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Critical Analysis of
Telecommunication in
Bangladesh:

xx
27th Batch, Section-B
LL.M (Final Program)
Historical Background
The Telegraph branch of the Posts and Telegraph Department
was created in 1853 in the then British India, which was
afterwards regulated under the Telegraph Act of 1885. This
was reconstructed in 1962 as Pakistan Telegraph and
Telephone Department. After the independence of the
People’s Republic of Bangladesh in 1971, Bangladesh
Telegraph and Telephone Department was set up under the
Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications to run the
Telecommunication Services in Bangladesh. This was
converted into a corporate body named Bangladesh
Telegraph and Telephone Board after promulgation of
Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Board Ordinance No.
XLVII of 1975. In pursuance of Ordinance No. XII of 1979
promulgated on 24th February 1979, Bangladesh Telegraph
and Telephone Board was again converted into a Government
Board.
Legal Environment and Regulatory
Arrangements
The Telegraph Act of 1885 is the primary statute
governing Telecommunications in Bangladesh. This
Act granted to the Government exclusive powers to
establish and maintain all types of
telecommunications transmission services and
products. The Telegraph Act established other broad
privileges and powers of the Government with respect
to telecommunications, including right to grant or
revoke Licenses to private parties; seize licensed
facilities and intercept messages in the event of
public emergencies; issues rules governing the
operations of government or private licensed
facilities; and exercise power of compulsory
acquisition over public and private property. The
Telegraph Act also laid down specific penalties for
variety of Offences, including the illegal operations of
facilities; unlawful interception of messages;
interference or damage to facilities;
• The Wireless Telegraph Act of 1933

applied primarily to one-way or broadcast services,
specifically radio and television (other one-way
telecommunication services, such as paging, are
authorized under the Telegraph Act). Under Section
3 of the Act, possession of wireless apparatus is
prohibited, except under the terms of a Licence.
The Wireless Telegraph Act governs the granting of
Licences to manufacturers and retailers involved in
sale of radio equipment, as well as the licensing of
radio and television receivers. Magisterial powers
are granted to certain officials to summons. Finally,
the Government is authorized to issue regulations
to implement the provisions of the Act.
The Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone
Board Ordinance, 1979:

By virtue of the 1979 Ordinance, both the monopoly
rights and the power to issue Licences, for both
telecommunications and wireless services, were
transferred to the BTTB. Section 8 sets out the functions
of the Board in very wide terms, including exercise of all
powers of the Government under the Telegraph Act 1885,
except to make rules under the Act and to determine
certain disputes with a Local Authority. The powers of
the BTTB are in practice severely circumscribed by the
need to obtain Government approval under Section 8(i)
and the First Schedule of the Ordinance for its capital
and revenue budget, and for many changes in the
employment conditions of its workers
•
•

•

The Bangladesh Telecommunication Act 1999
Increasing participation of Private Sector Operators in
the Telecommunication Sector in Bangladesh has made it
expedient to provide for the establishment of an
independent Commission. A draft Act has been prepared
to provide for establishment of an Independent
Commission for the purpose of the efficient regulation
and development of the telecommunication system in
Bangladesh; to provide for the regulation of
telecommunication licenses; to deal with the transition
and transfer of liabilities and responsibilities from the
Ministry of Posts & Telecommunications to the
Commission; and for the connected purposes.
The draft Telecommunication Act 1999 is expected to be
placed before the National Parliament in the coming
weeks.
National Telecom Policy, 1998
Telecommunication Regulatory
Commission
• The Strategic Vision of the Telecom
Policy is to facilitate Universal Telephone
Service throughout Bangladesh and where
there is a demand, all those Value Added
Services such as Cellular Mobile
Telephone, Paging, Data Services, Access
to Internet (including electronic mail),
Voice Mail, and Video Conferencing – all at
an affordable cost without compromising
performance.
Broad Policy
Objectivesdevelopment of
•
to encourage orderly
•
•

