documentation
-large number of agencies involved
-large number of personnels involved
---Lack of Co-ordination among offices/ personnels
--Ambiguous Rules/ Regulations,
--- narrow interpretation
- duplications of processes/procedures
- lack of decentralization of powers
--High degree of corrupt practices
-leading to time over- run/ cost over- run of projects.
g) Lack of access to housing finance
- non- availability of large number of documents involved
-- providing securities
- -proof of assured sources of income
--- permanent residential address
Issues- Agencies/Laws, Legal framework
private sector, technologies
h) Multiplicity of agencies and laws involved-- in approval
- working at cross purposes --leading to delay/ cost escalations-- KPMG /NAREDCO
revealed that real estate projects -required to pass through-- 150 tables in 40
departments --Of central/ state urban local bodies before approval is granted.
-.
i) Outdated and irrational legal frame work :-
--Rent Control Act.
j) Low key involvement of Private Sector due to lower order
of profitability
k) Outdated technologies / conventional methods of
construction/ project management:
-leading to wastage
-- delay in construction
-- raising cost of dwelling units.
COST OF
BUILDING
Buildings- life cycle costs
Operating Cost 89%
Maintenance/
Consumables 1%
Initial Cost
10%
What constitutes Cost of Building
 Cost of building includes:
I Cost of land
ii Cost of construction
iii Cost of maintenance
iv Cost of operations
 Building cost viewed in both--- long term and short term
 Building cost also evaluated -- Initial Cost and Life Time Cost
 Short Time cost includes Initial Cost of construction of building
 Long Term cost component --- whole life cost.
 Whole life cost of building includes:
 the initial design cost construction cost,
 on-going operations and maintenance cost ,
 parts replacement cost disposal cost or salvage value, and
 useful life of the system or building
 To promote economy in building– Life cycle cost of
building will be critical
How to save on Cost of Housing
 Housing can be made cost-effective by:
 Sourcing land at most competitive price
 Adopting optimum Design solutions- architecturally, structurally, Services
etc
 Using cost-effective local materials, pre-cast, pre- fabricated , re-cycled
materials , materials requiring minimum maintenance, having longer life
 Optimising resources /minimising waste
 Using state of art technology in construction -- save on time , labour, space
materials and money
 Managing construction in most professional manner- Project management
 Using minimum Time for construction / completion of building/project
 Designing Green Buildings –to reduce cost of electricity/water and
generating its own energy
 Keeping cost of money minimum- based on rates and time
 Rationalizing Builders, Contractor margins
 Reducing Government levies and fees
Sourcing
Land for
Housing
Sourcing Land for Housing
 Land Pooling
 Formal Acquisition-THE RIGHT TO FAIR COMPENSATION AND
TRANSPARENCY IN LAND ACQUISITION, REHABILITATION AND RESETTLEMENT ACT,
2013
 Negotiated Settlement
 Densification and Intensification
 Transit Oriented Development
 Inclusionary Zoning
 Mixed Use Development
 Green Field Development
 Brown Field Development
Green Field development
Brown Field Development
Intensification of Land
Densification of Cities
Transit Oriented Development
Mixed Use Development
WAY -FORWARD
WAY FORWARD--Making Affordable
Housing A Distinct Reality
 Reviewing, Revising and Redefining National Urban Housing Policy
 Understanding Future Urban Context
 Prioritizing Regional Planning
 Registering Migrants,
 Minimizing Multiple Ownerships
 Separating ‘Right to Shelter from Right to Ownership of Shelter
 Migrating from Ownership to providing Shelter
 Including Housing in Corporate Social Responsibility
 Adopting Project Based Approach
 Promoting Strong Project Cost-Management
 Single Window Clearance
 Evolve Innovative Architectural Design
 Promoting Affordable living
 Reviewing Planning Norms
 Changing Housing Typology
 Creating Land Development Agency
 Creating Land Bank;
 Optimum Utilization of Vacant Government Lands
 Careful Siting of the affordable housing projects
-Making Affordable Housing A Distinct Reality
 Using Cost/Energy Efficient Building Technologies- Green Housing
 Inventing new Building Materials- Agro /industrial waste based
 Creating Building Components on Mass scale
 Shifting from Construction to Manufacturing
 Adopting Co-operative Based Approach
 Promoting Rental housing schemes-Creating Rental Housing/Build to Rent
 Using PPP Model
 Creating Revolving Fund
 Making Housing- Beneficiary- led Program
 Bringing Vacant Houses into market
 Skilling Manpower/ Promoting R& D
 Promoting Start-ups
 Rationalizing Government Charges
 Empowering ULBs
 Addressing Demand/Supply side Challenge
 Treating Affordable Housing a volume Game
Way Forward-land,
to make affordable housing a reality /to ensure adequate supply on large scale,
following approach is suggested:
i) Making the land market more efficient,
-for making enough land available at lower cost
ii) Permitting construction of houses on periphery /peri-urban area
-with provision of services, infrastructures and transport.
iii) Providing a ‘Single Window Clearance’ of projects on time bound basis.
v) Creating Land Bank
-for constructing affordable housing and
-making available land at competitive price
vi) Promoting strong Project and Cost Management
-to increase speed of construction and
-Reduced cost of construction /Eliminate cost over-runs.
Granting Higher Floor Area Ratio
iv) By rationalizing building bye-laws/zoning regulations
- to ensure --optimum utilization of land – providing more built space
- permitting construction of more affordable houses.
Way Forward
vii) Promoting Standardization of building components --based on effective design
to promote prefabrication and mass production of components.
viii) Bringing new state of art construction technologies -using cost effective locally
produced building materials --based on industrial waste --to lower down cost of
construction and make buildings green and sustainable.
ix)Long term tie for supply of conventional building materials --including steel,
cement ,tiles etc-- to minimize variations in price/ to ensure assured supply of
materials during project life cycle
x)Promoting large scale projects -Taking up large housing projects with number of
units ranging from 1000-1500 for promoting and achieving economy of scale.
xii) Rationalising/Reducing Government levies/ charges --to minimize their impact
on the housing cost.
In all cases involving affordable housing ,
-- no land use conversion and licensing charges should be levied,
-- building scrutiny fee should be charged @25% of prescribed rates
--whereas EDC should be charged @50% for EWS and@ 75% for other categories.
Way Forward
xiii. Adopting project based approach
--For cross-subsidy ---project based approach adopted for creating mass
housing.
--Housing project to be invariably mix of all categories -HIG, MIG besides EWS
and LIG-- to make project viable /self-sustaining.
--Addition of commercial component to help in making project profitable/
attractive /viable
xiv. Single Window Clearance
---For early completion of project
-- avoiding cost escalation
-- to approve projects on time bound basis/ prescribed time frame–
--not exceeding three months
Xv Green Buildings
Designing affordable housing as Green Buildings
- reduces operational cost of house over entire life cycle
--due to reduced energy / water consumption
-- lower generation of waste – making dwellings really cost-effective /
Affordable.
Benefits of Green Buildings
Way Forward
xvi. Reducing cost through Innovative and state of art architectural designs involving :
--optimum utilization of land resource,
-promoting high degree of space efficiency
---using high efficiency structural system
--- using cost effective building materials
--cost-effective building technologies/services,
- using pre-cast / pre-fabricated building components
- -- combining/ minimizing public health services
- --avoiding use of lifts
- --using local materials etc.
- -- minimum maintenance and upkeep
xvii. Using locally available building materials
--for promoting cost-effectiveness and utilizing waste.
--government to encourage research /development and promote industries producing
materials from industrial and agricultural waste
-- to increase cost-effective materials/ reduce depletion of non-renewable resources
xviii. Adopting co-operative based approach
Creating co-operative societies of beneficiaries for involving stakeholders/
Sourcing their support /resources for-- creating adequate housing stock, minimising transfer
of units /procuring easy loans from financial institutions.
Way Forward
 xix Treating Affordable Housing a volume Game
 Affordable housing treated not a profit game but a volume game
 Creating large housing stock
 with minimum cost,
 within a short span of 18-24 months
 disposing off entire stock within time span of project.
 Taking large housing projects with units ranging from 1000-1500 for
promoting economy of scale-- have proved highly successful
 xx. Separating ‘Right to Shelter from Right to Ownership of Shelter’
 Concept to help in:
 -- promoting optimum utilization of available housing stock
 -- minimising speculation
 -- eliminating transfer of affordable housing to non-beneficiaries/ higher
strata of society
Way Forward
xxi Creating Multiple Options for Shelter
 Multiple options for affordable shelter needs consideration based on
 - shelter requirements,
 -- affordability, -- family size,
 -- -- marital status,-- type of avocation,-- skill, tenure etc.
 Options--Night shelters- mobile housing, bachelor/single
accommodation , rental housing, transit accommodation, hostels etc.
used as options for augmenting shelter/ minimizing quantum of formal
and expensive housing
 xxii. Creating Built up Houses for EWS in Private Colonies/Townships
 land reserved in private colonies transferred to Housing Board/
Development Authority,
 -- mandated to construct affordable houses for identified beneficiaries.
 Proportion of affordable housing to be increased
 . Reservation made irrespective of size of colony / group housing.
 Under PMAY, EWS housing placed at 35% , minimum project size under PPP
model to be 250 house, carpet area limited to 30 sqm, needs to be adopted
/ made integral part of state / local legal framework.
Way Forward
xxiii. Siting of the affordable housing projects
 Siting with care / caution to ensure project success / viability
 Projects constructed not far away from place of work for minimising
travel /travel time/ expenditure on travel.
 Making available cost- effective, efficient /reliable public transport ---
critical for acceptability/success of project.
 xxiv Providing Essential/ Basic Amenities as Integral Part of Project
 Basic amenities involving :
 --education,
 --healthcare ,
 -- recreation ,
 -- child care,
 -- shopping,
 --community centre,
 --open spaces etc to make project self- contained and self-sustainable.
Way Forward
 xxv Formulating well defined, transparent and objective guidelines
 Creating a networked system of sharing information, critical /
essential for:
 -- identifying right beneficiaries
 -- eliminating speculators,
 -- minimising multiple ownership and
 -- illegal transfer/ sale of units at the local ,state and national level..
 xxvii. Creating Revolving Fund
 --Promoting easy access to institutional finance at affordable cost
 --Creating a dedicated Revolving Fund at national /state level
 -- contributions to bemade by central / state governments/ urban
local bodies/ development authorities / assistance provided under
sponsored schemes,.
 xxviii. Involving Beneficiaries
 Involving beneficiaries – both in cash/ kind -- critical for success of
project involving slum up-gradation /provision of shelter.
Way Forward
xxix Creating JV or PPP –Adopting West Bengal Model-with
Government agencies providing land where approvals already
in place.
-Limiting time for construction - 12-18 months --
Lowering cost of construction below Rs.1000/- per sq. ft.
ensure 100% sale within a short span
 High sale/ volume of project.
xxx Involving enablers, providers and executor to work in a
united /single platform
xxxi Eliminating speculator investors
xxxii Including mass housing / affordable housing zones
in city plans/develop them on a time bound basis.
xxxiii Promoting rental housing schemes in urban areas.
Way Forward
xxxii. Identifying constraints on demand side and supply side
 -- find out strategies to overcome them
 --adopting collaborative approach to promote synergies
xxxiii. Demand- side constraints removal requires
- Identifying right beneficiaries.
- Innovating micro-mortgage financing mechanism to ensure a larger reach
xxxiv. Supply side constraints removal requires –Developers believe -
i) Providing incentives for constructing affordable housing on mass scale
ii) Rationalizing building bye-laws / zoning regulations
iii) Providing higher density extra-FSI
Iv ) Streamlining land records – for improving urban planning / optimization of land
utilization.
v) Making land market more effective and efficient by:
- computerization of land records
- creating a urban land data base using GIS
- making data base of all urban lands
- creating efficient and effective dispute redressal mechanism
- -- proper implementation of master plan.-
Way Forward
 Developers believe that-- if Government removes
roadblocks- segment would move to fast track by
 i. Making Project and cost management very strong.
ii. Improving/using state of art technologies
iii Reducing Timeframe for construction =
iv Using Economies of scale
iv Designing Dwelling unit with care
v. Standardising Housing units/components
vi. Developing standard product
vii. Rationalising Government charges
viii Making available Off the table developed Land with all
approvals/clearances

