SlideShare a Scribd company logo
The case for a Digital Lending Right Kent Fitch ALIA Information Online 2009, Sydney
The current copyright regime is about to fail
The current copyright regime   is about to fail Bad news for creators Bad news for society
Failure reason #1 Books are moving from the physical  to the digital
 
“ Our vision for Kindle is   every book ever printed   in any language, all   available in less than   60 seconds” Jeff Bezos, Amazon This photo : ptufts Flickr Prev photo: JohnPastor Flickr Next photo: LenEdgerly Flickr
 
 
 
 
Screenshots: sigalakos Flickr
Screenshots: srharris Flickr
Shortcovers Preview and buy chapters or sections of books (99 cents) ScrollMotion's Iceberg Books packaged as  iPhone   apps  with  rich navigation
Why digital books?
Why digital books? Instant access, anywhere
Why digital books? Instant access, anywhere Search, annotation,  hyperlinking
Why digital books? Instant access, anywhere Search, annotation,  hyperlinking Accessibility
Why digital books? Instant access, anywhere Search, annotation,  hyperlinking Accessibility Cost and profit
Why digital books? Instant access, anywhere Search, annotation,  hyperlinking Accessibility Cost and profit Control
Control ?! "We have a very serious issue with librarians." Pat Schroeder, the then and current president of the Association of American Publishers (AAP), 2001  “ Fair use” and “First sale” are a nuisance But contracts and EULA are “flexible”
Failure reason #2 The  internet  is a copy machine
“ ...the  internet  is a copy  machine...  …when copies are  super abundant, they  become worthless”   Kevin Kelly  photo: thatshs Flickr
“ Bit by bit, everything that  can be digitized will be  digitized, making  intellectual property ever  easier to copy and ever  harder to sell for more  than a nominal price.”  And we’ll have to find  business and economic  models that take this  reality into account.”   Paul Krugman
“ Bit by bit, everything that  can be digitized will be  digitized, making  intellectual property ever  easier to copy and ever  harder to sell for more  than a nominal price.   And we’ll have to find  business and economic  models that take this  reality into account . ”   Paul Krugman  photo: Taekwonweirdo Flickr
DRM does not help
photo: akseabird Flickr
 
