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Presented by Adrian McGregor
/Bionic Urbanism
EVOLUTION
OF CITIES
CONVERGING
GLOBAL
CRISES
THE
BIOCITY
MODEL
1.0
EVOLUTION
OF CITIES
Hunters & gatherers
nomadic tribespre. 4000B.C.
Origin of agriculture
‘Tillage of the soil’approx. 4000B.C.
The plough was invented in
neolithic revolution... Mooo!
Growth of crops &
animal husbandry
Start Of Sedentary
Communities & Trade
Along Trail Systems
Self organising cities spawned
along the trade routes
Emergent
Spacial
Patterns
Termite Architecture!
UkManchester Self Organising City
Ad.900-1850
City
Adapt
Clim
ate
Crisis
Develop
Resilience
Iraq 6000B.C.Ancient citadel of Arbill
City
Adapt
Clim
ate
Crisis
Develop
Resilience
Favela da Rocinha, Rio de Janeiro
14
Emergent City
Timbuktu
Planned City
Timbuktu
Planned Cities.
Scott Hawken: Hydraulic
Settlement of the Greater Angkor
Urban Complex
PLANNED
CITIES
16
Planned Cities.
Garden City
Movement 1890’s
17
UsaStirling Ridge, Florida
URB
ANIS
ATIO
N.
Demographic transition from rural to urban
shift from agriculture-based economy to
industry, technology and service
AGRICULTURAL WORKERS
MOVE TO THE CITIES.
~1800
POPULATION
LIVING
IN CITIES3%
POPULATION
LIVING
IN CITIES50%
~2010
POPULATION
LIVING
IN CITIES70%
~2050
Cities have
become...
The major
habitat of the
human race
CITY HEALTH = HUMAN HEALTH
Global
Cities
> 4.3K. Cities
Above 150K. TOKYO
34,600,000
20
MEGA
CITIES
> 10 mil.
455 @ 1,000,000+
1054 @ 500,000+
2851 @ 150,000+
Between 1995 & 2005, the urban
population of developing countries
grew by an average of 1.2 million
people per week, or around 165 000
people every day. UN Habitat
MEGARegions.
As cities merge:
Tokyo
Nagoya
Osaka
Kyoto
&
Kobe
60,000,000
650 950%
350 650%
950 1250%
1250 1550%
+1550%
+1250%
+650%
+650%
+650%+350%
+350%
+950%
+1250%31 FASTEST
GROWING
CITIES
No.1 China
- 5.0 - 9.0%
- 0.6 - 5.0 %
- 9.0 - 14.0
- 14.0 -18.0
-5%
-5%
-5%
-14%
-9%
-9%
-9%
-9%
-9%
-5%
-5%
-16%
-15%
31 FASTEST
SHRINKING
CITIES
No.1 Russia & Ukraine
POPULATION BY
LONGITUDE &
LATITUDE, 2000
Seniors now
out-number toddlers
AGING
1.5 billion people live in
wealthy countries
4 billion people live in
middle income countries
Population by 2050
9 BILLION
with 6.3 billion in more than
4000 cities.
/ CONVERGING
GLOBAL CRISES2.0
6Crises
POPULATION
GROWTH
!
WATER
!
SPECIES
EXTINCTION
!
OIL DEPLETION
!
FOOD
!
CLIMATE CHANGE
POPULATION
GROWTH
!
WATER
!
SPECIES
EXTINCTION
!
OIL DEPLETION
!
FOOD
!
CLIMATE CHANGE
COMMERCIAL OIL
PORDUCTION BEGINS
PEAK OIL OIL SUPPLY
EXHAUSTION
1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100
SPECIES
EXTINCTION
WORLD OIL
CONSUMPTION
WORLD
OIL&GAS
PRODUCTION
POPULATION
GROWTH
/ POPULATION GROWTH
200 million women have
unmet needs for
contraception.
BIRTH CONTROL
1 billion live in slums
POVERTY
3 billion live on
$2.00 a day
POPULATION
GROWTH
!
WATER
!
SPECIES
EXTINCTION
!
OIL DEPLETION
!
FOOD
!
CLIMATE CHANGE
1 billion are obese.
1 billion are hungry.
ARAL SEA
POPULATION
GROWTH
!
WATER
!
SPECIES
EXTINCTION
!
OIL DEPLETION
!
FOOD
!
CLIMATE CHANGE
AVERAGE NATIONAL WATER FOOTPRINTS
[water sourced externally as %]
2842Kl /yrUSA
20.2%
11.8%
2315 Kl /yrAUSTRALIA
10%
CHINA 1071Kl /yr
76.9%
JAPAN
1379Kl /yr
68.8%
GERMANY 1426Kl /yr
GLOBAL 1385Kl /yr
Data Source:
2011 Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption, Value of
Water Research Report Series No. 50, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, the Netherlands.
POPULATION
GROWTH
!
WATER
!
SPECIES
EXTINCTION
!
OIL DEPLETION
!
FOOD
!
CLIMATE CHANGE
/ BIOLOGICAL CAPITAL
BEING USED UP
COMMERCIAL OIL
PORDUCTION BEGINS
PEAK OIL OIL SUPPLY
EXHAUSTION
1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100
/ SPECIES EXTINCTION
POPULATION
GROWTH
!
WATER
!
SPECIES
EXTINCTION
!
OIL DEPLETION
!
FOOD
!
CLIMATE CHANGE
?WHY DID THE URBAN
POPULATION GROW
SO FAST?
Fossil fuels have enabled
rapid human expansion
SUPER GROWTH
1850s
US first commercial
oil extraction
/ OIL DEPLETION
1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100
0
20
40
60
80
COMMERCIAL OIL
PORDUCTION BEGINS
PEAK OIL OIL SUPPLY
EXHAUSTION
/ WORLD OIL CONSUMPTION
/ WORLD OIL SUPPLY
COMMERCIAL OIL
PORDUCTION BEGINS
PEAK OIL OIL SUPPLY
EXHAUSTION
1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100
/ SPECIES EXTINCTION
/ WORLD OIL CONSUMPTION
COMMERCIAL OIL
PORDUCTION BEGINS
PEAK OIL OIL SUPPLY
EXHAUSTION
1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100
/ POPULATION GROWTH
/ SPECIES EXTINCTION
1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100
WORLD OIL CONSUMPTION
SPECIES EXTINCTION
WORLD POPULATION IN
BILLIONS
WORLD OIL & GAS SUPPLY2.5
5.0
7.5
10
COMMERCIAL OIL
PORDUCTION BEGINS
PEAK OIL OIL SUPPLY
EXHAUSTION
Oil discovered 1966, 25% of
worlds crane in 2099
Dubai ‘Instant City’
Global Building Datascape
40%of global energy [including embodied energy in materials]
40%demolition and construction waste makes up landfill
32%of the world’s consumed resources
Green Building Australia 2010
19%of global electricity lighting consumes
40% emissions generation and single largest
contributor to greenhouse gas emissions
LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS
CHEMICALS
PETROL FOR VEHICLES
JET FUEL PARRAFIN FOR LIGHTING AND HEATING
DIESEL FUELS
LUBRICATING OILS, WAXES, POLISHES
FUELS FOR SHIPS, FACTORIES, CENTRAL HEATING
BITUMEN FOR ROADS AND ROOFING
C1 to C4 gases
C5
- Cg
naphtha
C5
- C10
petrol (gasoline)
C10
- C16
kerosine (paraffin oil)
C14
- C20
deisel oils
C20
- C50
lubricating oil
C20
- C70
fuel oil
> C70
residue
600°C
270°C
170°C
120°C
BOILER
CRUDE
OIL
20°C
CRUDE OIL
PRODUCTS
OIL DEPLETION
OCEAN SURFACE
DEEP OCEAN
ATMOSPHERE
RESPERATION
BURNING
CO2EXCHANGE
DEEP CIRCULTIONSINKING SEDIMENT
PHOTOPLANKTON
WEATHERING RUNOFF
SOIL & ORGANIC MATTER
GREEN HOUSE GASSES
VEGETATION
ROCK FORMATIONSEDIMENTS &
SEDIMENTARY ROCK
COAL
OIL
GAS
BURNINGFOSSILFULES
BURNINGFOSSILFULES
DECAY
AVAILABLE
GLOBAL
CARBON
CARBON(BILLIONTONS)
COAL
OIL
NATURAL GAS
0
1250
2500
3750
5000
IPCC MAXIMUM
CARBON
EMISSION
TO PREVENT
CATASTROPHIC
WARMING
350 PPM
Super
Greenhouse
Anoxic Event
Jared Diamond
5 Point Framework
Civilization Collapse
HOSTILE
NEIGHBORS
4.