•
•
•
•

•
•

telecommunications system that serves to augment
and strengthen the social and economic welfare of
Bangladesh;
 
to ensure access to and delivery of a full range of
reliable. reasonable priced, up to date
telecommunications services to as many people as is
economically and socially justifiable, both in urban
and rural areas, throughout Bangladesh,
 
to enhance the efficiency and competitiveness, at
the national and international level of Bangladesh
Telecommunications;
 
to rely increasingly on competition and a market
oriented regime in the provision of
telecommunication services and to ensure that
regulation, where required, is efficient and effective,
 
to stimulate research and development in
Bangladesh in the field of telecommunications and to
TELECOMMUNICATION
ADMINISTRATION IN BANGLADESH
· Bangladesh T & T Board (BTTB) is run as a
Government establishment under the
Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications
(MOPT). The Board comprises of 1 (one)
Chairman, 4 (four) full time Members and 3
(three) part time Members, all appointed by
the Government of Bangladesh.
Telephone Status:
At the end of 1997-98 fiscal year Bangladesh T & T Board had
621 telephone exchanges, with total capacity of 314980
lines and subscriber connection of 286605 lines with
registered pending demand of 154037 telephones.
BTTB started operating digital local exchanges after

installation of six NEC-NEAX model exchanges in the
Dhaka Multi Exchange Network in 1990-91 fiscal year
with initial capacity of 26000 lines. In 1994-95 five
more digital exchanges of ALCATEL E-10 model were
installed in Chittagong Multi Exchange area with total
capacity of 22000 lines. By the end of 1996, a total of
additional 150000 lines of ALCATEL E-10 type
exchange were added in the cities of Dhaka,
Chittagong, Sylhet, Khulna and Rajshahi
Public Telephones
Years back public telephone services were provided
through coin boxes in the urban area and landline /
wireless Public Call Offices (PCOs) in the rural areas. The
services through these public telephones had been far
from satisfactory. To improve the public telephone
service, Card Phone Service was introduced from later
part of 1992 with programmes of replacing the old coin
boxes and PCOs. By June 1997, 1283 card phone booths
have been installed in different parts of Bangladesh. All
card phones have access to nation wide dialing and 635
of them have international direct dialing facility. Due to
better and easier public accessibility to telephone the
card phone service has attained popularity in
Bangladesh. A massive program of installing card phone
has been taken to cover all thanas and rural growth
centres of the country.
Nation Wide Dialing
Services
· In 1983 Bangladesh T & T Board installed the
National Automatic Long Distance Telephone
Dialing System employing NEAX version of NEC
exchange to link all major cities of the country.
Beforehand there were Subscriber Trunk Dialing
(STD) services based on Analog toll switching
system to link few cities of the country with Dhaka.
By June 1997, 100 stations including all 64-district
headquarters and 10 Thana headquarters and 36
thanas were brought under this system. The system
primarily consists of 4 digital Trunk Automatic
Exchanges having 15384 circuits.
Operators Trunk Dialing
(OTD) Service:
•

This service was introduced in all the thanas to get
access by direct dialing up to Thana level where there is
no automatic telephone exchange. In this system one or
two telephone numbers of district automatic telephone
exchange are extended upto thana level through UHF
radio links. The telephone operator of the manual
telephone exchange can through these numbers, connect
subscribers of the thana with any subscriber of the other