Pradhan
Mantri Awas
Yojna-
Housing for
All (u)-2015
PMAY- Mission Scope& Coverage
 Scope---Housing for All” Mission for urban area
 To be implemented during 2015-2022
 providing assistance for houses to eligible families
 Implemented as Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS)
 family not to own a pucca house in any part of India
 States/UTs, to decide a cut-off date-
 for identifying beneficiaries eligible under scheme.
 Mission effective from 17.06.2015 up to 31.03.2022- extended upto 31st
December 2024
 2. Coverage and Duration
 All 4041 statutory towns as per Census 2011 with focus on 500 Class I
cities covered in three phases as follows:
• Phase I (April 2015 - March 2017) to cover 100 Cities selected from
States/UTs
• Phase II (April 2017 - March 2019) to cover additional 200 Cities
• Phase III (April 2019 - March 2022) to cover all other remaining Cities
 Flexibility regarding inclusion of additional cities in earlier phases in case
there is a resource backed demand from States/UTs.
Approaching Affordable Housing- PMAY
In-Situ Slum Redevelopment
 Private partner for redevelopment-- selected thru’ transparent bidding
process
 Incentivizing through- additional density/FAR/TDR to be given if
required to make project viable
 Grant-- of Rs. 1 lakh/house for eligible slum dwellers on public land
 Eligibility,-- cut off dates, beneficiary contribution, system of
allotment, etc. --decided by State
 All tenable slums-- to be identified
 Viable project prepared-- with REHAB component and FREE SALE
component
 Consultations to be held with beneficiaries
 --Transit accommodation to be provided
 FREE SALE component -- linked to project completion
 Govt. agency to make allotments
 Single project account --Approval process to be streamlined
Credit Linked Subsidy
 Credit linked subsidy on home loans - EWS/ LIG,
MIG-I and (MIG)-II
 interest subsidy allowed- of 6.5%, 4% and 3% on
loan amount up to Rs. 6 Lakh, Rs. 9 Lakh and Rs.
12 Lakh respectively
 EWS 30 sq.m. and LIG 60 sq.m. carpet area
 Subsidy channelised thru’ HUDCO/NHB/SBI
 PLIs to register with HUDCO/NHB/SBI
 Beneficiary identification thru’ Aadhar/Voter ID
etc.
 Self certification/Affidavit as proof of income
Affordable Housing in Partnership
 Financial assistance for EWS housing projects
 Central assistance @ Rs.1.5 lakhs / EWS house
 Sale price to be decided by local agencies based on
affordability, viability, etc.
 Other concessions can also be given by states.
 Project can be a mix of various income groups but
at least 35 percent EWS houses.
 Projects can be by public sector alone or in
partnership with private sector.
Beneficiary Led Individual House
Construction / Enhancement
To assist individual EWS families
Central assistance of Rs.1.5 lakhs
New house or improvement
Based on integrated city wide
housing project for such individual
beneficiaries
Progress tracking with geo-tagging
 Central Assistance- released through Direct Benefit
Transfer (DBT) by States/UTs.
Affordable Rental Housing Complexes
(ARHCs) for Migrant Workers/ Urban Poor
 COVID-19 pandemic led to-
 -- reverse migration of urban migrants/ poor
 -- to save cost on housing.
 - Need decent rental housing at affordable rate near work
sites.
 Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs initiated;
 - Affordable Rental Housing Complexes (ARHCs)
 under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana - Urban (PMAY-U).
 -To provide ease of living to- urban migrants/ poor in
Industrial Sector/ non-formal urban economy
 - dignified affordable rental housing close to workplace
 -- ARHC scheme to be- implemented through two models:
 i. Utilizing existing Government funded vacant houses- to
convert into ARHCs-- through Public Private Partnership --or
by Public Agencies

ii. Construction, Operation / Maintenance of ARHCs --by
Public/ Private Entities on their own vacant land
PMAY- U- Scorecard up to- 15-2-2024
PMAY- Salient Features
PREFABRICATION-
Technology for
BUILDINGS
Traditional on -site construction-Issues
 Majority of construction in India follow;
 -- traditional on-site pattern of construction.
 --Known as linear construction
 -- where every component constructed on site &
 -- completed before project moves to next phase.
 --Construction major implications in terms of
 -- time;
 -- cost,
 --quality,
 --safety,
 -- pollution,
 -- manpower
 ---- noise,
Traditional on -site construction-Issues
 Highly time consuming-time intensive
 Generating large scale waste- material inefficient
 Weather Led- dictated by prevailing weather conditions.
 Pollution intensive;
 Unsafe-- for construction workers
 manpower intensive-Large manpower needed
 Material intensive -Large inventory of material
 Resource intensive-Using large water/energy
 cost inefficient –Increased initial cost of construction-
 Cost overrun- Uneconomical in cost/resources-
 Manpower led--large workers deployed at construction
 Loss/theft of material- Individual/human oriented
 Variation in quality- dependent on work force deployed
 Limited application in hazardous areas
 Large site disruption ; Adverse impact on surroundings
Pre- fabrication/Modular Construction/off-site-
Advantages
Building in Hazardous Area
Assured Quality Construction
Material Efficiency
Cost- Efficiency
Green Construction
Flexibility
 Reduced Site Disruption
Time Efficiency
Pre- fabrication-- Limitations
Monotony
Restricting additions & alterations
Reduced Resale Value
Roadblock in Financing
Accuracy & Precision
High Transportation Cost
Mass Production
 Skilled Manpower / Cost
Global Housing Technology Challenge- India (GHTC-India
MoHUA initiated the GHTC-India to identify and mainstream a basket of innovative construction technologies from
across the globe for the housing construction sector that is sustainable, eco-friendly, and disaster-resilient.
GHTC-India
54 Innovative
Construction
Technologies
Shortlisting
Light House
projects with 6
selected
technologies
Climate Smart Buildings | LHP Rajkot | PMAY Urban
AGARTALA,
TRIPURA
Light Gauge Steel
Structural System &
Pre-Engineered Steel
Structural System
CHENNAI,
NADU
Precast
Construction
TAMIL
Concrete
System-
Precast Components
Assembled at Site
INDORE, MADHYA
PRADESH
Prefabricated
Sandwich
Panel
System
LUCKNOW,
UTTAR PRADESH
Stay in-place
Formwork System
RAJKOT,
GUJARAT
Monolithic
Concrete
Construction
System
RANCHI,
JHARKHAND
Precast Concrete
Construction
System-3D Pre-
Cast Volumetric
LIGHT HOUSE PROJECTS- INTENT
 LHPs are model housing
projects with houses built with
 shortlisted alternate technology
 suitable to the geo-climatic
 hazard conditions of region,
 initiative under Climate Smart
Building Programme.
 Projects demonstrate
 - deliver ready to live houses
 Constructed with speed,
 Economy
 Better quality of construction
 Based on sustainability
Currently LHPs’ being
implemented in six states
--(Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat,
--Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand;
-- Tamil Nadu;Tripura)
under Global Housing
Technology Challenge (GHTC).
Projects Involve
---- use of modern technology
-- innovative processes
-- reduced construction time
-- making Housing- more
resilient/ affordable,
comfortable for poor.
Climate Smart Buildings | LHP Rajkot | PMAY Urban
Technology Sub-Mission
 This sub-mission worked on
design and planning
Innovative technologies and materials
Green buildings and
Earthquake and other disaster resistant
technologies
 States can partner with willing IITs/NITs/SPAs for the above
Innovative Technologies
Mission-Affordable housing-
CONCLUSION- Making Affordable
Housing A Distinct Reality
CONCLUSIONS
New Approach to AffordableHousing
 Accepting Right to Shelter—But Separating ‘Right to Shelter from Right to Ownership
of Shelter- with focus on providing shelter and not creating ownership
 Graduating to affordable living from affordable housing
 Looking at life-cycle cost of housing instead of initial cost
 Treating Affordable Housing-- a volume Game & not profit game-
 Identifying Right beneficiaries
 Registering Migrants
 Moving from construction to manufacturing of shelter
 Creating Multiple Options for Shelter
 Promoting principle of limited land- unlimited space
 Promoting Multiple use of land- 24x7
 Adopting volume instead area- to define dwelling size
 Providing more flexibility in designing
 Adopting project based approach
 Promoting Regional Planning;
 Empowering Rural India
 Promoting co-operative beneficiary –led approach
Conclusion
Affordable Housing can be effectively leveraged to
 create/ expand large job market for unskilled/ semi-skilled rural migrants;
revitalize Indian industry
 promote economy;
achieve higher growth rate and
 marginalize poverty in urban India.
Affordable Housing --holds enormous capacity to make our urban / rural
centers
--Smart,
 healthier,
more productive,
 more effective,
More efficient,
More sustainable,
 inclusive,
Resilient
 safe
better planned,
 slum free,
 with assured quality of life.
HONGKONG- 1960
HONGKONG -TODAY
Slums in London in -1800s
London Today
SINGAPORE in 60’s
SINGAPORE- TODAY
If they can do it
Surely we all can
also do it