 
Google – AAP – AG Settlement AAP - Association of American Publishers AG -  Authors Guild
Google – AAP – AG Settlement AAP - Association of American Publishers AG -  Authors Guild Establish a Book Rights Registry  (BRR) Revenue from Per-book licensing fees Institutional subscriptions Advertisements Split revenue 63% rights-holders, 37% Google
Google – AAP – AG Settlement
Google – AAP – AG Settlement For “In copyright BUT NOT commercially available” General Free Service to all (US) users: Show 20% of text, no more than 5 adjacent pages Exceptions: Fiction: Show min of 15 adj pages/5%, block final 15 pages/5%  Anthologies, collections of poems, short stories: Show nothing Dictionaries, study guides, …: Fixed preview No printing, no copy & paste
Google – AAP – AG Settlement Individual fee-per-book access 50% of books <= $5.99 Perpetual  online  access to entire book from anywhere Copy & paste or print entire book (watermarked) Share annotations with 25 nominated other owners
Google – AAP – AG Settlement Individual fee-per-book access 50% of books <= $5.99 Perpetual  online  access to entire book from anywhere Copy & paste or print entire book (watermarked) Share annotations with 25 nominated other owners Free public access service for public libraries & Unis Access to all books, but only on-site Print for a per-page fee (watermarked) No copy & paste 1 access terminal per library, or per 4K - 10K FTE students
Google – AAP – AG Settlement Institutional subscription access Access for the period of the subscription (not perpetual) Remote access only for defined higher-education institutions Copy & paste or print entire book Complicated rules for sharing annotations Fee based on FTE users
Google – AAP – AG Settlement For public libraries Remote access by patrons seems unlikely Offline access by patrons seems very unlikely Those who can afford it will opt for individual per-book licensing
What's wrong with all this? Whilst information in books has never been more accessible ... …  and more useful … …  it's increasingly restricted to those willing and able to pay …  or those willing to pirate.
What's wrong with all this? Public lending libraries will be marginalised because - patrons will expect Kindle-style access - providing this will be expensive or impossible
What's wrong with all this? Public lending libraries will be marginalised because - patrons will expect Kindle-style access - providing this will be expensive or impossible Commercial interests will increasingly control access to knowledge.
What's wrong with all this? Public lending libraries will be marginalised because - patrons will expect Kindle-style access - providing this will be expensive or impossible Commercial interests will increasingly control access to knowledge. Piracy will reduce incentives to create and deny rights-holders fair compensation.
But Pat Schroeder has a point... Rights-holders deserve to be fairly compensated
But Pat Schroeder has a point... Rights-holders deserve to be fairly compensated So, Australia, NZ, Great Britain, Canada, Germany, (15 countries in all) have a Public Lending Right
But Pat Schroeder has a point... Rights-holders deserve to be fairly compensated So, Australia, NZ, Great Britain, Canada, Germany, (15 countries in all) have a Public Lending Right 2006-7, Australian PLR and ELR distributed $17.5M ~10000 creators ~ 400 publishers
Extending the PLR to digital books
Extending the PLR to digital books Limited scope compulsory licensing of books published in Australia Voluntary licensing of other books
Extending the PLR to digital books Limited scope compulsory licensing of books published in Australia Voluntary licensing of other books Books available in digital format to Australians Online And as downloads Private (non commercial) use only
Extending the PLR to digital books Limited scope compulsory licensing of books published in Australia Voluntary licensing of other books Books available in digital format to Australians Online And as downloads Private (non commercial) use only Compensation to rights-holders based on how and how often their works are accessed
Extending the PLR to digital books Limited scope compulsory licensing of books published in Australia Voluntary licensing of other books Books available in digital format to Australians Online And as downloads Private (non commercial) use only Compensation to rights-holders based on how and how often their works are accessed Funded from general taxation
Digital Lending Right Coverage Must have a critical mass Must avoid conflict with international copyright agreements
Digital Lending Right Coverage Must have a critical mass Must avoid conflict with international copyright agreements Limit scope to books published in Australia Limit scope to private educational and entertainment usage Compensate rights-holders regardless of nationality Non-exclusive Strong economic incentive for rights-holders of books published outside Australia to join
Digital Lending Right Form A digital repository Rights holders will be encourage to supply new books in digital format Old books will be scanned and OCR'ed All books will be fully  searchable
Digital Lending Right Access Only from within Australia and for private use Anonymous but tracked to detect fraudulent usage Books viewable by the page Books downloadable  by chapter or in entirety No cost to search, view or download No DRM but user must agree not to redistribute  Discourage redistribution by making  online  view / download the most efficient option
Digital Lending Right Payments Based on usage (views and downloads) Rights-holders must register to receive payments (like BRR) Rights-holders of currently orphaned works will be compensated when identified But how much?
Digital Lending Right $ Cost breakdown for an average title published in Australia from ABS Book Publishers Australia 2003-2004 Survey 1363.0 Current printed cost  Excluding printing  and half  of “other” Royalties to authors, artists, editors 1.03 1.03 Wages to inhouse artists, editors, publishers, typesetters 0.65 0.65 Printing 3.75 - Profit 0.90 0.90 Other (not classifiable from ABS report) 2.56 1.28 TOTAL 8.78 3.86
Digital Lending Right Number of copies of books produced by Australian publishers 2003-04: 84.4 million  (Not all sold in Australia) To compensate publishers and authors for their rights for these books: 84.4 m books x $3.86 / book = $325m  (in 2004-05 dollars, or $360m in current dollars)
Digital Lending Right Would consumption increase if the cost of a book to a consumer was $0? Yes! (although current $0 cost books are supplied by   libraries, Project Gutenberg, Million Book project etc) If usage of books doubled, and current PLR/ELR usage was included in DLR: Would $700m be fair compensation?
Digital Lending Right Funding From general taxation as a public good ~$700m roughly doubles the current “reward” to rights-holders Roughly neutral from average tax-payers point of view Assuming retail costs and markup of 50% hence an average retail price of ~$12, sales of 84m books costs around $1000m But an unknown number of these 84m would continue to be purchased for private use, and for commercial/government use But GST loss of approximately $100m
Digital Lending Right Funding Ongoing operation PLR/ELR costs $0.375m pa Assume DLR registry is ten times larger:   $4M or <1% of payments Initial and annual rights holder registration fees could recover some of this (and discourage frivolous registration) Initial  Digitisation ~1.5m titles @ $30 each = $45m some could be recovered from initial rights holder payment
Digital Lending Right Management By library professionals within the Government sector Commercially disinterested, arms length from rights-holders and funding sources
Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense?
Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense? Would voluntary licensing work just as well?
Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense? Would voluntary licensing work just as well? Equity for households without  internet  access
Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense? Would voluntary licensing work just as well? Equity for households without  internet  access Perceived unfair protection for Australian book titles
Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense? Would voluntary licensing work just as well? Equity for households without  internet  access Perceived unfair protection for Australian book titles The interests of book sellers and printers
Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense? Would voluntary licensing work just as well? Equity for households without  internet  access Perceived unfair protection for Australian book titles The interests of book sellers and printers Usage fraud
Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense? Would voluntary licensing work just as well? Equity for households without  internet  access Perceived unfair protection for Australian book titles The interests of book sellers and printers Usage fraud Registration fraud and disputes
Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense? Would voluntary licensing work just as well? Equity for households without  internet  access Perceived unfair protection for Australian book titles The interests of book sellers and printers Usage fraud Registration fraud and disputes Privacy
Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense? Would voluntary licensing work just as well? Equity for households without  internet  access Perceived unfair protection for Australian book titles The interests of book sellers and printers Usage fraud Registration fraud and disputes Privacy Payment profiles
Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense? Would voluntary licensing work just as well? Equity for households without  internet  access Perceived unfair protection for Australian book titles The interests of book sellers and printers Usage fraud Registration fraud and disputes Privacy Payment profiles Advertising
Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense? Would voluntary licensing work just as well? Equity for households without  internet  access Perceived unfair protection for Australian book titles The interests of book sellers and printers Usage fraud Registration fraud and disputes Privacy Payment profiles Advertising ·  Value Added Services
Digital Lending Right Worth Doing? Initial  digitisation  cost of $45M  (1.5m volumes)
Digital Lending Right Worth Doing? Initial digitisation cost of $45M  (1.5m volumes) Photo: Abigroup Recently completed major upgrade of the Pacific Highway near Bonville. Construction costs of highway  such as this typically varies between $12m and $20m  per km.
“ We need to put the best we have to offer within  reach of our children.  Universal access to all  knowledge is within our grasp.” “ Books – it’s who we are, it’s our literature, it’s  what we've built up over  millennia” “The idea of having only one company control  the library of human knowledge is a nightmare” photo: davidsilver Flickr Brewster Kahle
photo: VCGeist Flickr
Freedom, Prosperity and the Development of society and individuals are fundamental human values.  They will only be attained through the ability of well-informed citizens to exercise their democratic rights and to play an active role in society.  Constructive participation and the development of democracy depend on satisfactory education as well as on free and unlimited access to knowledge, thought, culture and information. UNESCO public library manifesto
“ The advancement and  diffusion of knowledge is the  only guardian of true liberty.” James Madison, 1825
photo: expatriotact Flickr