auto exchanges of the country by dialing respective NWD codes.
Transmission System in Bangladesh
• Bangladesh is a riverine country and the country’s
long route transmission systems are mainly
composed of microwave, UHF and VHF radio links.
The use of optical fibre is presently limited within
some city areas for interconnecting local exchange
and Remote Switching Units (RSU) in Multi
Exchange Network. All these transmission systems
are operated by BTTB.
• All Thana headquarters (the smallest administrative
units) are connected with their respective districts
through UHF links. Most of such UHF links are now
digital radio system. Some of the district
headquarters are connected through digital UHF
links.
International Telecommunication
Facilities
Bangladesh entered into the era of modern telecommunication
facility after commissioning of a Standard A Satellite Earth
Station in 1975 at Betbunia to work with INTELSAT system. The
international telecommunication facilities have become more
easier and versatile after installation of Standard B Satellite
Station at Talibabad to work with INTELSAT system. BTTB
introduced International Subscriber Dialing (ISD) facility in
December 1983 after installation of a digital International
Trunk Exchange (ITX) at Dhaka Subscribers with ISD facility can
directly dial to over 200 countries of the world. Other
subscribers can easily establish overseas telephone call through
Operator via the ITX by booking overseas call. Most of the
telephone calls from abroad can reach any district head quarters
of Bangladesh through the ITX without any operator’s help.
After introduction of Operator Trunk Dialing (OTD) service in
every thana headquarters and at some rural growth centres
people from abroad can reach local operator by direct dialing
and then can easily establish telephone calls with rural
subscribers even through a manual terminal exchange. At
present there are arrangements of ISD calls many district
headquarters.
International
Switching Centre
At present BTTB has three international
switching centres (ISC) of which two are
located at Moghbazar and one at Mohakhali
in Dhaka City. ISCs of Moghbazar are of type
NEAX-61K and NEAX –61E and ISC of
Mohakhali is NEAX – 61 E type
International Maritime
Satellite Communication
INTELSAT Satellite links fixed Earth Stations for
overseas communication while INMARSAT
(International Maritime Satellite Communication)
provide mobile communication services for ships and
aircrafts. Recent development of portable terminal
has made it possible for customers to take advantage
of INMARSAT service from remote locations also.
BTTB had, by June 1997, five INMARSAT - A
terminals operating through LES Land Earth Station)
located in Jeddah.
International VSAT
Service
Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) – A small earth
station having dish antenna of typically 0.6 to 2.4
meters in diameter is designed to handle voice, data
and private line video communication. Terminal is
located at each end and communication is established
through geostationary satellite (in this region
ASIASAT). As a satellite based solution, VSATs are
small and easy to install. A VSAT network can be
expanded or modified as a users business needs
change and grow. Banks, insurance companies, news
bureaus, educational institutions all those and more
can be linked across continent. VSAT is allowed to
communicate only incorporate data communication
and cannot be terminated to any public switched
telephone network.
Growth of Telephone in
Bangladesh
• The growth of telephone exchange
capacity was restricted due to non
availability of necessary investment for the
Government resource and the demand was
artificially managed / restricted by raising
the installation charge and thereby making
it unaffordable by the ordinary people.
Privatization of
Telecommunication Services:
The Telecom sector of Bangladesh has
been liberalized for private
investment. Bangladesh T & T Board
all types of telecommunication service
in urban and rural areas. Private
operators offer the mobile, paging and
the radio trunking services. Private
operators are also given license to
operate digital exchanges at rural
Thana headquarters.
Rural
Telecommunication:
•

The responsibility of providing Rural
Telecommunication was entrusted to two Private
Operators i.e. Bangladesh Rural
Telecommunication Authority (BRTA) & Sheba
Telecom; and for the area of Bangladesh was
more or less divided into two equal parts
between the two Operators. Unfortunately, the
success of these two operators were limited and
even after about 7 to 9 years of operation, the
coverage have been very inadequate and quality
had been poor. Inadequacy of interconnection
facility between BTTB network and the network
of the private operators played a major role for
this state of affairs. The technical and the
financial limitations of the operator were also
there. The absence of an Independent Regulatory
Body have been identified as an impediment for
the solution for furthering development of
telecommunication in Bangladesh
Thank You

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New microsoft power point presentation (sayef amin)