More Related Content

Similar to Options for Making Housing Affordable a distinct Reality

Affordable housing for all in india- Issues and Options
Affordable housing for all in india- Issues and OptionsAffordable housing for all in india- Issues and Options
Affordable housing for all in india- Issues and OptionsJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Affordable housing for all in india
Affordable housing for all in indiaAffordable housing for all in india
Affordable housing for all in indiaJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Planning for village development
Planning for village developmentPlanning for village development
Planning for village developmentJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM.pptx
Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM.pptxDeendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM.pptx
Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM.pptxJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna
Pradhan Mantri Awas YojnaPradhan Mantri Awas Yojna
Pradhan Mantri Awas YojnaJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
The challenges-in-affordable-housing-for-urban-poor-in-india-deciphering-the-...
The challenges-in-affordable-housing-for-urban-poor-in-india-deciphering-the-...The challenges-in-affordable-housing-for-urban-poor-in-india-deciphering-the-...
The challenges-in-affordable-housing-for-urban-poor-in-india-deciphering-the-...kanwargaurav3
 
Planning for Village development
Planning for Village development   Planning for Village development
Planning for Village development JIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Issues and options for housing the urban poor in india
 Issues and options for housing the urban poor in india Issues and options for housing the urban poor in india
Issues and options for housing the urban poor in indiaJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Urban housing scenario and rental housing in india
Urban housing scenario and rental housing in indiaUrban housing scenario and rental housing in india
Urban housing scenario and rental housing in indiapadamatikona swapnika
 
National scenario on rehabilitation and resettlement
National scenario on rehabilitation and resettlement National scenario on rehabilitation and resettlement
National scenario on rehabilitation and resettlement rajnikant
 
Affordable Housing MoHUPA & Dept. of Housing, SPA Delhi
Affordable Housing MoHUPA & Dept. of Housing, SPA DelhiAffordable Housing MoHUPA & Dept. of Housing, SPA Delhi
Affordable Housing MoHUPA & Dept. of Housing, SPA DelhiParomita Roy
 
Land livelihoods convergence cysd_22 nov 2011
Land livelihoods convergence cysd_22 nov 2011Land livelihoods convergence cysd_22 nov 2011
Land livelihoods convergence cysd_22 nov 2011Sibabrata Choudhury
 
Housing problems by tauqeer ahmed additional commissioner ir
Housing problems by tauqeer ahmed additional commissioner irHousing problems by tauqeer ahmed additional commissioner ir
Housing problems by tauqeer ahmed additional commissioner irTauqeer Malik
 
Planning for village development
Planning for village developmentPlanning for village development
Planning for village developmentJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Housing for the urban poor naredco
Housing for the urban poor naredcoHousing for the urban poor naredco
Housing for the urban poor naredcoSushil Kumar Yadav
 
Housing for urban poor
Housing for urban poorHousing for urban poor
Housing for urban poorNitin Das
 
Planning for village development
Planning for village developmentPlanning for village development
Planning for village developmentJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 

Similar to Options for Making Housing Affordable a distinct Reality (20)

Affordable housing for all in india- Issues and Options
Affordable housing for all in india- Issues and OptionsAffordable housing for all in india- Issues and Options
Affordable housing for all in india- Issues and Options
 
Affordable housing for all in india
Affordable housing for all in indiaAffordable housing for all in india
Affordable housing for all in india
 
Planning for village development
Planning for village developmentPlanning for village development
Planning for village development
 
Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM.pptx
Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM.pptxDeendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM.pptx
Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM.pptx
 
Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna
Pradhan Mantri Awas YojnaPradhan Mantri Awas Yojna
Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna
 
The challenges-in-affordable-housing-for-urban-poor-in-india-deciphering-the-...
The challenges-in-affordable-housing-for-urban-poor-in-india-deciphering-the-...The challenges-in-affordable-housing-for-urban-poor-in-india-deciphering-the-...
The challenges-in-affordable-housing-for-urban-poor-in-india-deciphering-the-...
 
Planning for Village development
Planning for Village development   Planning for Village development
Planning for Village development
 
Issues and options for housing the urban poor in india
 Issues and options for housing the urban poor in india Issues and options for housing the urban poor in india
Issues and options for housing the urban poor in india
 
Urban housing scenario and rental housing in india
Urban housing scenario and rental housing in indiaUrban housing scenario and rental housing in india
Urban housing scenario and rental housing in india
 
National scenario on rehabilitation and resettlement
National scenario on rehabilitation and resettlement National scenario on rehabilitation and resettlement
National scenario on rehabilitation and resettlement
 
Affordable Housing MoHUPA & Dept. of Housing, SPA Delhi
Affordable Housing MoHUPA & Dept. of Housing, SPA DelhiAffordable Housing MoHUPA & Dept. of Housing, SPA Delhi
Affordable Housing MoHUPA & Dept. of Housing, SPA Delhi
 
Land livelihoods convergence cysd_22 nov 2011
Land livelihoods convergence cysd_22 nov 2011Land livelihoods convergence cysd_22 nov 2011
Land livelihoods convergence cysd_22 nov 2011
 
National shelter policy 1996
National shelter policy 1996National shelter policy 1996
National shelter policy 1996
 
Slum problems and measures
Slum problems and measures Slum problems and measures
Slum problems and measures
 
AlHuda CIBE - presentation on Housing microfinance and challenges of BO P
AlHuda CIBE - presentation on Housing microfinance and challenges of BO PAlHuda CIBE - presentation on Housing microfinance and challenges of BO P
AlHuda CIBE - presentation on Housing microfinance and challenges of BO P
 
Housing problems by tauqeer ahmed additional commissioner ir
Housing problems by tauqeer ahmed additional commissioner irHousing problems by tauqeer ahmed additional commissioner ir
Housing problems by tauqeer ahmed additional commissioner ir
 
Planning for village development
Planning for village developmentPlanning for village development
Planning for village development
 
Housing for the urban poor naredco
Housing for the urban poor naredcoHousing for the urban poor naredco
Housing for the urban poor naredco
 
Housing for urban poor
Housing for urban poorHousing for urban poor
Housing for urban poor
 
Planning for village development
Planning for village developmentPlanning for village development
Planning for village development
 

More from JIT KUMAR GUPTA

Factors Causing Urban Heat Island- 14.4,24.docx
Factors Causing Urban Heat Island- 14.4,24.docxFactors Causing Urban Heat Island- 14.4,24.docx
Factors Causing Urban Heat Island- 14.4,24.docxJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Making and Unmaking of Chandigarh - A City of Two Plans2-4-24.ppt
Making and Unmaking of Chandigarh - A City of Two Plans2-4-24.pptMaking and Unmaking of Chandigarh - A City of Two Plans2-4-24.ppt
Making and Unmaking of Chandigarh - A City of Two Plans2-4-24.pptJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Planning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategies
Planning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategiesPlanning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategies
Planning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategiesJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
_Neighborhood Planning in Capital City of Chandigarh- An Appraisal (2) - Copy...
_Neighborhood Planning in Capital City of Chandigarh- An Appraisal (2) - Copy..._Neighborhood Planning in Capital City of Chandigarh- An Appraisal (2) - Copy...
_Neighborhood Planning in Capital City of Chandigarh- An Appraisal (2) - Copy...JIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Reviewing, Revising and Redefining Master Plans and Development Plans to Ma...
Reviewing, Revising and  Redefining Master Plans and Development Plans to  Ma...Reviewing, Revising and  Redefining Master Plans and Development Plans to  Ma...
Reviewing, Revising and Redefining Master Plans and Development Plans to Ma...JIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Rationalizing the Planned Growth of Urban India- paper.docx
Rationalizing the Planned Growth of Urban India- paper.docxRationalizing the Planned Growth of Urban India- paper.docx
Rationalizing the Planned Growth of Urban India- paper.docxJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Suggestion and Options for integrating villages. within the framework of the...
Suggestion and Options for  integrating villages. within the framework of the...Suggestion and Options for  integrating villages. within the framework of the...
Suggestion and Options for integrating villages. within the framework of the...JIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Making cities Climate Responsive and Sustainable
Making cities Climate Responsive and SustainableMaking cities Climate Responsive and Sustainable
Making cities Climate Responsive and SustainableJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Managing Planning and Development of Citie- 26-2-24.docx
Managing Planning and  Development of  Citie-  26-2-24.docxManaging Planning and  Development of  Citie-  26-2-24.docx
Managing Planning and Development of Citie- 26-2-24.docxJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Agenda, Approach and Options for Rationalising and Redefining Future Indian ...
Agenda, Approach and Options for Rationalising and Redefining Future  Indian ...Agenda, Approach and Options for Rationalising and Redefining Future  Indian ...
Agenda, Approach and Options for Rationalising and Redefining Future Indian ...JIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
-Redefining and Rationalising Development Controls - Copy.docx
-Redefining and Rationalising  Development Controls - Copy.docx-Redefining and Rationalising  Development Controls - Copy.docx
-Redefining and Rationalising Development Controls - Copy.docxJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Redefining and Rationalising Development Controls -Issues and Options
Redefining and Rationalising Development Controls -Issues and OptionsRedefining and Rationalising Development Controls -Issues and Options
Redefining and Rationalising Development Controls -Issues and OptionsJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Book on-Identifying, Analysing and Planning sites for Architectural Projects
Book on-Identifying, Analysing and Planning sites for Architectural ProjectsBook on-Identifying, Analysing and Planning sites for Architectural Projects
Book on-Identifying, Analysing and Planning sites for Architectural ProjectsJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
7 Leveraging Tourism for Promoting Sustainable Development of Hill States.pdf
7 Leveraging  Tourism for Promoting Sustainable Development of Hill States.pdf7 Leveraging  Tourism for Promoting Sustainable Development of Hill States.pdf
7 Leveraging Tourism for Promoting Sustainable Development of Hill States.pdfJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Strategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptx
Strategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptxStrategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptx
Strategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptxJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
SECMOL School In Leh- A Role Model of Vernacular , Passive and Sustainable H...
SECMOL School In Leh- A  Role Model of Vernacular , Passive and Sustainable H...SECMOL School In Leh- A  Role Model of Vernacular , Passive and Sustainable H...
SECMOL School In Leh- A Role Model of Vernacular , Passive and Sustainable H...JIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Hill Area development- Issues and Options
Hill Area development- Issues and OptionsHill Area development- Issues and Options
Hill Area development- Issues and OptionsJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Preface-Making Hill Area Great Place to Live.docx
Preface-Making Hill Area Great Place to Live.docxPreface-Making Hill Area Great Place to Live.docx
Preface-Making Hill Area Great Place to Live.docxJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Land Management and sourcing land for sustainable Urban Development.
Land Management and sourcing land for sustainable Urban Development.Land Management and sourcing land for sustainable Urban Development.
Land Management and sourcing land for sustainable Urban Development.JIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Urban Infrastructure 24-5-23.ppt
Urban Infrastructure  24-5-23.pptUrban Infrastructure  24-5-23.ppt
Urban Infrastructure 24-5-23.pptJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 