FRIENDLY
TRADE
PARTNERS
2.
CLIMATE
CHANGE
3. SOCIETAL
RESPONSE
TO
PROBLEMS
5.
ENVIRON-
ENTAL
DAMAGE
1.
CITIES NEED TO ADAPT TO
CONVERGING CRISES
TO DEVELOP RESILIENCE
THROUGH BIOMIMICRY BY
BORROWING THE SYSTEMS AND
PROCESSES OF NATURE
Next Generation CitiesLow Carbon ∙ Smart Cities ∙ Habitat Creation ∙ Public Transport ∙ Local Production ∙ Industrial Ecology ∙
Social Networking ∙ Pedestrian Focus ∙ Green Buildings ∙ Density Local Employment ∙ Resource Efficiency
Low Carbon Smart Cities Habitat Creation Public Transport Local Production Industrial Ecology
Social Networking Pedestrian Focus Green Buildings Density Local Employment Resource Efficiency
Urban Land-Use Ownership
PRIVATE
SECTOR
LOCAL
GOVERNMENT
RETROFIT
INFRASTRUCTURE
STATE
GOVERNMENT
Residential
Commerical
Industrial60%
Non-arterial Roads
Open Space
Buildings30%
Other:
Roads
Railways & Buildings10%
p.55
III
Top Countries with Installed Renewable Electricity by Technology
Solar PV (2006)*
å Germany
ç Japan
é U.S.
è Spain
ê Italy / Netherlands
Biomass (2006)
å U.S.
ç Brazil
é Philippines
è Germany /
Sweden /
Finland
Geothermal (2006)
å U.S.
ç Philippines
é Mexico
è Indonesia / Italy
CSP (2006)
å U.S.
ç Spain
Wind (2006)
å Germany
ç U.S.
é Spain
è India
ê Denmark
Hydropower (2005)
å China
ç U.S.
é Canada
è Brazil
ê Russia
é
ê
å
è
ç
é
åå
çé
è
êå åå
ç
é
èè
è
ç
ç
é
è
è
è
ç
* Grid connected
ê
ê
100%of its electricity from renewables
Iceland Produces
51%of the renewable energy in
Germany is owned by citizens
and farmers, not energy
companies
“The Australia cleantech sector
boasts revenue of $29 billion a year
and employs 53,000 people”
Making it larger than Australia’s Automotive industry and one
quarter the size of the country’s entire manufacturing sector
!
!
Giles Parkinson, Renew Economy, 18 March
EU Pledges
20% of all new
spending to climate
action. (350.org)
WATER SUPPLY CITY SEWERED CITY DRAINED CITY WATERWAYS CITY WATER CYCLE CITY
BIONIC
CITY
Cumulative Cultural Drivers
System Advancement
Water
Supply
access &
security
Public Health
Protection
Flood
Protection
Social, amenity
environmental
Protection
Limits on
natural
resources
Intergeneratio
nal equity,
resilience to
climate
change
Supply
Hydraulics
Separate
sewerage
schemes
Drainage
channelisation
Point &
diffuse
source
pollution
management
Diverse, fit-for-
purpose
sources &
conservation,
waterway
protection
Adaptive,
green
infrastructur
e & urban
design
Data Source:
After Brown, Keath and Wong (2009) Wat. Sci. & Tech.
59:5, 847-855
3.0 The Biocity Model
ANTHROPOCENTRIC CITY MODEL - CITY DIVORCED FROM ECOLOGY
natural capital and waste have negligible economic value
Wetland/Savanah Biotope
Forest Biotope
Tundra Biotope
Urban Biotope
- Self contained ecoogical unit
- carbon release and sequestration
- renewable energy driven
- uses bio-economic model
that assigns value to natural capital
- cradle to crade processes
- interacts with adjacent biotopes
in mutually benficial relationship
Ocean Biotope
BIOCITY MODEL
city as ecological suprasystem - an urban biotype
HEALTH
HUMANITY
CULTURE
EDUCATION
CONSULTATION
DESIG
N
HERITAGE
BIO
CAPACITY
LANDCLEARED
SPECIESEXTINCTIONFRESHWATER
SPECIESEXTINCTIONTERRESTRIAL
VEGETATIONCOVER
BIO
REG
IO
N
S
COMMUNITY REVEGETATIO
N
LAND NIATIONAL PARKS
LAND RESTORED
SPECIES DECLIN
E FRESHWATER
SPEC
IES
D
EC
LIN
E
M
ARIN
E
SPECIESDECLIN
ETERRESTRIAL
REMINANT HABITAT
ECOLOGICALSERVICES
PARKS
AND
OPEN
SPACES
ECONOM
IC
VALUE
OXYGEN
WILDERNESS
PHARMACEUTICALS
BIODIVERSITY
BIOCAPACITY
LANDCLEAREDSPECIESEXTINCTIONFRESHWATER
SPECIESEXTINCTIONTERRESTRIAL
VEGETATIONCOVER
BIO
REG
IO
N
S
COMMUNITY REVEGETATION
LAND NIATIONAL PARKS
LAND RESTORED
SPECIES DECLINE FRESHWATER
SPEC
IES
D
EC
LIN
E
M
ARIN
E
SPECIESDECLINETERRESTRIAL
REMINANT HABITAT
ECOLOGICALSERVICES
PARKS
AND
OPEN
SPACES
ECONOM
IC
VALUE
OXYGEN
WILDERNESS
PHARMACEUTICALS
BIODIVERSITY
OIL
ELECTRICTY
OZONE
