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Star Life Cycle and
Nuclear Fusion
Nuclear Fusion. It is a nuclear process,
where energy is produced by smashing
together light atoms
Stellar Evolution: Life of the
Star
 The most massive stars have the
shortest lives. Stars that are 25 to 50
times that of the sun live for only a
few million years. Stars like our Sun
live for about 10 billion years. Stars
less massive than the Sun have even
longer life spans
 Stars are like humans they are
born, live and die
Stars are formed in
1. Nebulae, interstellar clouds of dust and gas
(mostly hydrogen).
These stellar nurseries are abundant in the arms
of spiral galaxies.
In these stellar nurseries, dense parts of these
clouds undergo gravitational collapse and
compress to form a rotating gas globule.
The Birth of Stars
It begins to spin as it shrinks
NEBULA PICTURES
Protostar stage: The nebula flattens and
the center condenses:
Temps start to increase due to friction
(more collision of molecules).
When temps reach 10 million K, NUCLEAR
FUSION begins
Nuclear Fusion generates the energy for a
star.
When fusion begins, it is officially
considered a STAR. (yeah!)
Fusion – combining a lightweight nuclei
into a heavier nuclei
Protostar
Pictures
Stars live out the
majority of their lives in
a phase termed as the
Main Sequence.
Longest stage of a star
The protostar is now a
stable main sequence
star which will remain
in this state for about 10
billion years. After that,
the hydrogen fuel is
depleted and the star
begins to die.
Main-Sequence Stage
Main Sequence Star
When a star has burned between 10% and 20% of its hydrogen,
its core will to run out of fuel.
At this stage, the star is entering the end of its life.
The diameter of the star can increase by a factor of 200, while its
cooling is translated into a reddening of its radiation : the star is
becoming what is called a red giant.
RED GIANT STAGE
 Star has run out of Hydrogen
atoms in the core to undergo
fusion.
 Our sun has used only about 5%
of its Hydrogen
 Star expands about 10x bigger
and cools.
 Its luminosity increases, temp
decreases.*****
 Helium fuses to form Carbon, and
the core shrinks.
 It begins losing outer layers
BETELGEUSE –RED GIANT
 Only a few million years
old, Betelgeuse is already
dying. Astronomers
predict that it's doomed to
explode as a soon, within
1,000 years or so, an event
that will be spectacular for
Earth's future inhabitants.
(Conceivably, it's already
happened as Betelgeuse is
640 light-years away!)
F.Y.I.
Burnout and Death
 Fate of a Star depends on
its mass
 All stars, regardless of
size, run out of fuel and
collapse due to gravity
 A star will become
either a black dwarf,
neutron star, or
black hole,
depending on how
massive it was. .
Death of low-mass stars
 Remain stable main-sequence stars until
hydrogen is gone
 Collapse into white dwarfs
**Death of medium-mass stars**
 Sun-like Stars
(Mass under 1.5 times the mass of the Sun) Red
Giant --> Planetary Nebula -->White Dwarf
--> Black Dwarf
**Death of massive stars**
 Huge Stars
(Mass between 1.5 to 3 times the mass of the Sun)
Red SuperGiant --> Supernova --> Neutron Star
 Giant Stars
(Mass over 3 times the mass of the Sun) Red
SuperGiant --> Supernova --> Black Hole
PLANETARY NEBULA
 This is left when a giant loses its outer layers
of gas.
 Leaves only the core.
 The core will become a white dwarf
Planetary nebula pictures
WHITE DWARF
Only hot, dense core is left of this star.
 It will shine for billions of years before
cooling.
 Stable star with no nuclear fuel,radiates left
over fuel for billions of years
 Could become a black dwarf, but the
universe is not old enough to form these
White Dwarf Pictures
SUPER NOVA
 Super Giant eventually
loses its outer layers in an
explosion leaving only
the core – this is the
super nova.
NEUTRON STAR
 After a Super Nova explosion, the core may
condense into a small core of neutrons.
 It is so dense – 1 spoonful of Earth would weigh
100 million tons.
 Rotates very rapidly.
If the star's remaining mass is between 1 1/2 to 3 times the
mass of the Sun, it will collapse into a small, dense
neutron star (about ten miles in diameter, about 1.4 times
the mass of the Sun, with an extraordinarily strong magnetic
field, and rapid spin).
Neutron Star Pictures
BLACK HOLE
 This is the 3rd predicted result to a star.
 This is the most dense core of a star that
can be left.
 Gravity is so strong, light cannot escape.
 Makes it look like a dark hole in space.
If the star's remaining mass is greater than three times
the mass of the Sun, the star contracts tremendously
and becomes a black hole
Black Hole Pictures
Anatomy of a black hole
 The density of a star is pre-determined based
on its weight (the amount of dust and gas)
it begins with.
 Smaller stars become white dwarfs.