More from JIT KUMAR GUPTA (20)

Factors Causing Urban Heat Island- 14.4,24.docx
Factors Causing Urban Heat Island- 14.4,24.docxFactors Causing Urban Heat Island- 14.4,24.docx
Factors Causing Urban Heat Island- 14.4,24.docx
 
Making and Unmaking of Chandigarh - A City of Two Plans2-4-24.ppt
Making and Unmaking of Chandigarh - A City of Two Plans2-4-24.pptMaking and Unmaking of Chandigarh - A City of Two Plans2-4-24.ppt
Making and Unmaking of Chandigarh - A City of Two Plans2-4-24.ppt
 
Planning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategies
Planning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategiesPlanning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategies
Planning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategies
 
_Neighborhood Planning in Capital City of Chandigarh- An Appraisal (2) - Copy...
_Neighborhood Planning in Capital City of Chandigarh- An Appraisal (2) - Copy..._Neighborhood Planning in Capital City of Chandigarh- An Appraisal (2) - Copy...
_Neighborhood Planning in Capital City of Chandigarh- An Appraisal (2) - Copy...
 
Reviewing, Revising and Redefining Master Plans and Development Plans to Ma...
Reviewing, Revising and  Redefining Master Plans and Development Plans to  Ma...Reviewing, Revising and  Redefining Master Plans and Development Plans to  Ma...
Reviewing, Revising and Redefining Master Plans and Development Plans to Ma...
 
Rationalizing the Planned Growth of Urban India- paper.docx
Rationalizing the Planned Growth of Urban India- paper.docxRationalizing the Planned Growth of Urban India- paper.docx
Rationalizing the Planned Growth of Urban India- paper.docx
 
Suggestion and Options for integrating villages. within the framework of the...
Suggestion and Options for  integrating villages. within the framework of the...Suggestion and Options for  integrating villages. within the framework of the...
Suggestion and Options for integrating villages. within the framework of the...
 
Making cities Climate Responsive and Sustainable
Making cities Climate Responsive and SustainableMaking cities Climate Responsive and Sustainable
Making cities Climate Responsive and Sustainable
 
Managing Planning and Development of Citie- 26-2-24.docx
Managing Planning and  Development of  Citie-  26-2-24.docxManaging Planning and  Development of  Citie-  26-2-24.docx
Managing Planning and Development of Citie- 26-2-24.docx
 
Agenda, Approach and Options for Rationalising and Redefining Future Indian ...
Agenda, Approach and Options for Rationalising and Redefining Future  Indian ...Agenda, Approach and Options for Rationalising and Redefining Future  Indian ...
Agenda, Approach and Options for Rationalising and Redefining Future Indian ...
 
-Redefining and Rationalising Development Controls - Copy.docx
-Redefining and Rationalising  Development Controls - Copy.docx-Redefining and Rationalising  Development Controls - Copy.docx
-Redefining and Rationalising Development Controls - Copy.docx
 
Redefining and Rationalising Development Controls -Issues and Options
Redefining and Rationalising Development Controls -Issues and OptionsRedefining and Rationalising Development Controls -Issues and Options
Redefining and Rationalising Development Controls -Issues and Options
 
Book on-Identifying, Analysing and Planning sites for Architectural Projects
Book on-Identifying, Analysing and Planning sites for Architectural ProjectsBook on-Identifying, Analysing and Planning sites for Architectural Projects
Book on-Identifying, Analysing and Planning sites for Architectural Projects
 
7 Leveraging Tourism for Promoting Sustainable Development of Hill States.pdf
7 Leveraging  Tourism for Promoting Sustainable Development of Hill States.pdf7 Leveraging  Tourism for Promoting Sustainable Development of Hill States.pdf
7 Leveraging Tourism for Promoting Sustainable Development of Hill States.pdf
 
Strategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptx
Strategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptxStrategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptx
Strategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptx
 
SECMOL School In Leh- A Role Model of Vernacular , Passive and Sustainable H...
SECMOL School In Leh- A  Role Model of Vernacular , Passive and Sustainable H...SECMOL School In Leh- A  Role Model of Vernacular , Passive and Sustainable H...
SECMOL School In Leh- A Role Model of Vernacular , Passive and Sustainable H...
 
Hill Area development- Issues and Options
Hill Area development- Issues and OptionsHill Area development- Issues and Options
Hill Area development- Issues and Options
 
Preface-Making Hill Area Great Place to Live.docx
Preface-Making Hill Area Great Place to Live.docxPreface-Making Hill Area Great Place to Live.docx
Preface-Making Hill Area Great Place to Live.docx
 
Land Management and sourcing land for sustainable Urban Development.
Land Management and sourcing land for sustainable Urban Development.Land Management and sourcing land for sustainable Urban Development.
Land Management and sourcing land for sustainable Urban Development.
 
Urban Infrastructure 24-5-23.ppt
Urban Infrastructure  24-5-23.pptUrban Infrastructure  24-5-23.ppt
Urban Infrastructure 24-5-23.ppt
 

Recently uploaded

MT. Marseille an Archipelago. Strategies for Integrating Residential Communit...
MT. Marseille an Archipelago. Strategies for Integrating Residential Communit...MT. Marseille an Archipelago. Strategies for Integrating Residential Communit...
MT. Marseille an Archipelago. Strategies for Integrating Residential Communit...katerynaivanenko1
 
General Knowledge Quiz Game C++ CODE.pptx
General Knowledge Quiz Game C++ CODE.pptxGeneral Knowledge Quiz Game C++ CODE.pptx
General Knowledge Quiz Game C++ CODE.pptxmarckustrevion
 
Top 10 Modern Web Design Trends for 2025
Top 10 Modern Web Design Trends for 2025Top 10 Modern Web Design Trends for 2025
Top 10 Modern Web Design Trends for 2025Rndexperts
 
Design and Managing Service in the field of tourism and hospitality industry
Design and Managing Service in the field of tourism and hospitality industryDesign and Managing Service in the field of tourism and hospitality industry
Design and Managing Service in the field of tourism and hospitality industryrioverosanniejoy
 
Call Girls in Ashok Nagar Delhi ✡️9711147426✡️ Escorts Service
Call Girls in Ashok Nagar Delhi ✡️9711147426✡️ Escorts ServiceCall Girls in Ashok Nagar Delhi ✡️9711147426✡️ Escorts Service
Call Girls in Ashok Nagar Delhi ✡️9711147426✡️ Escorts Servicejennyeacort
 
澳洲UQ学位证,昆士兰大学毕业证书1:1制作
澳洲UQ学位证,昆士兰大学毕业证书1:1制作澳洲UQ学位证,昆士兰大学毕业证书1:1制作
澳洲UQ学位证,昆士兰大学毕业证书1:1制作aecnsnzk
 
Design principles on typography in design
Design principles on typography in designDesign principles on typography in design
Design principles on typography in designnooreen17
 
办理学位证(SFU证书)西蒙菲莎大学毕业证成绩单原版一比一
办理学位证(SFU证书)西蒙菲莎大学毕业证成绩单原版一比一办理学位证(SFU证书)西蒙菲莎大学毕业证成绩单原版一比一
办理学位证(SFU证书)西蒙菲莎大学毕业证成绩单原版一比一F dds
 
西北大学毕业证学位证成绩单-怎么样办伪造
西北大学毕业证学位证成绩单-怎么样办伪造西北大学毕业证学位证成绩单-怎么样办伪造
西北大学毕业证学位证成绩单-怎么样办伪造kbdhl05e
 
Apresentação Clamo Cristo -letra música Matheus Rizzo
Apresentação Clamo Cristo -letra música Matheus RizzoApresentação Clamo Cristo -letra música Matheus Rizzo
Apresentação Clamo Cristo -letra música Matheus RizzoCarolTelles6
 
原版美国亚利桑那州立大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree
原版美国亚利桑那州立大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree原版美国亚利桑那州立大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree
原版美国亚利桑那州立大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degreeyuu sss
 
'CASE STUDY OF INDIRA PARYAVARAN BHAVAN DELHI ,
'CASE STUDY OF INDIRA PARYAVARAN BHAVAN DELHI ,'CASE STUDY OF INDIRA PARYAVARAN BHAVAN DELHI ,
'CASE STUDY OF INDIRA PARYAVARAN BHAVAN DELHI ,Aginakm1
 
Chapter 6(1)system devolopment life .ppt
Chapter 6(1)system devolopment life .pptChapter 6(1)system devolopment life .ppt
Chapter 6(1)system devolopment life .pptDoaaRezk5
 
8377877756 Full Enjoy @24/7 Call Girls in Nirman Vihar Delhi NCR
8377877756 Full Enjoy @24/7 Call Girls in Nirman Vihar Delhi NCR8377877756 Full Enjoy @24/7 Call Girls in Nirman Vihar Delhi NCR
8377877756 Full Enjoy @24/7 Call Girls in Nirman Vihar Delhi NCRdollysharma2066
 
CREATING A POSITIVE SCHOOL CULTURE CHAPTER 10
CREATING A POSITIVE SCHOOL CULTURE CHAPTER 10CREATING A POSITIVE SCHOOL CULTURE CHAPTER 10
CREATING A POSITIVE SCHOOL CULTURE CHAPTER 10uasjlagroup
 
原版1:1定制堪培拉大学毕业证(UC毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档
原版1:1定制堪培拉大学毕业证(UC毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档原版1:1定制堪培拉大学毕业证(UC毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档
原版1:1定制堪培拉大学毕业证(UC毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档208367051
 