NATURALGAS
ENERGY
NATURALGASEXPORTS
ENERGYUSENATURALGAS
RESERVES
O
IL
EXPO
RTS
OILIMPORTS
OILPRODUCTION
SPECIESDECLINEFRESHWATER
OILPROVIDEDRESERVCES
NATURALGASEXPORTS
ENERGYUSENATURALGAS
RESERVES
O
IL
EXPO
RTS
OILIMPORTS
OILPRODUCTION
SPECIESDECLINEFRESHWATER
OILPROVIDEDRESERVCES
OIL
ELECTRICTY
OZONE
NATURALGAS
ENERGY
COMMODITY
LABOR
TAX
GROWTH
EM
PLOYM
ENT
DEBT
INFLATION
ECONOMY
G
DP
EXCHANGERATE
PU
RC
H
ASE
INDUSTRYINDUSTRY TERTIARY
LABORINDUSTRYPRIMARY
LABORINDUSTRYTERTIARY
LABORINDUSTRYSECONDARY
CENTRALBANKDISCOUNTRATE
CHILDRENINJOBLESSFAMILIES
COM
M
ERCIAL
BANK
PRIM
E
LENDING
RATE
DEBTEXTERNAL
DISTRIBUTIONOFFAMILYINCOMEINDEXEMPLOYMENTINDUSTRY
INVESTMENT
UNEMPLOYED
ECONOMICGROWTH
EXPORTSCOMMODITIES
EXPO
RTS
PARTN
ERS
IMPORTS
COMMODITIES
IMPORTS PARTNERS
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION
INFLATION RATE
INTEREST RATES
RESERVES
FORIGN
EXCHANGE
STOCK OF DOMESTIC CREDIT
STOCK OF MONEY
STOCK OF QUASI MONEY
TAX GATE TOP BRACKET
IN
VESTM
EN
T
NATURALRESOURCES
PUBLIC
DEBT
NATURAE
TOURISM
EXCHANGERATE
PU
RC
H
ASE
INDUSTRYINDUSTRY TERTIARY
LABORINDUSTRYPRIMARY
LABORINDUSTRYTERTIARY
LABORINDUSTRYSECONDARY
CENTRALBANKDISCOUNTRATE
CHILDRENINJOBLESSFAMILIES
COM
M
ERCIAL
BANK
PRIM
E
LENDING
RATE
DEBTEXTERNAL
DISTRIBUTIONOFFAMILYINCOMEINDEX
EMPLOYMENTINDUSTRY
INVESTMENT
UNEMPLOYED
ECONOMICGROWTH
EXPORTSCOMMODITIES
EXPO
RTS
PARTN
ERS
IMPORTS
COMMODITIES
IMPORTS PARTNERS
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION
INFLATION RATE
INTEREST RATES
RESERVES
FORIGN
EXCHANGE
STOCK OF DOMESTIC
CREDIT
STOCK OF MONEY
STOCK OF QUASI MONEY
TAX GATE TOP BRACKET
INVESTM
ENT
NATURALRESOURCES
PUBLIC
DEBT
NATURAE
TOURISM
COMMODITY
LABOR
TAX
GROWTH
EM
PLOYM
ENT
DEBT
INFLATION
ECONOMY
G
DP
GMORGANICS
CROPCIRCLE
PLASTICSANDETHANOL
IRRIGATED
LAND
FOOD
PEAK PHOSPHOROUS
GMORGANICS
CROPCIRCLE
PLASTICSANDETHANOL
IRRIGATED
LAND
FOOD
PEAK PHOSPHOROUS
GMORGANICS
CROPCIRCLE
PLASTICSANDETHANOL
IRRIGATED
LAND
FOOD
PEAK PHOSPHOROUS
POLITICAL PARTIES
GOVERNMENTSPENDING
GOVERNANCE
SPEMDING
ORGANIZATION
INFERSTRUCTURE
MILITARY EXPENDITURES
M
ILITARY
SERVICE
MILITRAY
AGE
SUFFRAGE
SPEMDING
ORGANIZATION
INFERSTRUCTURE
MILITARY EXPENDITURES
M
ILITARY
SERVICE
MILITRAY
AGE
SUFFRAGE
POLITICAL PARTIES
GOVERNMENTSPENDING
GOVERNANCE
FUNDING
ARTS
MUSEUMS
LANGUAGES
SPOKEN
LITERACY
TOALPOPULATION
SCHOOLLIFEEXPECTANCYFEMALE
SCHOOLLIFEEXPECTANCYMALE
LIETRACY
FEM
ALE
LITERACYFEMALE
FUNDINGPRIVATEEDUCATION
FUNDINGPUBLICEDUCATION
LANGUAGESSPOKEN
CHILDHODOBSITY
DISEASERESPIATORY DISEASEWATERCONTACT
CANCERRATE AVERAGE
HOURS
TV/DAY
ACCESSTOSTANDARDWATER
ALCOHOLCONSUMPTION/PERCAPITA
ALTERNATIVE
,M
EDICINE
REVENUES
HEALTH
SYSTEM
PRIVATE
HEALTH
SYSTEM
PUBLIC
HEALTH DISEASE RATE
HEALTHSYSTEMFREE
DISEASESVECTORBORNE
DISEASES
AERO
SO
LIZED
DUST
O
R
SO
IL
DISEASESANIMALCONTACT
DISEASESFOORORWATERBORNE
SMOKERS
TOTALFERTILITYRATE
UNDERWEIGHT
PUBLICHEALTHFUNDING
OBSITYLEVELS
LIFEEXPECTANCYATBIRTHMALE
LIFEEXPECTANCYATBIRTHTOTALPOPULATION
M
ALN
U
TRITIO
N
LEVELS
INDIGENOUS
M
ORTALITY
INFANT M
ORTALITY
RATE
LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH FEMALE
HOSPITALS
HOSPITALBEDS
HIV/AIDS
ADULTPREVALENCE
RATE
HIV/AIDSDEATHS
AIV/AIDSPEOPLELIVEINGWITHHIV/AIDS
FUNDING
ARTS
MUSEUMS
LANGUAGES
SPOKEN
LITERACY
TOALPOPULATION
SCHOOLLIFEEXPECTANCYFEMALE
SCHOOLLIFEEXPECTANCYMALE
LIETRACY
FEM
ALE
LITERACYFEMALE
FUNDINGPRIVATEEDUCATION
FUNDINGPUBLICEDUCATION
LANGUAGESSPOKEN
CHILDHODOBSITY
DISEASERESPIATORY DISEASEWATERCONTACT
CANCERRATE AVERAGE
HOURS
TV/DAY
ACCESSTOSTANDARDWATER
ALCOHOLCONSUMPTION/PERCAPITA
ALTERNATIVE
,M
EDICINE
REVENUES
HEALTH
SYSTEM
PRIVATE
HEALTH
SYSTEM
PUBLIC
HEALTH DISEASE RATE
HEALTHSYSTEMFREE
DISEASESVECTORBORNE
DISEASES
AERO
SO
LIZED
DUST
O
R
SO
IL
DISEASESANIM
ALCONTACT
DISEASESFOORORWATERBORNE
SMOKERS
TOTALFERTILITYRATE
UNDERWEIGHT
PUBLICHEALTHFUNDING OBSITYLEVELS
LIFEEXPECTANCYATBIRTHMALE
LIFEEXPECTANCYATBIRTHTOTALPOPULATION