  • 1. Critical Analysis of Telecommunication in Bangladesh: xx 27th Batch, Section-B LL.M (Final Program)
  • 2. Historical Background The Telegraph branch of the Posts and Telegraph Department was created in 1853 in the then British India, which was afterwards regulated under the Telegraph Act of 1885. This was reconstructed in 1962 as Pakistan Telegraph and Telephone Department. After the independence of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh in 1971, Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Department was set up under the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications to run the Telecommunication Services in Bangladesh. This was converted into a corporate body named Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Board after promulgation of Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Board Ordinance No. XLVII of 1975. In pursuance of Ordinance No. XII of 1979 promulgated on 24th February 1979, Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Board was again converted into a Government Board.
  • 3. Legal Environment and Regulatory Arrangements The Telegraph Act of 1885 is the primary statute governing Telecommunications in Bangladesh. This Act granted to the Government exclusive powers to establish and maintain all types of telecommunications transmission services and products. The Telegraph Act established other broad privileges and powers of the Government with respect to telecommunications, including right to grant or revoke Licenses to private parties; seize licensed facilities and intercept messages in the event of public emergencies; issues rules governing the operations of government or private licensed facilities; and exercise power of compulsory acquisition over public and private property. The Telegraph Act also laid down specific penalties for variety of Offences, including the illegal operations of facilities; unlawful interception of messages; interference or damage to facilities;
  • 4. • The Wireless Telegraph Act of 1933 applied primarily to one-way or broadcast services, specifically radio and television (other one-way telecommunication services, such as paging, are authorized under the Telegraph Act). Under Section 3 of the Act, possession of wireless apparatus is prohibited, except under the terms of a Licence. The Wireless Telegraph Act governs the granting of Licences to manufacturers and retailers involved in sale of radio equipment, as well as the licensing of radio and television receivers. Magisterial powers are granted to certain officials to summons. Finally, the Government is authorized to issue regulations to implement the provisions of the Act.
  • 5. The Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Board Ordinance, 1979: By virtue of the 1979 Ordinance, both the monopoly rights and the power to issue Licences, for both telecommunications and wireless services, were transferred to the BTTB. Section 8 sets out the functions of the Board in very wide terms, including exercise of all powers of the Government under the Telegraph Act 1885, except to make rules under the Act and to determine certain disputes with a Local Authority. The powers of the BTTB are in practice severely circumscribed by the need to obtain Government approval under Section 8(i) and the First Schedule of the Ordinance for its capital and revenue budget, and for many changes in the employment conditions of its workers
  • 6. • • • The Bangladesh Telecommunication Act 1999 Increasing participation of Private Sector Operators in the Telecommunication Sector in Bangladesh has made it expedient to provide for the establishment of an independent Commission. A draft Act has been prepared to provide for establishment of an Independent Commission for the purpose of the efficient regulation and development of the telecommunication system in Bangladesh; to provide for the regulation of telecommunication licenses; to deal with the transition and transfer of liabilities and responsibilities from the Ministry of Posts & Telecommunications to the Commission; and for the connected purposes. The draft Telecommunication Act 1999 is expected to be placed before the National Parliament in the coming weeks.
  • 7. National Telecom Policy, 1998 Telecommunication Regulatory Commission • The Strategic Vision of the Telecom Policy is to facilitate Universal Telephone Service throughout Bangladesh and where there is a demand, all those Value Added Services such as Cellular Mobile Telephone, Paging, Data Services, Access to Internet (including electronic mail), Voice Mail, and Video Conferencing – all at an affordable cost without compromising performance.
  • 8. Broad Policy Objectivesdevelopment of • to encourage orderly • • • • • • • • telecommunications system that serves to augment and strengthen the social and economic welfare of Bangladesh;   to ensure access to and delivery of a full range of reliable. reasonable priced, up to date telecommunications services to as many people as is economically and socially justifiable, both in urban and rural areas, throughout Bangladesh,   to enhance the efficiency and competitiveness, at the national and international level of Bangladesh Telecommunications;   to rely increasingly on competition and a market oriented regime in the provision of telecommunication services and to ensure that regulation, where required, is efficient and effective,   to stimulate research and development in Bangladesh in the field of telecommunications and to
  • 9. TELECOMMUNICATION ADMINISTRATION IN BANGLADESH · Bangladesh T & T Board (BTTB) is run as a Government establishment under the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (MOPT). The Board comprises of 1 (one) Chairman, 4 (four) full time Members and 3 (three) part time Members, all appointed by the Government of Bangladesh.
  • 10. Telephone Status: At the end of 1997-98 fiscal year Bangladesh T & T Board had 621 telephone exchanges, with total capacity of 314980 lines and subscriber connection of 286605 lines with registered pending demand of 154037 telephones. BTTB started operating digital local exchanges after installation of six NEC-NEAX model exchanges in the Dhaka Multi Exchange Network in 1990-91 fiscal year with initial capacity of 26000 lines. In 1994-95 five more digital exchanges of ALCATEL E-10 model were installed in Chittagong Multi Exchange area with total capacity of 22000 lines. By the end of 1996, a total of additional 150000 lines of ALCATEL E-10 type exchange were added in the cities of Dhaka, Chittagong, Sylhet, Khulna and Rajshahi