Unveiling the Future: Columbus, Ohio Condominiums Through the Lens of 3D Arch...
Unveiling the Future: Columbus, Ohio Condominiums Through the Lens of 3D Arch...Unveiling the Future: Columbus, Ohio Condominiums Through the Lens of 3D Arch...
Unveiling the Future: Columbus, Ohio Condominiums Through the Lens of 3D Arch...Yantram Animation Studio Corporation
 
(办理学位证)约克圣约翰大学毕业证,KCL成绩单原版一比一
(办理学位证)约克圣约翰大学毕业证,KCL成绩单原版一比一(办理学位证)约克圣约翰大学毕业证,KCL成绩单原版一比一
(办理学位证)约克圣约翰大学毕业证,KCL成绩单原版一比一D SSS
 
Top 10 Modern Web Design Trends for 2025
Top 10 Modern Web Design Trends for 2025Top 10 Modern Web Design Trends for 2025
Top 10 Modern Web Design Trends for 2025Rndexperts
 
昆士兰大学毕业证(UQ毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档
昆士兰大学毕业证(UQ毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档昆士兰大学毕业证(UQ毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档
昆士兰大学毕业证(UQ毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档208367051
 

Recently uploaded (20)

MT. Marseille an Archipelago. Strategies for Integrating Residential Communit...
MT. Marseille an Archipelago. Strategies for Integrating Residential Communit...MT. Marseille an Archipelago. Strategies for Integrating Residential Communit...
MT. Marseille an Archipelago. Strategies for Integrating Residential Communit...
 
General Knowledge Quiz Game C++ CODE.pptx
General Knowledge Quiz Game C++ CODE.pptxGeneral Knowledge Quiz Game C++ CODE.pptx
General Knowledge Quiz Game C++ CODE.pptx
 
Top 10 Modern Web Design Trends for 2025
Top 10 Modern Web Design Trends for 2025Top 10 Modern Web Design Trends for 2025
Top 10 Modern Web Design Trends for 2025
 
Design and Managing Service in the field of tourism and hospitality industry
Design and Managing Service in the field of tourism and hospitality industryDesign and Managing Service in the field of tourism and hospitality industry
Design and Managing Service in the field of tourism and hospitality industry
 
Call Girls in Ashok Nagar Delhi ✡️9711147426✡️ Escorts Service
Call Girls in Ashok Nagar Delhi ✡️9711147426✡️ Escorts ServiceCall Girls in Ashok Nagar Delhi ✡️9711147426✡️ Escorts Service
Call Girls in Ashok Nagar Delhi ✡️9711147426✡️ Escorts Service
 
澳洲UQ学位证,昆士兰大学毕业证书1:1制作
澳洲UQ学位证,昆士兰大学毕业证书1:1制作澳洲UQ学位证,昆士兰大学毕业证书1:1制作
澳洲UQ学位证,昆士兰大学毕业证书1:1制作
 
Design principles on typography in design
Design principles on typography in designDesign principles on typography in design
Design principles on typography in design
 
办理学位证(SFU证书)西蒙菲莎大学毕业证成绩单原版一比一
办理学位证(SFU证书)西蒙菲莎大学毕业证成绩单原版一比一办理学位证(SFU证书)西蒙菲莎大学毕业证成绩单原版一比一
办理学位证(SFU证书)西蒙菲莎大学毕业证成绩单原版一比一
 
西北大学毕业证学位证成绩单-怎么样办伪造
西北大学毕业证学位证成绩单-怎么样办伪造西北大学毕业证学位证成绩单-怎么样办伪造
西北大学毕业证学位证成绩单-怎么样办伪造
 
Apresentação Clamo Cristo -letra música Matheus Rizzo
Apresentação Clamo Cristo -letra música Matheus RizzoApresentação Clamo Cristo -letra música Matheus Rizzo
Apresentação Clamo Cristo -letra música Matheus Rizzo
 
原版美国亚利桑那州立大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree
原版美国亚利桑那州立大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree原版美国亚利桑那州立大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree
原版美国亚利桑那州立大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree
 
'CASE STUDY OF INDIRA PARYAVARAN BHAVAN DELHI ,
'CASE STUDY OF INDIRA PARYAVARAN BHAVAN DELHI ,'CASE STUDY OF INDIRA PARYAVARAN BHAVAN DELHI ,
'CASE STUDY OF INDIRA PARYAVARAN BHAVAN DELHI ,
 
Chapter 6(1)system devolopment life .ppt
Chapter 6(1)system devolopment life .pptChapter 6(1)system devolopment life .ppt
Chapter 6(1)system devolopment life .ppt
 
8377877756 Full Enjoy @24/7 Call Girls in Nirman Vihar Delhi NCR
8377877756 Full Enjoy @24/7 Call Girls in Nirman Vihar Delhi NCR8377877756 Full Enjoy @24/7 Call Girls in Nirman Vihar Delhi NCR
8377877756 Full Enjoy @24/7 Call Girls in Nirman Vihar Delhi NCR
 
CREATING A POSITIVE SCHOOL CULTURE CHAPTER 10
CREATING A POSITIVE SCHOOL CULTURE CHAPTER 10CREATING A POSITIVE SCHOOL CULTURE CHAPTER 10
CREATING A POSITIVE SCHOOL CULTURE CHAPTER 10
 
原版1:1定制堪培拉大学毕业证(UC毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档
原版1:1定制堪培拉大学毕业证(UC毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档原版1:1定制堪培拉大学毕业证(UC毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档
原版1:1定制堪培拉大学毕业证(UC毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档
 
Unveiling the Future: Columbus, Ohio Condominiums Through the Lens of 3D Arch...
Unveiling the Future: Columbus, Ohio Condominiums Through the Lens of 3D Arch...Unveiling the Future: Columbus, Ohio Condominiums Through the Lens of 3D Arch...
Unveiling the Future: Columbus, Ohio Condominiums Through the Lens of 3D Arch...
 
(办理学位证)约克圣约翰大学毕业证,KCL成绩单原版一比一
(办理学位证)约克圣约翰大学毕业证,KCL成绩单原版一比一(办理学位证)约克圣约翰大学毕业证,KCL成绩单原版一比一
(办理学位证)约克圣约翰大学毕业证,KCL成绩单原版一比一
 
Top 10 Modern Web Design Trends for 2025
Top 10 Modern Web Design Trends for 2025Top 10 Modern Web Design Trends for 2025
Top 10 Modern Web Design Trends for 2025
 
昆士兰大学毕业证(UQ毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档
昆士兰大学毕业证(UQ毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档昆士兰大学毕业证(UQ毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档
昆士兰大学毕业证(UQ毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档
 