More Related Content

Similar to Online09 - The case for a Digital Lending Right

Ohio's Excellent Libraries Need Excellent Electronic Content
Ohio's Excellent Libraries Need Excellent Electronic ContentOhio's Excellent Libraries Need Excellent Electronic Content
Ohio's Excellent Libraries Need Excellent Electronic Content
Matt Weaver
 
Ebook Update
Ebook UpdateEbook Update
Library Simplified at ALA 2015
Library Simplified at ALA 2015Library Simplified at ALA 2015
Library Simplified at ALA 2015
jamesenglish
 
Presentation of NetIS an e-publishing platform
Presentation of NetIS an e-publishing platformPresentation of NetIS an e-publishing platform
Presentation of NetIS an e-publishing platform
CDI Systems
 
James English, The New York Public Library @European Digital Distributors Me...
James English,  The New York Public Library @European Digital Distributors Me...James English,  The New York Public Library @European Digital Distributors Me...
James English, The New York Public Library @European Digital Distributors Me...
TISP Project
 
Copyright, Copy Fight
Copyright, Copy FightCopyright, Copy Fight
Copyright, Copy Fight
Sean Robinson
 
Kanawha talk 2011 02
Kanawha talk 2011 02Kanawha talk 2011 02
Kanawha talk 2011 02
TAPintoIT
 
What if the future (of libraries)
What if the future (of libraries)What if the future (of libraries)
What if the future (of libraries)
Peter Brantley
 
Empowering the Reader in a Digital World
Empowering the Reader in a Digital WorldEmpowering the Reader in a Digital World
Empowering the Reader in a Digital World
St. Petersburg College
 
vla ematerials act
vla ematerials actvla ematerials act
vla ematerials act
Ann Theis
 
Startup venture analysis
Startup venture analysisStartup venture analysis
Startup venture analysis
James Groh, MBA
 
You bought it, but do you own it?
You bought it, but do you own it?You bought it, but do you own it?
You bought it, but do you own it?
GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies
 
Sue Polanka: Purchasing E-Readers for Your Library
Sue Polanka: Purchasing E-Readers for Your LibrarySue Polanka: Purchasing E-Readers for Your Library
Sue Polanka: Purchasing E-Readers for Your Library
ALATechSource
 
The economics of information (1)
The economics of information (1)The economics of information (1)
The economics of information (1)
WiLS
 
Nylrc nora apr. 2013
Nylrc nora apr. 2013Nylrc nora apr. 2013
Nylrc nora apr. 2013
Stephen Abram
 
Impact of piracy (Novelists Inc)
Impact of piracy (Novelists Inc)Impact of piracy (Novelists Inc)
Impact of piracy (Novelists Inc)
Brian O'Leary
 
Google UnBound Conference, NYC, January 18, 2007
Google UnBound Conference, NYC, January 18, 2007Google UnBound Conference, NYC, January 18, 2007
Google UnBound Conference, NYC, January 18, 2007
IdeaVine Consulting
 
Google book settlement olita sept 2009
Google book settlement olita sept 2009Google book settlement olita sept 2009
Google book settlement olita sept 2009
Tony Horava
 
Goodbye Gutenberg? The real impact of emerging technologies on libraries, pu...
Goodbye Gutenberg?  The real impact of emerging technologies on libraries, pu...Goodbye Gutenberg?  The real impact of emerging technologies on libraries, pu...
Goodbye Gutenberg? The real impact of emerging technologies on libraries, pu...
chaefele
 
Digital Disruption of the Book Publishing Industry
Digital Disruption of the Book Publishing IndustryDigital Disruption of the Book Publishing Industry
Digital Disruption of the Book Publishing Industry
GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies
 