M
ALN
U
TRITIO
N
LEVELS
INDIGENOUS
M
ORTALITY
INFANT M
ORTALITY
RATE
LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH FEMALE
HOSPITALS
HOSPITALBEDS
HIV/AIDS
ADULTPREVALENCE
RATE
HIV/AIDSDEATHS
AIV/AIDSPEOPLELIVEINGWITHHIV/AIDS
HEALTH
HUMANITY
CULTURE
EDUCATION
CONSULTATION
DESIG
N
HERITAGE
TECHNOLOGY
TRANSPORT
ROBOTICSARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCE
FIBREOPTIC
QUANTUM COMPUTING
IT
AIRPORTS
PU
BLIC
TRAN
SPO
RT
FREIGHTTERMINALS
MERCHANTMARINECAPACITY
RAILWAYS
ROADS
TRAN
SPO
RT
AIRPORTS
PU
BLIC
TRAN
SPO
RT
FREIGHTTERMINALS
MERCHANTMARINECAPACITY
RAILWAYS
ROADS
TRAN
SPO
RT
TECHNOLOGY
TRANSPORT
ROBOTICSARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCE
FIBREOPTIC
QUANTUM COMPUTING
IT
DWELLING
URBAN
STRUCTURE
BUILDINGS
PUBLICREALM
INFERSTRUCTURE
TYPE FREESTANDING HOUSES
SLUM
POPULATION
TENURE
RENTERS
LONEPERSONHOUSEHOLDS
TYPE FREESTANDING HOUSES
TYPE APARTMENTS
RATIO
AVERAGEAGE
AVERAGEPERSONA/HOUSEHOLD
SIZE
DENSITY
VACANCYRATEINDUSTRIALURBANISATIO
N
RATIO
RESIDENTIAL
ROAD COVERAGE
GREEN ROOF
IMPERVIOUS SURFACES
SLUM
POPULATION
POPULATIONDENSITY
HOMELESSNESS
HOMELESSNESS
TYPE FREESTANDING HOUSES
SLUM
POPULATION
TENURE
RENTERS
LONEPERSONHOUSEHOLDS
TYPE FREESTANDING HOUSES
TYPE APARTMENTS
RATIO
AVERAGEAGE
AVERAGEPERSONA/HOUSEHOLD
SIZE
DENSITY
VACANCYRATEINDUSTRIAL
URBANISATIO
N
RATIO
RESIDENTIAL
ROAD COVERAGE
GREEN ROOF
IMPERVIOUS SURFACES
SLUM
POPULATION
POPULATIONDENSITY
HOMELESSNESS
HOMELESSNESS
DWELLING
URBAN
STRUCTURE
BUILDINGS
PUBLICREALM
INFERSTRUCTURE
POLLUTION
EMISSIONS
GHG
WASTE
WASTE
AGRICULTUREFOODANDOTHERLANDUSE
ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY
EN
ERG
Y
AN
D
C
H
P
DOMESTIC
AVIATION
ELECTRICITY
COMERCIALANDINSTITUTIONAL
METALINDUSTRY
COAL
TRANSPORTATION TRUCKS
MINERALINDUSTRY
RESIDENTIAL
ROAD TRANSPORTATION LDVS
FUEL
O
IL
GASOLINE
JETFUEL
NATURALGASWATER
UPSTREAMELECTRICTYGRID
SEAFOOD
FOODOTHER
FOODMEAT
FO
O
D
CEREALS
FOODDAIRY
FOODFRUIT
ONSITERENEWABLE
IN
TERN
ATIO
N
AL
AVIATIO
N
INTERNATIONALMARINE
INCINERATION
WASTE
MARINE
CONSTRUCTION
M
ATERIALS
DEISEL
ELECTRICTYGRID
INCINERATION
RAILW
AYS
STEEL
CEMENT
BRICKS
PRODUCED
GROSS
PUTRECBLE
GROSS
PUTRECIBLEWASTEASBIOFUELS
WASTERECYCLEDINDUSTRIAL
WASTERECYCLEDRESIDENTIAL
FACILITIES MODERN
WASTE RECYCLED COMMERCIAL
PROCESSINGTECHNIQUERECYCLING
PROCESSINGTECHNIQUELANDFILL
PROCESSINGTECHNIQUEINCINERATION
NUCLEAR
W
ASTE
EXPORT
NUCLEAR
W
ASTE
IM
PORT
NUCLEARWASTESTORAGE
FACILITIES OUT DATED
FUEL
O
IL
GASOLINE
JETFUEL
NATURALGASWATER
UPSTREAMELECTRICTYGRID
SEAFOOD
FOODOTHER
FOODMEAT
FO
O
D
CEREALS
FOODDAIRY
FOODFRUIT
ONSITERENEWABLE
IN
TERN
ATIO
N
AL
AVIATIO
N
INTERNATIONALMARINE
AGRICULTUREFOODANDOTHERLANDUSE
INCINERATION
WASTE
ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY
EN
ERG
Y
AN
D
C
H
P
DOMESTIC
AVIATION
ELECTRICITY
COMERCIALANDINSTITUTIONAL
MARINE
CONSTRUCTION
M
ATERIALS
DEISEL
ELECTRICTYGRID
METALINDUSTRY
INCINERATION
COAL
TRANSPORTATION TRUCKS
MINERALINDUSTRY
RAILW
AYS
RESIDENTIAL
ROAD TRANSPORTATION LDVS
STEEL
CEMENT
BRICKS
PRODUCED
GROSS
PUTRECBLE
GROSS
PUTRECIBLEWASTEASBIOFUELS
WASTERECYCLEDINDUSTRIAL
WASTERECYCLEDRESIDENTIAL
FACILITIES MODERN
WASTE RECYCLED COMMERCIAL
PROCESSINGTECHNIQUERECYCLING
PROCESSINGTECHNIQUELANDFILL
PROCESSINGTECHNIQUEINCINERATION
NUCLEAR
W
ASTE
EXPORT
NUCLEAR
W
ASTE
IM
PORT
NUCLEARWASTESTORAGE
FACILITIES OUT DATED
POLLUTION
EMISSIONS
GHG
WASTE
WASTE
NONPOTABLE
WASTEWATER
PO
TABLE
W
ATER
DISCHARGE
FRESHWATER
RENEWABLE WATER RESOURCES
WATERFOORPRINT
WATER
PERSONAL WATER USE
NONPOTABLE
WASTEWATER
PO
TABLE
W
ATER
DISCHARGE
FRESHWATER
RENEWABLE WATER RESOURCES
WATERFOORPRINT
WATER
PERSONAL WATER USETEN SYSTEMS AND INDICATORS
Eum Yang Seoul, South Korea
Parramatta River Urban Strategy Parramatta, Sydney
Saltwater
Freshwater
City Brand
Parramatta River City
Where The Waters Meet
Circular Quay
‘Parramatta Quay’
City Brand
ChurchSt.