Options for Making Housing Affordable a distinct Reality

  • 1. Options for making Affordable Housing a Reality in Urban India
  • 3. Role and importance of Housing • Housing - Remains basic human necessity: • Housing- has numerous physical, social /economic implications • Housing -known for providing identity, security, safety & quality of life, • Housing --remain positively linked with overall human/national development— • Housing -Enables enjoyment of numerous economic, social & cultural rights.  Housing -Empowers poor ; securing active participation in national building  Housing –Empower people to perform better -compared to without Housing.  Housing – Reduces pressure on healthcare services by senior citizens,  Housing –Provides greatest security against unforeseen calamities  Housing - Rationalises growth / orderly development of a city/community/society. • Housing - & Real estate sector contributed 9% to India’s GDP-employs 16% work force • Housing-multiplier effect on generating wealth, promoting economy  Housing -Promotes Industrialization/economy  - involving more than 290 industries  Housing- Provide large employment opportunities - to rural/urban workforce-skilled /unskilled. • Housing-- Contributes to Local Government Finance • -- Helps Labor-Intensive Domestic Production • -- Create Stimulation for Small Business • -- Promote Home-Based Income Opportunities
  • 4. Role and importance of Housing • Housing-provides space for family - for interacting, playing, studying, learning • Housing- Promotes public good - creating a healthy, vibrant and productive society.  Housing- Shapes any society, its quality, culture , economy  Housing- key to restoring personal security, self-sufficiency/ dignity.  Housing- index of growth, development ; welfare of a society.  Housing- Closely associated with disease conditions & higher mortality/ morbidity rates. (WHO)  Housing- Space where more than 1/3 rd of human life span spent.  Housing- during pandemics, Covid-19- provided space for, working, education, healthcare .  Housing- Major planning, development , management component in a city,  Housing- Occupying largest proportion of land in city  Housing-- Having largest count among buildings in city  Housing- Defining its personality/culture..
  • 5. Role and importance of Housing • Housing--Promotes Development of Land / Real Estate Systems  Housing--accounts for largest investment in any city.  Housing- majority of intra-city travel/trips originate & terminate in housing.  Housing- remains focus of all human activities  Housing-Demand never static- remains dynamic- ever evolving- devolving,  Housing- Remains in short supply  -Large gap exists between demand & supply -- Considering multiple dimensions/ implications of housing – in terms of Physical, social, economic, environmental and human living - - providing housing to all sections of population emerged --as priority for all communities /societies/ states/ nations.
  • 7. Housing as a Right Considering importance & context of housing - UN called for accepting Shelter as a basic human Right— ; ----UN Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlements (1976),/ The Habitat Agenda 21 (1992), Agenda 1996--UN Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000 (1988)--- describes;. -- Right to adequate housing universally recognised by community of nations ...All nations -- have some form of obligation in shelter sector --exemplified by their --creation of ministries-- Creating housing agencies --- allocation of funds to housing sector, - Specifying policies - programme and projects -- Citizens of all States -- how poor they may be -- have a right to expect their Governments -- to be concerned about their shelter needs, and -- to accept a fundamental obligation to -- protect /improve houses and neighborhoods, --rather than damage/destroy them.
  • 8. Housing Status  . UNHS finds ,  Globally only 13% world’s cities (195) have affordable housing-- 2014  McKinsey estimated;  -- 330 million urban households-- living in substandard housing /financially stretched by housing costs  -- number likely rise to  -- 440 mhh /1.6 billion people, by 2025 and  -- 2.5 billion people by 2050.  Africa-- over 50% - population live in sub-standard conditions  India/China-- nearly 25%- population live in informal settlements
  • 10. Population Scenario- India-2011  Housing problem-- an interplay of factors involving—  Population, Urbanization, Migration, Poverty& family pattern  Population of India reached  250 million in 1919  500 million in 1966 (47 yrs. Later)  1000 million in 2000 ( 34 yrs. Later)  1027 million in 2001 (1yr Later)  1210 million in 2011 (10 yrs. Later)  1441 million in 2023 ( 12 years later)  2050- Indian population- 1600 mil. -50% in Urban India.  Metropolitan Centers -5 (1951)- -53 (2011)-68(2031)  10 m plus- nil (1951)- 3 (2011) -7 (2031)-9 (2051  Urban India --first time added more persons(91m) than  Rural India (90m) - decade- 2001-2011  During last 100 years, India witnessed— - -Urbanization level X 3 times - --Urban settlements X 4 times - --Total Population X 5 times - -Rural population X 3.5 times - - Urban population X 15 times
  • 12. Various Five Year Plans Five Year Plans formulated  focused on -launching programs and policies  – for promoting housing for all in general &  for poor in particular  -National Housing policy-1988,  National Housing Policy, 1994,  National Housing & Habitat Policy, 1998  NationalUrban Housing & Habitat Policy, 2007
  • 13. Programmes Focus Slum Clearance and Improvement Scheme 1959 Focus on clearance Environment Improvement of Urban Slums - EIUS 1972 Focus on environmental improvement, provision of taps, hand pumps, street lights, toilets, etc. Minimum Needs Programme- 1975 Provision of basic services for slum dwellers Urban Community Development- 1985 Focus on involving communities,-- funding from ODA, UK Govt. Urban Basic Services -1985 Focus on provision of civic services--, funding from UNICEF National Slum Development Programme - NSDP 1996 Additional Central Assistance to state governments for slum improvement Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana - VAMBAY - 2001 Provisioning houses for slum dwellers below poverty line ( BPL ), central scheme with 50:50 JNNURM Mission II – Basic Services for Urban Poor BSUP --2006 Built Housing Units with services for slum dwellers Rajiv Awas Yojana RAY -- 2010 Full city approach, slum free city plan, variety of components, flexible in nature
  • 14. First Urban Focussed National Housing & Habitat Policy (NUHHP) aiming at: 1. `Providing Affordable Housing for All 2. With focus on Urban Poor. 3. Using ‘Regional Approach’ 4. Government Role -- ‘facilitator’& ‘regulator. 5. Involving Private sector ’ 6. Earmarking dedicated land for EWS/LIG groups in new housing projects 7. Retaining Governments role in social housing 8 making available affordable housing for EWS / LIG categories -- on ownership / rental basis National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy- 2007
  • 16. Housing Shortage-10th FYP  Housing perpetually in shortage Demand always chasing Supply Housing demand always evolving- never static Technical Group set up MHUPA--, estimated  Urban housing shortage at 24.71 mdu -- end of 10th Five Year Plan -- for 66.30 million urban HH Group estimated : --88% shortage - EWS category -- 11% in LIG whereas -- MIG/HIG shortage -- merely 0.04 million dwelling units. Housing shortage in different categories : - ---99.9% of total EWS, --10.5% in LIG --0.2% in MIG/HIG categories
  • 17. Housing Shortage-11th FYP Technical Committee also found (MOHPA)- • 1. Housing Shortage at 26.53 mhh in 2012. • 2. 2.56 mhh living in non-serviceable/ katcha houses • 3. additional requirement of du-- 1.82 mdu • 4. Following current trend of increase in backlog - 34 million houses -- required by year 2022 for •-- achieving national goal of affordable shelter for all. 6 Highest shortage in UP-3.07 million du
  • 18.
  • 19. Vacant Houses  -- Number of vacant houses in India –  24.7 million (13.6 million rural and 11.1 million urban),  -- Every sixth urban house in India vacant or  -- 90% of number of rented houses in country- --2011 census figures,  Delhi 9.60 percent  Mumbai 10.00 percent  Kolkata 06.60 percent  Chennai 03.32 percent  Jaipur 13.78 percent  Raipur 1.19 percent  Bhopal 13.51 percent  Ahmedabad 12.17 percent  Surat 14.60 percent  Rajkot 13.42 percent  Pune 17.87 percent  Nashik 15.14 percent  Bangalore 10.36 percent  Kochi 13.85 percent Housing Shortage Vacant Houses
  • 21. Slum & Non-Slum HHs India 2011 Compact area of at least 300 population or about 60-70 households of --poorly built congested tenements,-- in unhygienic environment-- usually with inadequate infrastructure -- lacking in proper sanitary and-- drinking water facilities. Indicator Number of households (in lakh) Total (Urban) 789 Slum 137 Non-Slum 652 Number of households (in %) Slum 17.4 Non-Slum 82.6
  • 22. Increasing Deprivation In year 2001, India had 523.7 lakh slum dwellers In year 2011, India had 654.9 lakh slum dwellers 25.1 percent decadal growth rate of slum dwellers
  • 23. Increasing Spatial Spread of Slums Yr 2001-- 1,743 towns in India reported Slums Yr 2011, 2,613 towns in India reported Slums Yr 2021 ?
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26. • Supply of shelter not kept pace with demand • Situation worsening due to:  increasing number of migrants.  Pressure on land, urban services /infrastructures  Growth of slums and squatter settlements • growth of slums a sign of :  inability to afford land / shelter through market and  failure to ensure equitable access to the poor. • As per Census 2001:  42.6 million ( 23.1%) people living in slums -spread over 640 towns.  24.1 % population in 27 metro cities in declared slums Bombay (54.1%) and Kolkata (32.5%) recording higher proportions. •Slums suffer from  absence of adequate water supply,  disposal of human waste  40 % without access to safe drinking water and  over 90 % without access to safe sanitation. •Slums constitute major chunk of urban population In future INDIAN HOUSING SCENARIO
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 33. Defining Affordability  Housing-Remains cost/time-intensive- perpetually in short supply  -Affordable Housing as a concept/ opportunity/large demand -- attracting attention of Providers / Developers --Affordability difficult to define precisely - vested with large variables involving-- - Cost, Quality ; Area/Volume of dwelling unit ,  Cost of living, family income, Savings, EMI ,  Support services, infrastructure,  O&M expenditure , Time/cost of travel to workplace, etc. 1.UNHABITAT--Affordable housing as-- “housing ---which is adequate in quality and location and-- does not cost so much that -- it prohibits its occupants from meeting other basic living costs- or threatens their enjoyment of basic human rights”  2.‘RICS’ Report- on Making Urban Housing Work in India’-defines affordability as;-:provision of ‘adequate shelter’ --- on sustainable basis,-- ensuring security of tenure-and within means of common urban households.  Affordable Housing -which is provided to those -whose needs are not met by open market
  • 34. Affordable Housing 3. KPMG Report on Affordable Housing- A key Growth Driver in the Real Estate Sector’ -- defined Affordable Housing in three main parameters income size of dwelling unit affordability 4. US Department of Housing and Urban Development defines, housing affordability in terms of -expenditure of household on housing as proportion of annual income - should not exceed 30% of total income.
  • 35. Affordable Housing 5. Task Force on Affordable Housing set up by Ministry of Housing and Poverty Alleviation, 2008, has defined affordable housing in terms of;  size of dwelling and household income 6. JnNURM Mission has defined affordable housing in terms of: -- size of dwelling units – super built up area/carpet area -- EMI/Rent-- not exceeding 30-40% of gross monthly income of buyer. 7 Under PMAY . An all weather single unit or a unit-- in a multi-storeyed super structure -- having carpet area of up to 30 sq. m.-- with adequate basic civic services/ infrastructure like toilet, water, electricity etc. States -- to determine area of EWS -- with ceiling of 30/60 sq.m of carpet area- as the limit for EWS/LIG category - Annual Income not to exceed 3lakh for EWS and 6 lakh for LIG
  • 36. Affordable Housing 8. Jones Lang LaSalle defined affordable housing in terms of -volume of habitation instead of area - provision of basic amenities - cost of house ( including purchase cost / maintenance cost) and -location of shelter This definition enlarges scope / dimensions of affordable housing by :: I.i. Adopting volume based approach instead of area-- providing more flexibility in designing . ii. Specifying minimum physical/ social infrastructure -- ensuring quality of life iii Making cost of shelter broad based by including-- operational /maintenance cost for a reasonable period- to actual cost of house. iv Making project attractive/affordable-- by limiting cost / travel time -- between place of work / place of living