Similar to Online09 - The case for a Digital Lending Right (20)

Ohio's Excellent Libraries Need Excellent Electronic Content
Ohio's Excellent Libraries Need Excellent Electronic ContentOhio's Excellent Libraries Need Excellent Electronic Content
Ohio's Excellent Libraries Need Excellent Electronic Content
 
Ebook Update
Ebook UpdateEbook Update
Ebook Update
 
Library Simplified at ALA 2015
Library Simplified at ALA 2015Library Simplified at ALA 2015
Library Simplified at ALA 2015
 
Presentation of NetIS an e-publishing platform
Presentation of NetIS an e-publishing platformPresentation of NetIS an e-publishing platform
Presentation of NetIS an e-publishing platform
 
James English, The New York Public Library @European Digital Distributors Me...
James English,  The New York Public Library @European Digital Distributors Me...James English,  The New York Public Library @European Digital Distributors Me...
James English, The New York Public Library @European Digital Distributors Me...
 
Copyright, Copy Fight
Copyright, Copy FightCopyright, Copy Fight
Copyright, Copy Fight
 
Kanawha talk 2011 02
Kanawha talk 2011 02Kanawha talk 2011 02
Kanawha talk 2011 02
 
What if the future (of libraries)
What if the future (of libraries)What if the future (of libraries)
What if the future (of libraries)
 
Empowering the Reader in a Digital World
Empowering the Reader in a Digital WorldEmpowering the Reader in a Digital World
Empowering the Reader in a Digital World
 
vla ematerials act
vla ematerials actvla ematerials act
vla ematerials act
 
Startup venture analysis
Startup venture analysisStartup venture analysis
Startup venture analysis
 
You bought it, but do you own it?
You bought it, but do you own it?You bought it, but do you own it?
You bought it, but do you own it?
 
Sue Polanka: Purchasing E-Readers for Your Library
Sue Polanka: Purchasing E-Readers for Your LibrarySue Polanka: Purchasing E-Readers for Your Library
Sue Polanka: Purchasing E-Readers for Your Library
 
The economics of information (1)
The economics of information (1)The economics of information (1)
The economics of information (1)
 
Nylrc nora apr. 2013
Nylrc nora apr. 2013Nylrc nora apr. 2013
Nylrc nora apr. 2013
 
Impact of piracy (Novelists Inc)
Impact of piracy (Novelists Inc)Impact of piracy (Novelists Inc)
Impact of piracy (Novelists Inc)
 
Google UnBound Conference, NYC, January 18, 2007
Google UnBound Conference, NYC, January 18, 2007Google UnBound Conference, NYC, January 18, 2007
Google UnBound Conference, NYC, January 18, 2007
 
Google book settlement olita sept 2009
Google book settlement olita sept 2009Google book settlement olita sept 2009
Google book settlement olita sept 2009
 
Goodbye Gutenberg? The real impact of emerging technologies on libraries, pu...
Goodbye Gutenberg?  The real impact of emerging technologies on libraries, pu...Goodbye Gutenberg?  The real impact of emerging technologies on libraries, pu...
Goodbye Gutenberg? The real impact of emerging technologies on libraries, pu...
 
Digital Disruption of the Book Publishing Industry
Digital Disruption of the Book Publishing IndustryDigital Disruption of the Book Publishing Industry
Digital Disruption of the Book Publishing Industry
 

Recently uploaded

EuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python Codebase
EuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python CodebaseEuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python Codebase
EuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python Codebase
Jimmy Lai
 
The Role of IoT in Australian Mobile App Development - PDF Guide
The Role of IoT in Australian Mobile App Development - PDF GuideThe Role of IoT in Australian Mobile App Development - PDF Guide
The Role of IoT in Australian Mobile App Development - PDF Guide
Shiv Technolabs
 
High Profile Girls call Service Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Ser...
High Profile Girls call Service Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Ser...High Profile Girls call Service Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Ser...
High Profile Girls call Service Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Ser...
bhumivarma35300
 
Use Cases & Benefits of RPA in Manufacturing in 2024.pptx
Use Cases & Benefits of RPA in Manufacturing in 2024.pptxUse Cases & Benefits of RPA in Manufacturing in 2024.pptx
Use Cases & Benefits of RPA in Manufacturing in 2024.pptx
SynapseIndia
 
TrustArc Webinar - 2024 Data Privacy Trends: A Mid-Year Check-In
TrustArc Webinar - 2024 Data Privacy Trends: A Mid-Year Check-InTrustArc Webinar - 2024 Data Privacy Trends: A Mid-Year Check-In
TrustArc Webinar - 2024 Data Privacy Trends: A Mid-Year Check-In
TrustArc
 
Dublin_mulesoft_meetup_Mulesoft_Salesforce_Integration (1).pptx
Dublin_mulesoft_meetup_Mulesoft_Salesforce_Integration (1).pptxDublin_mulesoft_meetup_Mulesoft_Salesforce_Integration (1).pptx
Dublin_mulesoft_meetup_Mulesoft_Salesforce_Integration (1).pptx
Kunal Gupta
 