400m
Railway Station
Parramatta Quay
SmithSt.
Civic Plaza
Existing Weir
Existing Wharf
Parramatta North
Parramatta Quay
Callan Park Sydney, Australia
Green Square Town Centre Public Domain Sydney, Australia
06 water
SHEAS Stream - dry weather
SHEAS Stream - wet weather
Mildura Riverfront Mildura, Australia
Former BP Site Waverton, Sydney
green gateway to the inner harbour
BP and Ballast Point Parks
Ballast Point Park Birchgrove, Sydney
Masterplan
National Gallery Australia Parliamentary Triangle, Canberra
7m Bar Underwood Lane, Sydney
Biocity studio
REFERENCES
!
Slide Number:
2. http://networksandservers.blogspot.com.au/2011/02/future-of-computers-artificial.html
4. S.F. EXAMINER FILE PHOTO - http://www.sfexaminer.com/news/2012/12/city-issues-meningitis-health-advisory-gay-men-traveling-new-york
and http://newevolutiondesigns.com/images/freebies/city-wallpaper-11.jpg
5. http://www.jozan.net/2004/images/Birjand/B.Nomadic%20Tribes.12.jpg
6. http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_AUrbDSzDvMs/TD1VfEq1KfI/AAAAAAAABO8/XOFwY2m5b6g/s1600/following_plough.jpg
7. http://www.hudsonfla.com/19hst.htm
8. http://ipc-undp.provisorio.ws/WordPress_Advocacy/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Humanizing_Market.jpg
9. http://www.flickr.com/photos/rcl_cbc/
10. http://d1vmp8zzttzftq.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/massive-cathedral-termite-mounds-nasutitermes-triodae-in-kakadu-national-park-australia-1600x1066.jpg
11. Manchester, UK , Google Earth Images
12. Arbill
13. http://palassiter.wordpress.com/travel-photos/favela-rocinha/
14. Timbuktu – Google Earth Images
15. Scott Hawken: Hydraulic Settlement of the Greater Angkor Urban Complex
16. http://geopolicraticus.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/industrial-city.jpg
17. Sterling Ridge I (c) 2008 Christoph Gielen. Courtesy Daniel Cooney Fine Art, New York.Sterling Ridge I (c) 2008 Christoph Gielen. Courtesy Daniel Cooney Fine Art, New York.
18. http://pictures.4ever.eu/fun/traffic-jam-in-los-angeles-154350
22. http://science.psu.edu/news-and-events/2010-news/SchusterMiller2-2010
23. http://spotonlists.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/ganges-pollution-1.jpg
24. http://www.matbaker.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Shanghi-Apartments.jpg
25. UN Habitat (text)

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_VQWliR92IT4/THx5_qXbnVI/AAAAAAAAASA/oGXpEAd8aGU/s1600/IMG_5437.JPG(Image)
34. http://www.wearethegoodlife.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/ShibuyaCrossing_ShibuyaNov2012_Blotto_1769.jpg
36. http://i.imgur.com/lq5ZT.jpg
37. http://metalgeamonkey.deviantart.com/art/Crowd-319405950
38. http://ufvcascade.ca/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Aids_is_commons_in_Africa.jpeg
39. http://onlyhdwallpapers.com/
41. http://heckeranddecker.wordpress.com/2008/10/23/vernacular-urbanism-part-iii/
42. http://carecanada.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/koundougou-jeunes-filles-et-dattes-sauvages1.jpg
45. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a0/Moynaq,_Aral_Sea_(6226842732).jpg
47. http://suzukielders.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/polar-bear1.png
48. http://www.naturschatz.org/waldbild/aktuell/ingmarlee/download/king_island_logging2008.jpg
50. http://www.metrolic.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/alex1915aug04-g12.jpg
52. http://www.constructivemedia.com.au/products-services/
53. http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2007/08/dayintech_0827
54. http://www.energybc.ca/matters/peak/depleted.html
59. http://www.menainfra.com/news/dubai-construction-recovering/
65. http://lenscanvas.com/hurricane-sandy-pictures-floods-fire-snow-in-the-aftermath/
67. http://www.travelimg.org/the-maya-city-of-tikal-guatemala.html
69. http://0.tqn.com/d/goafrica/1/0/6/H/IMG_1934.JPG
70. http://6legs2many.files.wordpress.com/2011/06/fire_ant_forking_raft_bridge.jpg
74. http://reneweconomy.com.au/2012/iceland-a-100-renewables-example-in-the-modern-era-56428
75. http://www.renewablepowernews.com/wp-content/uploads/renewable-energy3.jpg
76. http://econews.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Clonsurry-Solar-Farm-similar-System2.jpg
77. http://euobserver.com/media/src/cfda07afa91cc1be08dd41c18fc5a9a5.jpg
78. Brown, Keath and Wong (2009) Wat. Sci. & Tech. 59:5, 847-855
!
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Bionic Urbanism 2014 - McGregor Coxall

  • 5. Hunters & gatherers nomadic tribespre. 4000B.C.
  • 6. Origin of agriculture ‘Tillage of the soil’approx. 4000B.C. The plough was invented in neolithic revolution... Mooo!
  • 7. Growth of crops & animal husbandry
  • 8. Start Of Sedentary Communities & Trade Along Trail Systems
  • 9. Self organising cities spawned along the trade routes Emergent Spacial Patterns
  • 11. UkManchester Self Organising City Ad.900-1850
  • 15. Planned Cities. Scott Hawken: Hydraulic Settlement of the Greater Angkor Urban Complex
  • 18. URB ANIS ATIO N. Demographic transition from rural to urban shift from agriculture-based economy to industry, technology and service AGRICULTURAL WORKERS MOVE TO THE CITIES.
  • 23. CITY HEALTH = HUMAN HEALTH
  • 24. Global Cities > 4.3K. Cities Above 150K. TOKYO 34,600,000 20 MEGA CITIES > 10 mil. 455 @ 1,000,000+ 1054 @ 500,000+ 2851 @ 150,000+
  • 25. Between 1995 & 2005, the urban population of developing countries grew by an average of 1.2 million people per week, or around 165 000 people every day. UN Habitat
  • 27. 650 950% 350 650% 950 1250% 1250 1550% +1550% +1250% +650% +650% +650%+350% +350% +950% +1250%31 FASTEST GROWING CITIES No.1 China
  • 28. - 5.0 - 9.0% - 0.6 - 5.0 % - 9.0 - 14.0 - 14.0 -18.0 -5% -5% -5% -14% -9% -9% -9% -9% -9% -5% -5% -16% -15% 31 FASTEST SHRINKING CITIES No.1 Russia & Ukraine
  • 30.
  • 32. 1.5 billion people live in wealthy countries
  • 33. 4 billion people live in middle income countries
  • 34. Population by 2050 9 BILLION with 6.3 billion in more than 4000 cities.