  • 38. Challenges in Affordable Housing  Housing Shortage--Gap between Demand/supply--Ever widening gap between demand and supply of affordable housing--.  Rising COST-- costs rising disproportionately to household incomes, particularly in -lower income households  Scarce Land-- Scarcity of land for affordable housing  Energy poverty--, due to high operational cost and low household income, high energy prices and poor building energy efficiency makes housing unaffordable.  Demographic changes-- arising out of,  -- Reduced Household size  -- Rapid Population growth  -- rapid in-migration,  -- Ageing population,.
  • 39. Issues- Affordable Housing  Low availability of developed land  Rising Threshold Cost of Construction  High degree of Government charges  Rigid Land Use Planning  Irrational Building Bye-Laws  Delayed Project approvals  Inadequate Access to Cheaper Housing Finance  Multiplicity of Agencies involved  Outdated Legal Framework  Marginalizing Private Sector  Outdated Construction Technologies  Poor project Management  One Solution Fit All Approach – Focus on Creating ownership  Lack of Research and Development  Absence of Reliable data about Housing stock- Qualitative/quantitative  Absence of Reliable data about Beneficiaries  Large Stock of Vacant Houses  Ignoring Rental Market  Unskilled Manpower  Uncontrolled Urban Sprawl
  • 40. Issues- Land a) Lack of availability of Urban Land -- 2.4% of global land and 17.6% of world population, - India under perpetual shortage of land Cost of urban land rising rapidly rapid due to— - urbanization and industrialization,-- speculation - Irrational legal framework, irrational planning tools and building bye-laws-- restricting supply of developed urban land - making shelter highly unaffordable  Major issues leading to shortage of urban land : i) Excessive parastatal controls on development of land. ii) Lack of marketable land parcels iii) High degree of encroachments on public land iv) Poor land information system v) Cumbersome legal and procedural framework for sourcing land vi) Restrictions imposed by planning and development framework vii) High cost of land & cost of land transactions
  • 41. Land Reservations for Housing Urban Poor
  • 42. Issues – Cost, Government Charges b) Rising Threshold Cost of Construction – Major contributors include: -- cost of building materials, -- cost of labour, -- cost of transportation - Government Taxes, levies, fees c) High degree of Government charges – Charges levied on housing/ construction- - constitute substantial proportion of total cost, which include charges/ fee for: -- licensing of colonies ,-- change of land use, -- layout approval -- building plan approvals -- internal development charges --external development charges, -- registration of land --registration for finished house .—Labour Cess
  • 43. Issues- Planning, Bye-laws d) Rigid land use planning – --Master Plans, Development Plans, --Controlled Area Plans and Zoning Regulations control -- mechanism of planning and development - informal sector / affordable housing- exclusion from --planning strategies and development options. e) Irrational Building Bye-Laws and Subdivision Regulations- -Low Floor Area Ratio --Low densities --Low height --Large Floor Area of dwelling units -----leading to; - high degree of operational inefficiencies - underutilization of land - restricting number of dwelling units - restricting cost-effective/state of art --- building materials-- construction technologies.
  • 44. Issues- Approvals, Finance f) Considerable time taken for approval of projects/ /building plans (16-24months) due to: -complicated procedures/ cumbersome processes ---large documentation -large number of agencies involved -large number of personnels involved ---Lack of Co-ordination among offices/ personnels --Ambiguous Rules/ Regulations, --- narrow interpretation - duplications of processes/procedures - lack of decentralization of powers --High degree of corrupt practices -leading to time over- run/ cost over- run of projects. g) Lack of access to housing finance - non- availability of large number of documents involved -- providing securities - -proof of assured sources of income --- permanent residential address
  • 45. Issues- Agencies/Laws, Legal framework private sector, technologies h) Multiplicity of agencies and laws involved-- in approval - working at cross purposes --leading to delay/ cost escalations-- KPMG /NAREDCO revealed that real estate projects -required to pass through-- 150 tables in 40 departments --Of central/ state urban local bodies before approval is granted. -. i) Outdated and irrational legal frame work :- --Rent Control Act. j) Low key involvement of Private Sector due to lower order of profitability k) Outdated technologies / conventional methods of construction/ project management: -leading to wastage -- delay in construction -- raising cost of dwelling units.
  • 47. Buildings- life cycle costs Operating Cost 89% Maintenance/ Consumables 1% Initial Cost 10%
  • 48. What constitutes Cost of Building  Cost of building includes: I Cost of land ii Cost of construction iii Cost of maintenance iv Cost of operations  Building cost viewed in both--- long term and short term  Building cost also evaluated -- Initial Cost and Life Time Cost  Short Time cost includes Initial Cost of construction of building  Long Term cost component --- whole life cost.  Whole life cost of building includes:  the initial design cost construction cost,  on-going operations and maintenance cost ,  parts replacement cost disposal cost or salvage value, and  useful life of the system or building  To promote economy in building– Life cycle cost of building will be critical
  • 49. How to save on Cost of Housing  Housing can be made cost-effective by:  Sourcing land at most competitive price  Adopting optimum Design solutions- architecturally, structurally, Services etc  Using cost-effective local materials, pre-cast, pre- fabricated , re-cycled materials , materials requiring minimum maintenance, having longer life  Optimising resources /minimising waste  Using state of art technology in construction -- save on time , labour, space materials and money  Managing construction in most professional manner- Project management  Using minimum Time for construction / completion of building/project  Designing Green Buildings –to reduce cost of electricity/water and generating its own energy  Keeping cost of money minimum- based on rates and time  Rationalizing Builders, Contractor margins  Reducing Government levies and fees
  • 51. Sourcing Land for Housing  Land Pooling  Formal Acquisition-THE RIGHT TO FAIR COMPENSATION AND TRANSPARENCY IN LAND ACQUISITION, REHABILITATION AND RESETTLEMENT ACT, 2013  Negotiated Settlement  Densification and Intensification  Transit Oriented Development  Inclusionary Zoning  Mixed Use Development  Green Field Development  Brown Field Development
  • 52.
  • 60. WAY FORWARD--Making Affordable Housing A Distinct Reality  Reviewing, Revising and Redefining National Urban Housing Policy  Understanding Future Urban Context  Prioritizing Regional Planning  Registering Migrants,  Minimizing Multiple Ownerships  Separating ‘Right to Shelter from Right to Ownership of Shelter  Migrating from Ownership to providing Shelter  Including Housing in Corporate Social Responsibility  Adopting Project Based Approach  Promoting Strong Project Cost-Management  Single Window Clearance  Evolve Innovative Architectural Design  Promoting Affordable living  Reviewing Planning Norms  Changing Housing Typology  Creating Land Development Agency  Creating Land Bank;  Optimum Utilization of Vacant Government Lands  Careful Siting of the affordable housing projects
  • 61. -Making Affordable Housing A Distinct Reality  Using Cost/Energy Efficient Building Technologies- Green Housing  Inventing new Building Materials- Agro /industrial waste based  Creating Building Components on Mass scale  Shifting from Construction to Manufacturing  Adopting Co-operative Based Approach  Promoting Rental housing schemes-Creating Rental Housing/Build to Rent  Using PPP Model  Creating Revolving Fund  Making Housing- Beneficiary- led Program  Bringing Vacant Houses into market  Skilling Manpower/ Promoting R& D  Promoting Start-ups  Rationalizing Government Charges  Empowering ULBs  Addressing Demand/Supply side Challenge  Treating Affordable Housing a volume Game
  • 62. Way Forward-land, to make affordable housing a reality /to ensure adequate supply on large scale, following approach is suggested: i) Making the land market more efficient, -for making enough land available at lower cost ii) Permitting construction of houses on periphery /peri-urban area -with provision of services, infrastructures and transport. iii) Providing a ‘Single Window Clearance’ of projects on time bound basis. v) Creating Land Bank -for constructing affordable housing and -making available land at competitive price vi) Promoting strong Project and Cost Management -to increase speed of construction and -Reduced cost of construction /Eliminate cost over-runs.
  • 63. Granting Higher Floor Area Ratio iv) By rationalizing building bye-laws/zoning regulations - to ensure --optimum utilization of land – providing more built space - permitting construction of more affordable houses.
  • 64. Way Forward vii) Promoting Standardization of building components --based on effective design to promote prefabrication and mass production of components. viii) Bringing new state of art construction technologies -using cost effective locally produced building materials --based on industrial waste --to lower down cost of construction and make buildings green and sustainable. ix)Long term tie for supply of conventional building materials --including steel, cement ,tiles etc-- to minimize variations in price/ to ensure assured supply of materials during project life cycle x)Promoting large scale projects -Taking up large housing projects with number of units ranging from 1000-1500 for promoting and achieving economy of scale. xii) Rationalising/Reducing Government levies/ charges --to minimize their impact on the housing cost. In all cases involving affordable housing , -- no land use conversion and licensing charges should be levied, -- building scrutiny fee should be charged @25% of prescribed rates --whereas EDC should be charged @50% for EWS and@ 75% for other categories.
  • 65. Way Forward xiii. Adopting project based approach --For cross-subsidy ---project based approach adopted for creating mass housing. --Housing project to be invariably mix of all categories -HIG, MIG besides EWS and LIG-- to make project viable /self-sustaining. --Addition of commercial component to help in making project profitable/ attractive /viable xiv. Single Window Clearance ---For early completion of project -- avoiding cost escalation -- to approve projects on time bound basis/ prescribed time frame– --not exceeding three months Xv Green Buildings Designing affordable housing as Green Buildings - reduces operational cost of house over entire life cycle --due to reduced energy / water consumption -- lower generation of waste – making dwellings really cost-effective / Affordable.
  • 66. Benefits of Green Buildings
  • 67. Way Forward xvi. Reducing cost through Innovative and state of art architectural designs involving : --optimum utilization of land resource, -promoting high degree of space efficiency ---using high efficiency structural system --- using cost effective building materials --cost-effective building technologies/services, - using pre-cast / pre-fabricated building components - -- combining/ minimizing public health services - --avoiding use of lifts - --using local materials etc. - -- minimum maintenance and upkeep xvii. Using locally available building materials --for promoting cost-effectiveness and utilizing waste. --government to encourage research /development and promote industries producing materials from industrial and agricultural waste -- to increase cost-effective materials/ reduce depletion of non-renewable resources xviii. Adopting co-operative based approach Creating co-operative societies of beneficiaries for involving stakeholders/ Sourcing their support /resources for-- creating adequate housing stock, minimising transfer of units /procuring easy loans from financial institutions.
  • 68. Way Forward  xix Treating Affordable Housing a volume Game  Affordable housing treated not a profit game but a volume game  Creating large housing stock  with minimum cost,  within a short span of 18-24 months  disposing off entire stock within time span of project.  Taking large housing projects with units ranging from 1000-1500 for promoting economy of scale-- have proved highly successful  xx. Separating ‘Right to Shelter from Right to Ownership of Shelter’  Concept to help in:  -- promoting optimum utilization of available housing stock  -- minimising speculation  -- eliminating transfer of affordable housing to non-beneficiaries/ higher strata of society