WhatsApp Spy Online Trackers and Monitoring Apps
WhatsApp Spy Online Trackers and Monitoring AppsWhatsApp Spy Online Trackers and Monitoring Apps
WhatsApp Spy Online Trackers and Monitoring Apps
HackersList
 
Best Practices for Effectively Running dbt in Airflow.pdf
Best Practices for Effectively Running dbt in Airflow.pdfBest Practices for Effectively Running dbt in Airflow.pdf
Best Practices for Effectively Running dbt in Airflow.pdf
Tatiana Al-Chueyr
 
Salesforce AI & Einstein Copilot Workshop
Salesforce AI & Einstein Copilot WorkshopSalesforce AI & Einstein Copilot Workshop
Salesforce AI & Einstein Copilot Workshop
CEPTES Software Inc
 
Feature sql server terbaru performance.pptx
Feature sql server terbaru performance.pptxFeature sql server terbaru performance.pptx
Feature sql server terbaru performance.pptx
ssuser1915fe1
 
leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...
leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...
leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...
alexjohnson7307
 
Data Integration Basics: Merging & Joining Data
Data Integration Basics: Merging & Joining DataData Integration Basics: Merging & Joining Data
Data Integration Basics: Merging & Joining Data
Safe Software
 
Opencast Summit 2024 — Opencast @ University of Münster
Opencast Summit 2024 — Opencast @ University of MünsterOpencast Summit 2024 — Opencast @ University of Münster
Opencast Summit 2024 — Opencast @ University of Münster
Matthias Neugebauer
 
Introduction-to-the-IAM-Platform-Implementation-Plan.pptx
Introduction-to-the-IAM-Platform-Implementation-Plan.pptxIntroduction-to-the-IAM-Platform-Implementation-Plan.pptx
Introduction-to-the-IAM-Platform-Implementation-Plan.pptx
313mohammedarshad
 
Vulnerability Management: A Comprehensive Overview
Vulnerability Management: A Comprehensive OverviewVulnerability Management: A Comprehensive Overview
Vulnerability Management: A Comprehensive Overview
Steven Carlson
 
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Keynote _ Power Digital Identities With AI...
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Keynote _ Power Digital Identities With AI...(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Keynote _ Power Digital Identities With AI...
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Keynote _ Power Digital Identities With AI...
Priyanka Aash
 
BT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdf
BT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdfBT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdf
BT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdf
Neo4j
 
Three New Criminal Laws in India 1 July 2024
Three New Criminal Laws in India 1 July 2024Three New Criminal Laws in India 1 July 2024
Three New Criminal Laws in India 1 July 2024
aakash malhotra
 
Integrating Kafka with MuleSoft 4 and usecase
Integrating Kafka with MuleSoft 4 and usecaseIntegrating Kafka with MuleSoft 4 and usecase
Integrating Kafka with MuleSoft 4 and usecase
shyamraj55
 
The Rise of AI in Cybersecurity How Machine Learning Will Shape Threat Detect...
The Rise of AI in Cybersecurity How Machine Learning Will Shape Threat Detect...The Rise of AI in Cybersecurity How Machine Learning Will Shape Threat Detect...
The Rise of AI in Cybersecurity How Machine Learning Will Shape Threat Detect...
digitalxplive
 

Recently uploaded (20)

EuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python Codebase
EuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python CodebaseEuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python Codebase
EuroPython 2024 - Streamlining Testing in a Large Python Codebase
 
The Role of IoT in Australian Mobile App Development - PDF Guide
The Role of IoT in Australian Mobile App Development - PDF GuideThe Role of IoT in Australian Mobile App Development - PDF Guide
The Role of IoT in Australian Mobile App Development - PDF Guide
 
High Profile Girls call Service Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Ser...
High Profile Girls call Service Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Ser...High Profile Girls call Service Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Ser...
High Profile Girls call Service Pune 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Ser...
 
Use Cases & Benefits of RPA in Manufacturing in 2024.pptx
Use Cases & Benefits of RPA in Manufacturing in 2024.pptxUse Cases & Benefits of RPA in Manufacturing in 2024.pptx
Use Cases & Benefits of RPA in Manufacturing in 2024.pptx
 
TrustArc Webinar - 2024 Data Privacy Trends: A Mid-Year Check-In
TrustArc Webinar - 2024 Data Privacy Trends: A Mid-Year Check-InTrustArc Webinar - 2024 Data Privacy Trends: A Mid-Year Check-In
TrustArc Webinar - 2024 Data Privacy Trends: A Mid-Year Check-In
 
Dublin_mulesoft_meetup_Mulesoft_Salesforce_Integration (1).pptx
Dublin_mulesoft_meetup_Mulesoft_Salesforce_Integration (1).pptxDublin_mulesoft_meetup_Mulesoft_Salesforce_Integration (1).pptx
Dublin_mulesoft_meetup_Mulesoft_Salesforce_Integration (1).pptx
 