 Very large stars become neutron stars or
black holes.
•Life Cycle of a
Star Video

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omg djjdjdjdjjd lifecyleofstars powerpoint.ppt

  • 1. Star Life Cycle and Nuclear Fusion
  • 2. Nuclear Fusion. It is a nuclear process, where energy is produced by smashing together light atoms
  • 3. Stellar Evolution: Life of the Star  The most massive stars have the shortest lives. Stars that are 25 to 50 times that of the sun live for only a few million years. Stars like our Sun live for about 10 billion years. Stars less massive than the Sun have even longer life spans  Stars are like humans they are born, live and die
  • 4. Stars are formed in 1. Nebulae, interstellar clouds of dust and gas (mostly hydrogen). These stellar nurseries are abundant in the arms of spiral galaxies. In these stellar nurseries, dense parts of these clouds undergo gravitational collapse and compress to form a rotating gas globule. The Birth of Stars It begins to spin as it shrinks
  • 6. Protostar stage: The nebula flattens and the center condenses: Temps start to increase due to friction (more collision of molecules). When temps reach 10 million K, NUCLEAR FUSION begins Nuclear Fusion generates the energy for a star. When fusion begins, it is officially considered a STAR. (yeah!) Fusion – combining a lightweight nuclei into a heavier nuclei
  • 8. Stars live out the majority of their lives in a phase termed as the Main Sequence. Longest stage of a star The protostar is now a stable main sequence star which will remain in this state for about 10 billion years. After that, the hydrogen fuel is depleted and the star begins to die. Main-Sequence Stage
  • 10. When a star has burned between 10% and 20% of its hydrogen, its core will to run out of fuel. At this stage, the star is entering the end of its life. The diameter of the star can increase by a factor of 200, while its cooling is translated into a reddening of its radiation : the star is becoming what is called a red giant. RED GIANT STAGE
  • 11.  Star has run out of Hydrogen atoms in the core to undergo fusion.  Our sun has used only about 5% of its Hydrogen  Star expands about 10x bigger and cools.  Its luminosity increases, temp decreases.*****  Helium fuses to form Carbon, and the core shrinks.  It begins losing outer layers
  • 12. BETELGEUSE –RED GIANT  Only a few million years old, Betelgeuse is already dying. Astronomers predict that it's doomed to explode as a soon, within 1,000 years or so, an event that will be spectacular for Earth's future inhabitants. (Conceivably, it's already happened as Betelgeuse is 640 light-years away!) F.Y.I.
  • 13. Burnout and Death  Fate of a Star depends on its mass  All stars, regardless of size, run out of fuel and collapse due to gravity  A star will become either a black dwarf, neutron star, or black hole, depending on how massive it was. .
  • 14. Death of low-mass stars  Remain stable main-sequence stars until hydrogen is gone  Collapse into white dwarfs
  • 15. **Death of medium-mass stars**  Sun-like Stars (Mass under 1.5 times the mass of the Sun) Red Giant --> Planetary Nebula -->White Dwarf --> Black Dwarf
  • 16. **Death of massive stars**  Huge Stars (Mass between 1.5 to 3 times the mass of the Sun) Red SuperGiant --> Supernova --> Neutron Star  Giant Stars (Mass over 3 times the mass of the Sun) Red SuperGiant --> Supernova --> Black Hole
  • 17.
  • 18. PLANETARY NEBULA  This is left when a giant loses its outer layers of gas.  Leaves only the core.  The core will become a white dwarf
  • 20. WHITE DWARF Only hot, dense core is left of this star.  It will shine for billions of years before cooling.  Stable star with no nuclear fuel,radiates left over fuel for billions of years  Could become a black dwarf, but the universe is not old enough to form these
  • 22. SUPER NOVA  Super Giant eventually loses its outer layers in an explosion leaving only the core – this is the super nova.
  • 23. NEUTRON STAR  After a Super Nova explosion, the core may condense into a small core of neutrons.  It is so dense – 1 spoonful of Earth would weigh 100 million tons.  Rotates very rapidly. If the star's remaining mass is between 1 1/2 to 3 times the mass of the Sun, it will collapse into a small, dense neutron star (about ten miles in diameter, about 1.4 times the mass of the Sun, with an extraordinarily strong magnetic field, and rapid spin).
  • 25. BLACK HOLE  This is the 3rd predicted result to a star.  This is the most dense core of a star that can be left.  Gravity is so strong, light cannot escape.  Makes it look like a dark hole in space. If the star's remaining mass is greater than three times the mass of the Sun, the star contracts tremendously and becomes a black hole
  • 26. Black Hole Pictures Anatomy of a black hole
  • 27.  The density of a star is pre-determined based on its weight (the amount of dust and gas) it begins with.  Smaller stars become white dwarfs.  Very large stars become neutron stars or black holes. •Life Cycle of a Star Video