  • 38. COMMERCIAL OIL PORDUCTION BEGINS PEAK OIL OIL SUPPLY EXHAUSTION 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 SPECIES EXTINCTION WORLD OIL CONSUMPTION WORLD OIL&GAS PRODUCTION POPULATION GROWTH / POPULATION GROWTH
  • 39. 200 million women have unmet needs for contraception. BIRTH CONTROL
  • 40. 1 billion live in slums POVERTY
  • 41. 3 billion live on $2.00 a day
  • 43. 1 billion are obese.
  • 44. 1 billion are hungry.
  • 46. AVERAGE NATIONAL WATER FOOTPRINTS [water sourced externally as %] 2842Kl /yrUSA 20.2% 11.8% 2315 Kl /yrAUSTRALIA 10% CHINA 1071Kl /yr 76.9% JAPAN 1379Kl /yr 68.8% GERMANY 1426Kl /yr GLOBAL 1385Kl /yr Data Source: 2011 Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2011) National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption, Value of Water Research Report Series No. 50, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, the Netherlands.
  • 49. COMMERCIAL OIL PORDUCTION BEGINS PEAK OIL OIL SUPPLY EXHAUSTION 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 / SPECIES EXTINCTION
  • 51. ?WHY DID THE URBAN POPULATION GROW SO FAST?
  • 52. Fossil fuels have enabled rapid human expansion SUPER GROWTH
  • 55. 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 0 20 40 60 80 COMMERCIAL OIL PORDUCTION BEGINS PEAK OIL OIL SUPPLY EXHAUSTION / WORLD OIL CONSUMPTION / WORLD OIL SUPPLY
  • 56. COMMERCIAL OIL PORDUCTION BEGINS PEAK OIL OIL SUPPLY EXHAUSTION 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 / SPECIES EXTINCTION / WORLD OIL CONSUMPTION
  • 57. COMMERCIAL OIL PORDUCTION BEGINS PEAK OIL OIL SUPPLY EXHAUSTION 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 / POPULATION GROWTH / SPECIES EXTINCTION
  • 58. 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 WORLD OIL CONSUMPTION SPECIES EXTINCTION WORLD POPULATION IN BILLIONS WORLD OIL & GAS SUPPLY2.5 5.0 7.5 10 COMMERCIAL OIL PORDUCTION BEGINS PEAK OIL OIL SUPPLY EXHAUSTION
  • 59. Oil discovered 1966, 25% of worlds crane in 2099 Dubai ‘Instant City’
  • 60. Global Building Datascape 40%of global energy [including embodied energy in materials] 40%demolition and construction waste makes up landfill 32%of the world’s consumed resources Green Building Australia 2010 19%of global electricity lighting consumes 40% emissions generation and single largest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions
  • 61. LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS CHEMICALS PETROL FOR VEHICLES JET FUEL PARRAFIN FOR LIGHTING AND HEATING DIESEL FUELS LUBRICATING OILS, WAXES, POLISHES FUELS FOR SHIPS, FACTORIES, CENTRAL HEATING BITUMEN FOR ROADS AND ROOFING C1 to C4 gases C5 - Cg naphtha C5 - C10 petrol (gasoline) C10 - C16 kerosine (paraffin oil) C14 - C20 deisel oils C20 - C50 lubricating oil C20 - C70 fuel oil > C70 residue 600°C 270°C 170°C 120°C BOILER CRUDE OIL 20°C CRUDE OIL PRODUCTS
  • 62.
  • 63. OIL DEPLETION OCEAN SURFACE DEEP OCEAN ATMOSPHERE RESPERATION BURNING CO2EXCHANGE DEEP CIRCULTIONSINKING SEDIMENT PHOTOPLANKTON WEATHERING RUNOFF SOIL & ORGANIC MATTER GREEN HOUSE GASSES VEGETATION ROCK FORMATIONSEDIMENTS & SEDIMENTARY ROCK COAL OIL GAS BURNINGFOSSILFULES BURNINGFOSSILFULES DECAY
  • 65.
  • 67. Jared Diamond 5 Point Framework Civilization Collapse
  • 69.
  • 70. CITIES NEED TO ADAPT TO CONVERGING CRISES TO DEVELOP RESILIENCE THROUGH BIOMIMICRY BY BORROWING THE SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES OF NATURE
  • 71. Next Generation CitiesLow Carbon ∙ Smart Cities ∙ Habitat Creation ∙ Public Transport ∙ Local Production ∙ Industrial Ecology ∙ Social Networking ∙ Pedestrian Focus ∙ Green Buildings ∙ Density Local Employment ∙ Resource Efficiency Low Carbon Smart Cities Habitat Creation Public Transport Local Production Industrial Ecology Social Networking Pedestrian Focus Green Buildings Density Local Employment Resource Efficiency
  • 73. p.55 III Top Countries with Installed Renewable Electricity by Technology Solar PV (2006)* å Germany ç Japan é U.S. è Spain ê Italy / Netherlands Biomass (2006) å U.S. ç Brazil é Philippines è Germany / Sweden / Finland Geothermal (2006) å U.S. ç Philippines é Mexico è Indonesia / Italy CSP (2006) å U.S. ç Spain Wind (2006) å Germany ç U.S. é Spain è India ê Denmark Hydropower (2005) å China ç U.S. é Canada è Brazil ê Russia é ê å è ç é åå çé è êå åå ç é èè è ç ç é è è è ç * Grid connected ê ê
  • 74. 100%of its electricity from renewables Iceland Produces
  • 75. 51%of the renewable energy in Germany is owned by citizens and farmers, not energy companies
  • 76. “The Australia cleantech sector boasts revenue of $29 billion a year and employs 53,000 people” Making it larger than Australia’s Automotive industry and one quarter the size of the country’s entire manufacturing sector ! ! Giles Parkinson, Renew Economy, 18 March
  • 77. EU Pledges 20% of all new spending to climate action. (350.org)