WhatsApp Spy Online Trackers and Monitoring Apps
WhatsApp Spy Online Trackers and Monitoring AppsWhatsApp Spy Online Trackers and Monitoring Apps
WhatsApp Spy Online Trackers and Monitoring Apps
 
Best Practices for Effectively Running dbt in Airflow.pdf
Best Practices for Effectively Running dbt in Airflow.pdfBest Practices for Effectively Running dbt in Airflow.pdf
Best Practices for Effectively Running dbt in Airflow.pdf
 
Salesforce AI & Einstein Copilot Workshop
Salesforce AI & Einstein Copilot WorkshopSalesforce AI & Einstein Copilot Workshop
Salesforce AI & Einstein Copilot Workshop
 
Feature sql server terbaru performance.pptx
Feature sql server terbaru performance.pptxFeature sql server terbaru performance.pptx
Feature sql server terbaru performance.pptx
 
leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...
leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...
leewayhertz.com-AI agents for healthcare Applications benefits and implementa...
 
Data Integration Basics: Merging & Joining Data
Data Integration Basics: Merging & Joining DataData Integration Basics: Merging & Joining Data
Data Integration Basics: Merging & Joining Data
 
Opencast Summit 2024 — Opencast @ University of Münster
Opencast Summit 2024 — Opencast @ University of MünsterOpencast Summit 2024 — Opencast @ University of Münster
Opencast Summit 2024 — Opencast @ University of Münster
 
Introduction-to-the-IAM-Platform-Implementation-Plan.pptx
Introduction-to-the-IAM-Platform-Implementation-Plan.pptxIntroduction-to-the-IAM-Platform-Implementation-Plan.pptx
Introduction-to-the-IAM-Platform-Implementation-Plan.pptx
 
Vulnerability Management: A Comprehensive Overview
Vulnerability Management: A Comprehensive OverviewVulnerability Management: A Comprehensive Overview
Vulnerability Management: A Comprehensive Overview
 
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Keynote _ Power Digital Identities With AI...
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Keynote _ Power Digital Identities With AI...(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Keynote _ Power Digital Identities With AI...
(CISOPlatform Summit & SACON 2024) Keynote _ Power Digital Identities With AI...
 
BT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdf
BT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdfBT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdf
BT & Neo4j: Knowledge Graphs for Critical Enterprise Systems.pptx.pdf
 
Three New Criminal Laws in India 1 July 2024
Three New Criminal Laws in India 1 July 2024Three New Criminal Laws in India 1 July 2024
Three New Criminal Laws in India 1 July 2024
 
Integrating Kafka with MuleSoft 4 and usecase
Integrating Kafka with MuleSoft 4 and usecaseIntegrating Kafka with MuleSoft 4 and usecase
Integrating Kafka with MuleSoft 4 and usecase
 
The Rise of AI in Cybersecurity How Machine Learning Will Shape Threat Detect...
The Rise of AI in Cybersecurity How Machine Learning Will Shape Threat Detect...The Rise of AI in Cybersecurity How Machine Learning Will Shape Threat Detect...
The Rise of AI in Cybersecurity How Machine Learning Will Shape Threat Detect...
 