  • 69. Way Forward xxi Creating Multiple Options for Shelter  Multiple options for affordable shelter needs consideration based on  - shelter requirements,  -- affordability, -- family size,  -- -- marital status,-- type of avocation,-- skill, tenure etc.  Options--Night shelters- mobile housing, bachelor/single accommodation , rental housing, transit accommodation, hostels etc. used as options for augmenting shelter/ minimizing quantum of formal and expensive housing  xxii. Creating Built up Houses for EWS in Private Colonies/Townships  land reserved in private colonies transferred to Housing Board/ Development Authority,  -- mandated to construct affordable houses for identified beneficiaries.  Proportion of affordable housing to be increased  . Reservation made irrespective of size of colony / group housing.  Under PMAY, EWS housing placed at 35% , minimum project size under PPP model to be 250 house, carpet area limited to 30 sqm, needs to be adopted / made integral part of state / local legal framework.
  • 70. Way Forward xxiii. Siting of the affordable housing projects  Siting with care / caution to ensure project success / viability  Projects constructed not far away from place of work for minimising travel /travel time/ expenditure on travel.  Making available cost- effective, efficient /reliable public transport --- critical for acceptability/success of project.  xxiv Providing Essential/ Basic Amenities as Integral Part of Project  Basic amenities involving :  --education,  --healthcare ,  -- recreation ,  -- child care,  -- shopping,  --community centre,  --open spaces etc to make project self- contained and self-sustainable.
  • 71. Way Forward  xxv Formulating well defined, transparent and objective guidelines  Creating a networked system of sharing information, critical / essential for:  -- identifying right beneficiaries  -- eliminating speculators,  -- minimising multiple ownership and  -- illegal transfer/ sale of units at the local ,state and national level..  xxvii. Creating Revolving Fund  --Promoting easy access to institutional finance at affordable cost  --Creating a dedicated Revolving Fund at national /state level  -- contributions to bemade by central / state governments/ urban local bodies/ development authorities / assistance provided under sponsored schemes,.  xxviii. Involving Beneficiaries  Involving beneficiaries – both in cash/ kind -- critical for success of project involving slum up-gradation /provision of shelter.
  • 72. Way Forward xxix Creating JV or PPP –Adopting West Bengal Model-with Government agencies providing land where approvals already in place. -Limiting time for construction - 12-18 months -- Lowering cost of construction below Rs.1000/- per sq. ft. ensure 100% sale within a short span  High sale/ volume of project. xxx Involving enablers, providers and executor to work in a united /single platform xxxi Eliminating speculator investors xxxii Including mass housing / affordable housing zones in city plans/develop them on a time bound basis. xxxiii Promoting rental housing schemes in urban areas.
  • 73. Way Forward xxxii. Identifying constraints on demand side and supply side  -- find out strategies to overcome them  --adopting collaborative approach to promote synergies xxxiii. Demand- side constraints removal requires - Identifying right beneficiaries. - Innovating micro-mortgage financing mechanism to ensure a larger reach xxxiv. Supply side constraints removal requires –Developers believe - i) Providing incentives for constructing affordable housing on mass scale ii) Rationalizing building bye-laws / zoning regulations iii) Providing higher density extra-FSI Iv ) Streamlining land records – for improving urban planning / optimization of land utilization. v) Making land market more effective and efficient by: - computerization of land records - creating a urban land data base using GIS - making data base of all urban lands - creating efficient and effective dispute redressal mechanism - -- proper implementation of master plan.-
  • 74. Way Forward  Developers believe that-- if Government removes roadblocks- segment would move to fast track by  i. Making Project and cost management very strong. ii. Improving/using state of art technologies iii Reducing Timeframe for construction = iv Using Economies of scale iv Designing Dwelling unit with care v. Standardising Housing units/components vi. Developing standard product vii. Rationalising Government charges viii Making available Off the table developed Land with all approvals/clearances 
  • 76. PMAY- Mission Scope& Coverage  Scope---Housing for All” Mission for urban area  To be implemented during 2015-2022  providing assistance for houses to eligible families  Implemented as Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS)  family not to own a pucca house in any part of India  States/UTs, to decide a cut-off date-  for identifying beneficiaries eligible under scheme.  Mission effective from 17.06.2015 up to 31.03.2022- extended upto 31st December 2024  2. Coverage and Duration  All 4041 statutory towns as per Census 2011 with focus on 500 Class I cities covered in three phases as follows: • Phase I (April 2015 - March 2017) to cover 100 Cities selected from States/UTs • Phase II (April 2017 - March 2019) to cover additional 200 Cities • Phase III (April 2019 - March 2022) to cover all other remaining Cities  Flexibility regarding inclusion of additional cities in earlier phases in case there is a resource backed demand from States/UTs.
  • 78. In-Situ Slum Redevelopment  Private partner for redevelopment-- selected thru’ transparent bidding process  Incentivizing through- additional density/FAR/TDR to be given if required to make project viable  Grant-- of Rs. 1 lakh/house for eligible slum dwellers on public land  Eligibility,-- cut off dates, beneficiary contribution, system of allotment, etc. --decided by State  All tenable slums-- to be identified  Viable project prepared-- with REHAB component and FREE SALE component  Consultations to be held with beneficiaries  --Transit accommodation to be provided  FREE SALE component -- linked to project completion  Govt. agency to make allotments  Single project account --Approval process to be streamlined
  • 79. Credit Linked Subsidy  Credit linked subsidy on home loans - EWS/ LIG, MIG-I and (MIG)-II  interest subsidy allowed- of 6.5%, 4% and 3% on loan amount up to Rs. 6 Lakh, Rs. 9 Lakh and Rs. 12 Lakh respectively  EWS 30 sq.m. and LIG 60 sq.m. carpet area  Subsidy channelised thru’ HUDCO/NHB/SBI  PLIs to register with HUDCO/NHB/SBI  Beneficiary identification thru’ Aadhar/Voter ID etc.  Self certification/Affidavit as proof of income
  • 80. Affordable Housing in Partnership  Financial assistance for EWS housing projects  Central assistance @ Rs.1.5 lakhs / EWS house  Sale price to be decided by local agencies based on affordability, viability, etc.  Other concessions can also be given by states.  Project can be a mix of various income groups but at least 35 percent EWS houses.  Projects can be by public sector alone or in partnership with private sector.
  • 81. Beneficiary Led Individual House Construction / Enhancement To assist individual EWS families Central assistance of Rs.1.5 lakhs New house or improvement Based on integrated city wide housing project for such individual beneficiaries Progress tracking with geo-tagging  Central Assistance- released through Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) by States/UTs.
  • 82. Affordable Rental Housing Complexes (ARHCs) for Migrant Workers/ Urban Poor  COVID-19 pandemic led to-  -- reverse migration of urban migrants/ poor  -- to save cost on housing.  - Need decent rental housing at affordable rate near work sites.  Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs initiated;  - Affordable Rental Housing Complexes (ARHCs)  under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana - Urban (PMAY-U).  -To provide ease of living to- urban migrants/ poor in Industrial Sector/ non-formal urban economy  - dignified affordable rental housing close to workplace  -- ARHC scheme to be- implemented through two models:  i. Utilizing existing Government funded vacant houses- to convert into ARHCs-- through Public Private Partnership --or by Public Agencies  ii. Construction, Operation / Maintenance of ARHCs --by Public/ Private Entities on their own vacant land
  • 83. PMAY- U- Scorecard up to- 15-2-2024
  • 86. Traditional on -site construction-Issues  Majority of construction in India follow;  -- traditional on-site pattern of construction.  --Known as linear construction  -- where every component constructed on site &  -- completed before project moves to next phase.  --Construction major implications in terms of  -- time;  -- cost,  --quality,  --safety,  -- pollution,  -- manpower  ---- noise,
  • 87. Traditional on -site construction-Issues  Highly time consuming-time intensive  Generating large scale waste- material inefficient  Weather Led- dictated by prevailing weather conditions.  Pollution intensive;  Unsafe-- for construction workers  manpower intensive-Large manpower needed  Material intensive -Large inventory of material  Resource intensive-Using large water/energy  cost inefficient –Increased initial cost of construction-  Cost overrun- Uneconomical in cost/resources-  Manpower led--large workers deployed at construction  Loss/theft of material- Individual/human oriented  Variation in quality- dependent on work force deployed  Limited application in hazardous areas  Large site disruption ; Adverse impact on surroundings
  • 88. Pre- fabrication/Modular Construction/off-site- Advantages Building in Hazardous Area Assured Quality Construction Material Efficiency Cost- Efficiency Green Construction Flexibility  Reduced Site Disruption Time Efficiency
  • 89. Pre- fabrication-- Limitations Monotony Restricting additions & alterations Reduced Resale Value Roadblock in Financing Accuracy & Precision High Transportation Cost Mass Production  Skilled Manpower / Cost
  • 90. Global Housing Technology Challenge- India (GHTC-India MoHUA initiated the GHTC-India to identify and mainstream a basket of innovative construction technologies from across the globe for the housing construction sector that is sustainable, eco-friendly, and disaster-resilient. GHTC-India 54 Innovative Construction Technologies Shortlisting Light House projects with 6 selected technologies Climate Smart Buildings | LHP Rajkot | PMAY Urban AGARTALA, TRIPURA Light Gauge Steel Structural System & Pre-Engineered Steel Structural System CHENNAI, NADU Precast Construction TAMIL Concrete System- Precast Components Assembled at Site INDORE, MADHYA PRADESH Prefabricated Sandwich Panel System LUCKNOW, UTTAR PRADESH Stay in-place Formwork System RAJKOT, GUJARAT Monolithic Concrete Construction System RANCHI, JHARKHAND Precast Concrete Construction System-3D Pre- Cast Volumetric
  • 91. LIGHT HOUSE PROJECTS- INTENT  LHPs are model housing projects with houses built with  shortlisted alternate technology  suitable to the geo-climatic  hazard conditions of region,  initiative under Climate Smart Building Programme.  Projects demonstrate  - deliver ready to live houses  Constructed with speed,  Economy  Better quality of construction  Based on sustainability Currently LHPs’ being implemented in six states --(Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, --Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand; -- Tamil Nadu;Tripura) under Global Housing Technology Challenge (GHTC). Projects Involve ---- use of modern technology -- innovative processes -- reduced construction time -- making Housing- more resilient/ affordable, comfortable for poor. Climate Smart Buildings | LHP Rajkot | PMAY Urban
  • 92. Technology Sub-Mission  This sub-mission worked on design and planning Innovative technologies and materials Green buildings and Earthquake and other disaster resistant technologies  States can partner with willing IITs/NITs/SPAs for the above
  • 94.
  • 95.
  • 96. CONCLUSION- Making Affordable Housing A Distinct Reality CONCLUSIONS
  • 97. New Approach to AffordableHousing  Accepting Right to Shelter—But Separating ‘Right to Shelter from Right to Ownership of Shelter- with focus on providing shelter and not creating ownership  Graduating to affordable living from affordable housing  Looking at life-cycle cost of housing instead of initial cost  Treating Affordable Housing-- a volume Game & not profit game-  Identifying Right beneficiaries  Registering Migrants  Moving from construction to manufacturing of shelter  Creating Multiple Options for Shelter  Promoting principle of limited land- unlimited space  Promoting Multiple use of land- 24x7  Adopting volume instead area- to define dwelling size  Providing more flexibility in designing  Adopting project based approach  Promoting Regional Planning;  Empowering Rural India  Promoting co-operative beneficiary –led approach
  • 98. Conclusion Affordable Housing can be effectively leveraged to  create/ expand large job market for unskilled/ semi-skilled rural migrants; revitalize Indian industry  promote economy; achieve higher growth rate and  marginalize poverty in urban India. Affordable Housing --holds enormous capacity to make our urban / rural centers --Smart,  healthier, more productive,  more effective, More efficient, More sustainable,  inclusive, Resilient  safe better planned,  slum free,  with assured quality of life.
  • 101. Slums in London in -1800s
  • 105. If they can do it Surely we all can also do it