  • 78. WATER SUPPLY CITY SEWERED CITY DRAINED CITY WATERWAYS CITY WATER CYCLE CITY BIONIC CITY Cumulative Cultural Drivers System Advancement Water Supply access & security Public Health Protection Flood Protection Social, amenity environmental Protection Limits on natural resources Intergeneratio nal equity, resilience to climate change Supply Hydraulics Separate sewerage schemes Drainage channelisation Point & diffuse source pollution management Diverse, fit-for- purpose sources & conservation, waterway protection Adaptive, green infrastructur e & urban design Data Source: After Brown, Keath and Wong (2009) Wat. Sci. & Tech. 59:5, 847-855
  • 80. ANTHROPOCENTRIC CITY MODEL - CITY DIVORCED FROM ECOLOGY natural capital and waste have negligible economic value
  • 81. Wetland/Savanah Biotope Forest Biotope Tundra Biotope Urban Biotope - Self contained ecoogical unit - carbon release and sequestration - renewable energy driven - uses bio-economic model that assigns value to natural capital - cradle to crade processes - interacts with adjacent biotopes in mutually benficial relationship Ocean Biotope BIOCITY MODEL city as ecological suprasystem - an urban biotype
  • 82. HEALTH HUMANITY CULTURE EDUCATION CONSULTATION DESIG N HERITAGE BIO CAPACITY LANDCLEARED SPECIESEXTINCTIONFRESHWATER SPECIESEXTINCTIONTERRESTRIAL VEGETATIONCOVER BIO REG IO N S COMMUNITY REVEGETATIO N LAND NIATIONAL PARKS LAND RESTORED SPECIES DECLIN E FRESHWATER SPEC IES D EC LIN E M ARIN E SPECIESDECLIN ETERRESTRIAL REMINANT HABITAT ECOLOGICALSERVICES PARKS AND OPEN SPACES ECONOM IC VALUE OXYGEN WILDERNESS PHARMACEUTICALS BIODIVERSITY BIOCAPACITY LANDCLEAREDSPECIESEXTINCTIONFRESHWATER SPECIESEXTINCTIONTERRESTRIAL VEGETATIONCOVER BIO REG IO N S COMMUNITY REVEGETATION LAND NIATIONAL PARKS LAND RESTORED SPECIES DECLINE FRESHWATER SPEC IES D EC LIN E M ARIN E SPECIESDECLINETERRESTRIAL REMINANT HABITAT ECOLOGICALSERVICES PARKS AND OPEN SPACES ECONOM IC VALUE OXYGEN WILDERNESS PHARMACEUTICALS BIODIVERSITY OIL ELECTRICTY OZONE NATURALGAS ENERGY NATURALGASEXPORTS ENERGYUSENATURALGAS RESERVES O IL EXPO RTS OILIMPORTS OILPRODUCTION SPECIESDECLINEFRESHWATER OILPROVIDEDRESERVCES NATURALGASEXPORTS ENERGYUSENATURALGAS RESERVES O IL EXPO RTS OILIMPORTS OILPRODUCTION SPECIESDECLINEFRESHWATER OILPROVIDEDRESERVCES OIL ELECTRICTY OZONE NATURALGAS ENERGY COMMODITY LABOR TAX GROWTH EM PLOYM ENT DEBT INFLATION ECONOMY G DP EXCHANGERATE PU RC H ASE INDUSTRYINDUSTRY TERTIARY LABORINDUSTRYPRIMARY LABORINDUSTRYTERTIARY LABORINDUSTRYSECONDARY CENTRALBANKDISCOUNTRATE CHILDRENINJOBLESSFAMILIES COM M ERCIAL BANK PRIM E LENDING RATE DEBTEXTERNAL DISTRIBUTIONOFFAMILYINCOMEINDEXEMPLOYMENTINDUSTRY INVESTMENT UNEMPLOYED ECONOMICGROWTH EXPORTSCOMMODITIES EXPO RTS PARTN ERS IMPORTS COMMODITIES IMPORTS PARTNERS INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION INFLATION RATE INTEREST RATES RESERVES FORIGN EXCHANGE STOCK OF DOMESTIC CREDIT STOCK OF MONEY STOCK OF QUASI MONEY TAX GATE TOP BRACKET IN VESTM EN T NATURALRESOURCES PUBLIC DEBT NATURAE TOURISM EXCHANGERATE PU RC H ASE INDUSTRYINDUSTRY TERTIARY LABORINDUSTRYPRIMARY LABORINDUSTRYTERTIARY LABORINDUSTRYSECONDARY CENTRALBANKDISCOUNTRATE CHILDRENINJOBLESSFAMILIES COM M ERCIAL BANK PRIM E LENDING RATE DEBTEXTERNAL DISTRIBUTIONOFFAMILYINCOMEINDEX EMPLOYMENTINDUSTRY INVESTMENT UNEMPLOYED ECONOMICGROWTH EXPORTSCOMMODITIES EXPO RTS PARTN ERS IMPORTS COMMODITIES IMPORTS PARTNERS INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION INFLATION RATE INTEREST RATES RESERVES FORIGN EXCHANGE STOCK OF DOMESTIC CREDIT STOCK OF MONEY STOCK OF QUASI MONEY TAX GATE TOP BRACKET INVESTM ENT NATURALRESOURCES PUBLIC DEBT NATURAE TOURISM COMMODITY LABOR TAX GROWTH EM PLOYM ENT DEBT INFLATION ECONOMY G DP GMORGANICS CROPCIRCLE PLASTICSANDETHANOL IRRIGATED LAND FOOD PEAK PHOSPHOROUS GMORGANICS CROPCIRCLE PLASTICSANDETHANOL IRRIGATED LAND FOOD PEAK PHOSPHOROUS GMORGANICS CROPCIRCLE PLASTICSANDETHANOL IRRIGATED LAND FOOD PEAK PHOSPHOROUS POLITICAL PARTIES GOVERNMENTSPENDING GOVERNANCE SPEMDING ORGANIZATION INFERSTRUCTURE MILITARY EXPENDITURES M ILITARY SERVICE MILITRAY AGE SUFFRAGE SPEMDING ORGANIZATION INFERSTRUCTURE MILITARY EXPENDITURES M ILITARY SERVICE MILITRAY AGE SUFFRAGE POLITICAL PARTIES GOVERNMENTSPENDING GOVERNANCE FUNDING ARTS MUSEUMS LANGUAGES SPOKEN LITERACY TOALPOPULATION SCHOOLLIFEEXPECTANCYFEMALE SCHOOLLIFEEXPECTANCYMALE LIETRACY FEM ALE LITERACYFEMALE FUNDINGPRIVATEEDUCATION FUNDINGPUBLICEDUCATION LANGUAGESSPOKEN CHILDHODOBSITY DISEASERESPIATORY DISEASEWATERCONTACT CANCERRATE AVERAGE HOURS TV/DAY ACCESSTOSTANDARDWATER ALCOHOLCONSUMPTION/PERCAPITA ALTERNATIVE ,M EDICINE REVENUES HEALTH SYSTEM PRIVATE HEALTH SYSTEM PUBLIC HEALTH DISEASE RATE HEALTHSYSTEMFREE DISEASESVECTORBORNE DISEASES AERO SO LIZED DUST O R SO IL DISEASESANIMALCONTACT DISEASESFOORORWATERBORNE SMOKERS TOTALFERTILITYRATE UNDERWEIGHT PUBLICHEALTHFUNDING OBSITYLEVELS LIFEEXPECTANCYATBIRTHMALE LIFEEXPECTANCYATBIRTHTOTALPOPULATION M ALN U TRITIO N LEVELS INDIGENOUS M ORTALITY INFANT M ORTALITY RATE LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH FEMALE HOSPITALS HOSPITALBEDS HIV/AIDS ADULTPREVALENCE RATE HIV/AIDSDEATHS AIV/AIDSPEOPLELIVEINGWITHHIV/AIDS FUNDING ARTS MUSEUMS LANGUAGES SPOKEN LITERACY TOALPOPULATION SCHOOLLIFEEXPECTANCYFEMALE SCHOOLLIFEEXPECTANCYMALE LIETRACY FEM ALE LITERACYFEMALE FUNDINGPRIVATEEDUCATION FUNDINGPUBLICEDUCATION LANGUAGESSPOKEN CHILDHODOBSITY DISEASERESPIATORY DISEASEWATERCONTACT CANCERRATE AVERAGE HOURS TV/DAY ACCESSTOSTANDARDWATER ALCOHOLCONSUMPTION/PERCAPITA ALTERNATIVE ,M EDICINE REVENUES HEALTH SYSTEM PRIVATE HEALTH SYSTEM PUBLIC HEALTH DISEASE RATE HEALTHSYSTEMFREE DISEASESVECTORBORNE DISEASES AERO SO LIZED DUST O R SO IL DISEASESANIM ALCONTACT DISEASESFOORORWATERBORNE SMOKERS TOTALFERTILITYRATE UNDERWEIGHT PUBLICHEALTHFUNDING OBSITYLEVELS LIFEEXPECTANCYATBIRTHMALE LIFEEXPECTANCYATBIRTHTOTALPOPULATION M ALN U TRITIO N LEVELS INDIGENOUS M ORTALITY INFANT M ORTALITY RATE LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH FEMALE HOSPITALS HOSPITALBEDS HIV/AIDS ADULTPREVALENCE RATE HIV/AIDSDEATHS AIV/AIDSPEOPLELIVEINGWITHHIV/AIDS HEALTH HUMANITY CULTURE EDUCATION CONSULTATION DESIG N HERITAGE TECHNOLOGY TRANSPORT ROBOTICSARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCE FIBREOPTIC QUANTUM COMPUTING IT AIRPORTS PU BLIC TRAN SPO RT FREIGHTTERMINALS MERCHANTMARINECAPACITY RAILWAYS ROADS TRAN SPO RT AIRPORTS PU BLIC TRAN SPO RT FREIGHTTERMINALS MERCHANTMARINECAPACITY RAILWAYS ROADS TRAN SPO RT TECHNOLOGY TRANSPORT ROBOTICSARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCE FIBREOPTIC QUANTUM COMPUTING IT DWELLING URBAN STRUCTURE BUILDINGS PUBLICREALM INFERSTRUCTURE TYPE FREESTANDING HOUSES SLUM POPULATION TENURE RENTERS LONEPERSONHOUSEHOLDS TYPE FREESTANDING HOUSES TYPE APARTMENTS RATIO AVERAGEAGE AVERAGEPERSONA/HOUSEHOLD SIZE DENSITY VACANCYRATEINDUSTRIALURBANISATIO N RATIO RESIDENTIAL ROAD COVERAGE GREEN ROOF IMPERVIOUS SURFACES SLUM POPULATION POPULATIONDENSITY HOMELESSNESS HOMELESSNESS TYPE FREESTANDING HOUSES SLUM POPULATION TENURE RENTERS LONEPERSONHOUSEHOLDS TYPE FREESTANDING HOUSES TYPE APARTMENTS RATIO AVERAGEAGE AVERAGEPERSONA/HOUSEHOLD SIZE DENSITY VACANCYRATEINDUSTRIAL URBANISATIO N RATIO RESIDENTIAL ROAD COVERAGE GREEN ROOF IMPERVIOUS SURFACES SLUM POPULATION POPULATIONDENSITY HOMELESSNESS HOMELESSNESS DWELLING URBAN STRUCTURE BUILDINGS PUBLICREALM INFERSTRUCTURE POLLUTION EMISSIONS GHG WASTE WASTE AGRICULTUREFOODANDOTHERLANDUSE ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY EN ERG Y AN D C H P DOMESTIC AVIATION ELECTRICITY COMERCIALANDINSTITUTIONAL METALINDUSTRY COAL TRANSPORTATION TRUCKS MINERALINDUSTRY RESIDENTIAL ROAD TRANSPORTATION LDVS FUEL O IL GASOLINE JETFUEL NATURALGASWATER UPSTREAMELECTRICTYGRID SEAFOOD FOODOTHER FOODMEAT FO O D CEREALS FOODDAIRY FOODFRUIT ONSITERENEWABLE IN TERN ATIO N AL AVIATIO N INTERNATIONALMARINE INCINERATION WASTE MARINE CONSTRUCTION M ATERIALS DEISEL ELECTRICTYGRID INCINERATION RAILW AYS STEEL CEMENT BRICKS PRODUCED GROSS PUTRECBLE GROSS PUTRECIBLEWASTEASBIOFUELS WASTERECYCLEDINDUSTRIAL WASTERECYCLEDRESIDENTIAL FACILITIES MODERN WASTE RECYCLED COMMERCIAL PROCESSINGTECHNIQUERECYCLING PROCESSINGTECHNIQUELANDFILL PROCESSINGTECHNIQUEINCINERATION NUCLEAR W ASTE EXPORT NUCLEAR W ASTE IM PORT NUCLEARWASTESTORAGE FACILITIES OUT DATED FUEL O IL GASOLINE JETFUEL NATURALGASWATER UPSTREAMELECTRICTYGRID SEAFOOD FOODOTHER FOODMEAT FO O D CEREALS FOODDAIRY FOODFRUIT ONSITERENEWABLE IN TERN ATIO N AL AVIATIO N INTERNATIONALMARINE AGRICULTUREFOODANDOTHERLANDUSE INCINERATION WASTE ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY EN ERG Y AN D C H P DOMESTIC AVIATION ELECTRICITY COMERCIALANDINSTITUTIONAL MARINE CONSTRUCTION M ATERIALS DEISEL ELECTRICTYGRID METALINDUSTRY INCINERATION COAL TRANSPORTATION TRUCKS MINERALINDUSTRY RAILW AYS RESIDENTIAL ROAD TRANSPORTATION LDVS STEEL CEMENT BRICKS PRODUCED GROSS PUTRECBLE GROSS PUTRECIBLEWASTEASBIOFUELS WASTERECYCLEDINDUSTRIAL WASTERECYCLEDRESIDENTIAL FACILITIES MODERN WASTE RECYCLED COMMERCIAL PROCESSINGTECHNIQUERECYCLING PROCESSINGTECHNIQUELANDFILL PROCESSINGTECHNIQUEINCINERATION NUCLEAR W ASTE EXPORT NUCLEAR W ASTE IM PORT NUCLEARWASTESTORAGE FACILITIES OUT DATED POLLUTION EMISSIONS GHG WASTE WASTE NONPOTABLE WASTEWATER PO TABLE W ATER DISCHARGE FRESHWATER RENEWABLE WATER RESOURCES WATERFOORPRINT WATER PERSONAL WATER USE NONPOTABLE WASTEWATER PO TABLE W ATER DISCHARGE FRESHWATER RENEWABLE WATER RESOURCES WATERFOORPRINT WATER PERSONAL WATER USETEN SYSTEMS AND INDICATORS
  • 83. Eum Yang Seoul, South Korea
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  • 90. Parramatta River Urban Strategy Parramatta, Sydney
  • 93. ChurchSt. 400m Railway Station Parramatta Quay SmithSt. Civic Plaza Existing Weir Existing Wharf Parramatta North Parramatta Quay
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  • 139. green gateway to the inner harbour BP and Ballast Point Parks
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