Online09 - The case for a Digital Lending Right

  • 1. The case for a Digital Lending Right Kent Fitch ALIA Information Online 2009, Sydney
  • 2. The current copyright regime is about to fail
  • 3. The current copyright regime is about to fail Bad news for creators Bad news for society
  • 4. Failure reason #1 Books are moving from the physical to the digital
  • 5.  
  • 6. “ Our vision for Kindle is every book ever printed in any language, all available in less than 60 seconds” Jeff Bezos, Amazon This photo : ptufts Flickr Prev photo: JohnPastor Flickr Next photo: LenEdgerly Flickr
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 13. Shortcovers Preview and buy chapters or sections of books (99 cents) ScrollMotion's Iceberg Books packaged as iPhone apps with rich navigation
  • 15. Why digital books? Instant access, anywhere
  • 16. Why digital books? Instant access, anywhere Search, annotation, hyperlinking
  • 17. Why digital books? Instant access, anywhere Search, annotation, hyperlinking Accessibility
  • 18. Why digital books? Instant access, anywhere Search, annotation, hyperlinking Accessibility Cost and profit
  • 19. Why digital books? Instant access, anywhere Search, annotation, hyperlinking Accessibility Cost and profit Control
  • 20. Control ?! &quot;We have a very serious issue with librarians.&quot; Pat Schroeder, the then and current president of the Association of American Publishers (AAP), 2001 “ Fair use” and “First sale” are a nuisance But contracts and EULA are “flexible”
  • 21. Failure reason #2 The internet is a copy machine
  • 22. “ ...the internet is a copy machine... …when copies are super abundant, they become worthless” Kevin Kelly photo: thatshs Flickr
  • 23. “ Bit by bit, everything that can be digitized will be digitized, making intellectual property ever easier to copy and ever harder to sell for more than a nominal price.” And we’ll have to find business and economic models that take this reality into account.” Paul Krugman
  • 24. “ Bit by bit, everything that can be digitized will be digitized, making intellectual property ever easier to copy and ever harder to sell for more than a nominal price. And we’ll have to find business and economic models that take this reality into account . ” Paul Krugman photo: Taekwonweirdo Flickr
  • 25. DRM does not help
  • 27.  
  • 28.  
  • 29. Google – AAP – AG Settlement AAP - Association of American Publishers AG - Authors Guild
  • 30. Google – AAP – AG Settlement AAP - Association of American Publishers AG - Authors Guild Establish a Book Rights Registry (BRR) Revenue from Per-book licensing fees Institutional subscriptions Advertisements Split revenue 63% rights-holders, 37% Google
  • 31. Google – AAP – AG Settlement
  • 32. Google – AAP – AG Settlement For “In copyright BUT NOT commercially available” General Free Service to all (US) users: Show 20% of text, no more than 5 adjacent pages Exceptions: Fiction: Show min of 15 adj pages/5%, block final 15 pages/5% Anthologies, collections of poems, short stories: Show nothing Dictionaries, study guides, …: Fixed preview No printing, no copy & paste
  • 33. Google – AAP – AG Settlement Individual fee-per-book access 50% of books <= $5.99 Perpetual online access to entire book from anywhere Copy & paste or print entire book (watermarked) Share annotations with 25 nominated other owners
  • 34. Google – AAP – AG Settlement Individual fee-per-book access 50% of books <= $5.99 Perpetual online access to entire book from anywhere Copy & paste or print entire book (watermarked) Share annotations with 25 nominated other owners Free public access service for public libraries & Unis Access to all books, but only on-site Print for a per-page fee (watermarked) No copy & paste 1 access terminal per library, or per 4K - 10K FTE students
  • 35. Google – AAP – AG Settlement Institutional subscription access Access for the period of the subscription (not perpetual) Remote access only for defined higher-education institutions Copy & paste or print entire book Complicated rules for sharing annotations Fee based on FTE users
  • 36. Google – AAP – AG Settlement For public libraries Remote access by patrons seems unlikely Offline access by patrons seems very unlikely Those who can afford it will opt for individual per-book licensing
  • 37. What's wrong with all this? Whilst information in books has never been more accessible ... … and more useful … … it's increasingly restricted to those willing and able to pay … or those willing to pirate.
  • 38. What's wrong with all this? Public lending libraries will be marginalised because - patrons will expect Kindle-style access - providing this will be expensive or impossible
  • 39. What's wrong with all this? Public lending libraries will be marginalised because - patrons will expect Kindle-style access - providing this will be expensive or impossible Commercial interests will increasingly control access to knowledge.
  • 40. What's wrong with all this? Public lending libraries will be marginalised because - patrons will expect Kindle-style access - providing this will be expensive or impossible Commercial interests will increasingly control access to knowledge. Piracy will reduce incentives to create and deny rights-holders fair compensation.
  • 41. But Pat Schroeder has a point... Rights-holders deserve to be fairly compensated
  • 42. But Pat Schroeder has a point... Rights-holders deserve to be fairly compensated So, Australia, NZ, Great Britain, Canada, Germany, (15 countries in all) have a Public Lending Right
  • 43. But Pat Schroeder has a point... Rights-holders deserve to be fairly compensated So, Australia, NZ, Great Britain, Canada, Germany, (15 countries in all) have a Public Lending Right 2006-7, Australian PLR and ELR distributed $17.5M ~10000 creators ~ 400 publishers
  • 44. Extending the PLR to digital books
  • 45. Extending the PLR to digital books Limited scope compulsory licensing of books published in Australia Voluntary licensing of other books
  • 46. Extending the PLR to digital books Limited scope compulsory licensing of books published in Australia Voluntary licensing of other books Books available in digital format to Australians Online And as downloads Private (non commercial) use only
  • 47. Extending the PLR to digital books Limited scope compulsory licensing of books published in Australia Voluntary licensing of other books Books available in digital format to Australians Online And as downloads Private (non commercial) use only Compensation to rights-holders based on how and how often their works are accessed
  • 48. Extending the PLR to digital books Limited scope compulsory licensing of books published in Australia Voluntary licensing of other books Books available in digital format to Australians Online And as downloads Private (non commercial) use only Compensation to rights-holders based on how and how often their works are accessed Funded from general taxation
  • 49. Digital Lending Right Coverage Must have a critical mass Must avoid conflict with international copyright agreements