  • 11. Public Telephones Years back public telephone services were provided through coin boxes in the urban area and landline / wireless Public Call Offices (PCOs) in the rural areas. The services through these public telephones had been far from satisfactory. To improve the public telephone service, Card Phone Service was introduced from later part of 1992 with programmes of replacing the old coin boxes and PCOs. By June 1997, 1283 card phone booths have been installed in different parts of Bangladesh. All card phones have access to nation wide dialing and 635 of them have international direct dialing facility. Due to better and easier public accessibility to telephone the card phone service has attained popularity in Bangladesh. A massive program of installing card phone has been taken to cover all thanas and rural growth centres of the country.
  • 12. Nation Wide Dialing Services · In 1983 Bangladesh T & T Board installed the National Automatic Long Distance Telephone Dialing System employing NEAX version of NEC exchange to link all major cities of the country. Beforehand there were Subscriber Trunk Dialing (STD) services based on Analog toll switching system to link few cities of the country with Dhaka. By June 1997, 100 stations including all 64-district headquarters and 10 Thana headquarters and 36 thanas were brought under this system. The system primarily consists of 4 digital Trunk Automatic Exchanges having 15384 circuits.
  • 13. Operators Trunk Dialing (OTD) Service: • This service was introduced in all the thanas to get access by direct dialing up to Thana level where there is no automatic telephone exchange. In this system one or two telephone numbers of district automatic telephone exchange are extended upto thana level through UHF radio links. The telephone operator of the manual telephone exchange can through these numbers, connect subscribers of the thana with any subscriber of the other auto exchanges of the country by dialing respective NWD codes.
  • 14. Transmission System in Bangladesh • Bangladesh is a riverine country and the country’s long route transmission systems are mainly composed of microwave, UHF and VHF radio links. The use of optical fibre is presently limited within some city areas for interconnecting local exchange and Remote Switching Units (RSU) in Multi Exchange Network. All these transmission systems are operated by BTTB. • All Thana headquarters (the smallest administrative units) are connected with their respective districts through UHF links. Most of such UHF links are now digital radio system. Some of the district headquarters are connected through digital UHF links.
  • 15. International Telecommunication Facilities Bangladesh entered into the era of modern telecommunication facility after commissioning of a Standard A Satellite Earth Station in 1975 at Betbunia to work with INTELSAT system. The international telecommunication facilities have become more easier and versatile after installation of Standard B Satellite Station at Talibabad to work with INTELSAT system. BTTB introduced International Subscriber Dialing (ISD) facility in December 1983 after installation of a digital International Trunk Exchange (ITX) at Dhaka Subscribers with ISD facility can directly dial to over 200 countries of the world. Other subscribers can easily establish overseas telephone call through Operator via the ITX by booking overseas call. Most of the telephone calls from abroad can reach any district head quarters of Bangladesh through the ITX without any operator’s help. After introduction of Operator Trunk Dialing (OTD) service in every thana headquarters and at some rural growth centres people from abroad can reach local operator by direct dialing and then can easily establish telephone calls with rural subscribers even through a manual terminal exchange. At present there are arrangements of ISD calls many district headquarters.
  • 16. International Switching Centre At present BTTB has three international switching centres (ISC) of which two are located at Moghbazar and one at Mohakhali in Dhaka City. ISCs of Moghbazar are of type NEAX-61K and NEAX –61E and ISC of Mohakhali is NEAX – 61 E type
  • 17. International Maritime Satellite Communication INTELSAT Satellite links fixed Earth Stations for overseas communication while INMARSAT (International Maritime Satellite Communication) provide mobile communication services for ships and aircrafts. Recent development of portable terminal has made it possible for customers to take advantage of INMARSAT service from remote locations also. BTTB had, by June 1997, five INMARSAT - A terminals operating through LES Land Earth Station) located in Jeddah.
  • 18. International VSAT Service Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) – A small earth station having dish antenna of typically 0.6 to 2.4 meters in diameter is designed to handle voice, data and private line video communication. Terminal is located at each end and communication is established through geostationary satellite (in this region ASIASAT). As a satellite based solution, VSATs are small and easy to install. A VSAT network can be expanded or modified as a users business needs change and grow. Banks, insurance companies, news bureaus, educational institutions all those and more can be linked across continent. VSAT is allowed to communicate only incorporate data communication and cannot be terminated to any public switched telephone network.
  • 19. Growth of Telephone in Bangladesh • The growth of telephone exchange capacity was restricted due to non availability of necessary investment for the Government resource and the demand was artificially managed / restricted by raising the installation charge and thereby making it unaffordable by the ordinary people.
  • 20. Privatization of Telecommunication Services: The Telecom sector of Bangladesh has been liberalized for private investment. Bangladesh T & T Board all types of telecommunication service in urban and rural areas. Private operators offer the mobile, paging and the radio trunking services. Private operators are also given license to operate digital exchanges at rural Thana headquarters.
  • 21. Rural Telecommunication: • The responsibility of providing Rural Telecommunication was entrusted to two Private Operators i.e. Bangladesh Rural Telecommunication Authority (BRTA) & Sheba Telecom; and for the area of Bangladesh was more or less divided into two equal parts between the two Operators. Unfortunately, the success of these two operators were limited and even after about 7 to 9 years of operation, the coverage have been very inadequate and quality had been poor. Inadequacy of interconnection facility between BTTB network and the network of the private operators played a major role for this state of affairs. The technical and the financial limitations of the operator were also there. The absence of an Independent Regulatory Body have been identified as an impediment for the solution for furthering development of telecommunication in Bangladesh