  • 50. Digital Lending Right Coverage Must have a critical mass Must avoid conflict with international copyright agreements Limit scope to books published in Australia Limit scope to private educational and entertainment usage Compensate rights-holders regardless of nationality Non-exclusive Strong economic incentive for rights-holders of books published outside Australia to join
  • 51. Digital Lending Right Form A digital repository Rights holders will be encourage to supply new books in digital format Old books will be scanned and OCR'ed All books will be fully searchable
  • 52. Digital Lending Right Access Only from within Australia and for private use Anonymous but tracked to detect fraudulent usage Books viewable by the page Books downloadable by chapter or in entirety No cost to search, view or download No DRM but user must agree not to redistribute Discourage redistribution by making online view / download the most efficient option
  • 53. Digital Lending Right Payments Based on usage (views and downloads) Rights-holders must register to receive payments (like BRR) Rights-holders of currently orphaned works will be compensated when identified But how much?
  • 54. Digital Lending Right $ Cost breakdown for an average title published in Australia from ABS Book Publishers Australia 2003-2004 Survey 1363.0 Current printed cost Excluding printing and half of “other” Royalties to authors, artists, editors 1.03 1.03 Wages to inhouse artists, editors, publishers, typesetters 0.65 0.65 Printing 3.75 - Profit 0.90 0.90 Other (not classifiable from ABS report) 2.56 1.28 TOTAL 8.78 3.86
  • 55. Digital Lending Right Number of copies of books produced by Australian publishers 2003-04: 84.4 million (Not all sold in Australia) To compensate publishers and authors for their rights for these books: 84.4 m books x $3.86 / book = $325m (in 2004-05 dollars, or $360m in current dollars)
  • 56. Digital Lending Right Would consumption increase if the cost of a book to a consumer was $0? Yes! (although current $0 cost books are supplied by libraries, Project Gutenberg, Million Book project etc) If usage of books doubled, and current PLR/ELR usage was included in DLR: Would $700m be fair compensation?
  • 57. Digital Lending Right Funding From general taxation as a public good ~$700m roughly doubles the current “reward” to rights-holders Roughly neutral from average tax-payers point of view Assuming retail costs and markup of 50% hence an average retail price of ~$12, sales of 84m books costs around $1000m But an unknown number of these 84m would continue to be purchased for private use, and for commercial/government use But GST loss of approximately $100m
  • 58. Digital Lending Right Funding Ongoing operation PLR/ELR costs $0.375m pa Assume DLR registry is ten times larger: $4M or <1% of payments Initial and annual rights holder registration fees could recover some of this (and discourage frivolous registration) Initial Digitisation ~1.5m titles @ $30 each = $45m some could be recovered from initial rights holder payment
  • 59. Digital Lending Right Management By library professionals within the Government sector Commercially disinterested, arms length from rights-holders and funding sources
  • 60. Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense?
  • 61. Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense? Would voluntary licensing work just as well?
  • 62. Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense? Would voluntary licensing work just as well? Equity for households without internet access
  • 63. Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense? Would voluntary licensing work just as well? Equity for households without internet access Perceived unfair protection for Australian book titles
  • 64. Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense? Would voluntary licensing work just as well? Equity for households without internet access Perceived unfair protection for Australian book titles The interests of book sellers and printers
  • 65. Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense? Would voluntary licensing work just as well? Equity for households without internet access Perceived unfair protection for Australian book titles The interests of book sellers and printers Usage fraud
  • 66. Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense? Would voluntary licensing work just as well? Equity for households without internet access Perceived unfair protection for Australian book titles The interests of book sellers and printers Usage fraud Registration fraud and disputes
  • 67. Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense? Would voluntary licensing work just as well? Equity for households without internet access Perceived unfair protection for Australian book titles The interests of book sellers and printers Usage fraud Registration fraud and disputes Privacy
  • 68. Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense? Would voluntary licensing work just as well? Equity for households without internet access Perceived unfair protection for Australian book titles The interests of book sellers and printers Usage fraud Registration fraud and disputes Privacy Payment profiles
  • 69. Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense? Would voluntary licensing work just as well? Equity for households without internet access Perceived unfair protection for Australian book titles The interests of book sellers and printers Usage fraud Registration fraud and disputes Privacy Payment profiles Advertising
  • 70. Digital Lending Right Obstacles/Open problems Do digital books really make sense? Would voluntary licensing work just as well? Equity for households without internet access Perceived unfair protection for Australian book titles The interests of book sellers and printers Usage fraud Registration fraud and disputes Privacy Payment profiles Advertising · Value Added Services
  • 71. Digital Lending Right Worth Doing? Initial digitisation cost of $45M (1.5m volumes)
  • 72. Digital Lending Right Worth Doing? Initial digitisation cost of $45M (1.5m volumes) Photo: Abigroup Recently completed major upgrade of the Pacific Highway near Bonville. Construction costs of highway such as this typically varies between $12m and $20m per km.
  • 73. “ We need to put the best we have to offer within reach of our children. Universal access to all knowledge is within our grasp.” “ Books – it’s who we are, it’s our literature, it’s what we've built up over millennia” “The idea of having only one company control the library of human knowledge is a nightmare” photo: davidsilver Flickr Brewster Kahle
  • 75. Freedom, Prosperity and the Development of society and individuals are fundamental human values. They will only be attained through the ability of well-informed citizens to exercise their democratic rights and to play an active role in society. Constructive participation and the development of democracy depend on satisfactory education as well as on free and unlimited access to knowledge, thought, culture and information. UNESCO public library manifesto
  • 76. “ The advancement and diffusion of knowledge is the only guardian of true liberty.” James Madison, 1825

Editor's Notes

  1. Thanks for coming!