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MBA PROJECT REPORT
Meaning of a Project:
The word project means something that comes before
anything else is done. . A project can be defined as a
temporary endeavor undertaken to achieve a particular aim
or it is a study of information for comprehending and
applying the various concepts of the course into practice.
In Simple Words, a Project is an Idea or a Plan that is intended
to be carried out.
The dictionary meaning of Project is that it is a Scheme of
something intended to be done ; a Proposal for an
Undertaking, design, speculative imagination etc.
In simple words, a project can be understood as mentioned under:
It is a practice of verification or demonstration of concepts or processes
learnt.
It is also a technique of self-learning, learning by doing. It has a practical
value.
The purpose of project is not to generalize but to study the situation
with a practical orientation.
Learners are allowed to take up any topic of their interest and choice for
project work.
How to Do the Project Report?
The MBA Project report must be completed by the Learners
into the Industry it can be completed by the learners as per
their area of interest.
Your project report must have a duration of 45 to 60 Days
Internship Project Report.
Where to do the Project Report?
It can be completed into the any Industry like Manufacturing,
Banking, Agriculture, E Commerce, IT etc.
How to Select
the Research
Project Report
Topic ?
Why Selection of Project Research
Topic is Important?
If you select the wrong research topic it
will be your waste of Time and energy
and will not give any output to the
Researcher and the Society.
The topic selected for the research
project must fulfill the need of the
Industry and must add value to the
Society.
Step 1- Steps in Selection of
Research Topic
• Topic should be your OWN it should be from your Interest Area.
• Your Interest if suppose your interest area is Marketing Management and
in Marketing in Retailing and If you select a topic related to supply chain
management and Finance then you will not be able to do justice with your
research.
• After your MBA in which area / industry you want to start with your career
? Let us take example , If some student want to start career in retailing
after your MBA then you can develop your topic for SIP around the
retailing
• Your Topic can be Consumer behavior towards organized retailing sector
Online shopping behavior of consumer
• If some students want to go in equity, then he or she should select topic
like fundamental analysis , technical analysis Therefore , my suggestion is
first figure out your plan after your MBA and select the topic in that area
Marketing Management
Interested to start career in Banking then you can select following options.
.
Research Topic
• Service Quality Assessment of Baking Services
• Customer Satisfaction about Banking Services
• Customer Expectations about Banking Services
• Study the 07 P's of Bank Comparative study of " Public Sector Bank " and
" Private Sector Bank " . .
Human Resource Management
• Interested to start career in IT / BPO / KPO then you can
select following options Research Topic
• Impact of Training and Development in IT / BPO / KPO
• Recruitment and selection process in IT / BPO / KPO
• Employee Engagement activities in IT / BPO / KPO
Employee Satisfaction in IT / BPO / KPO
• Performance Management System in IT / BPO / KPO
Financial Management
Interested to start career in Mutual Fund / Equity / Insurance
then you can select following options Research Topic
• Assess the perception of mutual fund investors on investment
pattern and preference of retail investors Risk perception and
portfolio management of equity investors.
• Financial planning for salaried employee and strategies for tax
savings
• A study on perception of investors investing in life insurance
• A study on investment pattern and preference of retail
investors
• Risk perception and portfolio management of equity investors
Step 2 Background of
Study
• Before going to understand the background of the
study we must understood What is the Aim of the
Research?
• Basically, research add values to the existing concept of
the system and science, knowledge or phenomena.
• If you are selecting the research topic where lot of
research has been done, then What are you doing you
are only revising the concept but not adding value to it.
• So, it is essential to understand the background of the
study means review of literature.
Review of literature
• If someone wants to do study on the
• Service Quality Assessment of Banking Services.
• Employee engagement activities in KPO/BPO
• A study on investment pattern and preferences of retail investors.
So if a researchers found that there is no specific work has been done on
this research then you may Find out the Research Gap i.e. Difference
between the existing level of the study and projected study or desired
research outcome.
You can do this study by referring and studying the secondary data i.e by
study of research article, research papers etc.
Step 03-Select Specific Topic/Limiting your
Scope
• After this select the specific topic
• If you want to study the " Quality of Education in India " Now this topic
is very vast
• We need to specify the topic
• Like In Education- You should only focus on Higher Education or you can
focus on only one program again you can specific topic for private
university or affiliated colleges or government colleges
• Your specific research topic can be –
• Assessments of Service quality of management education in Nashik and
Pune with special reference to MBA institute affiliated to SPPU.
• If your research topic is related to " Employee retention strategies " We
can specify this topic with reference industry , Area
• Your specific research topic can be,
• Study of employee retention strategies of IT companies in Pune
Project Supervisor (Guide)
Q. Who will be your project supervisor?
Ans: Projects will be carried out under the guidance of 2
guides.
FIRST GUIDE : ( INDUSTRY GUIDE) where the student is
working for his/her project.
 Person who is working in the managerial cadre in any
industry, business, IT organization etc.
(Learners are advised to send the Bio-data of Project
supervisor (Guide) to The Director for approval of guide)
Proposal of
the project
Proposal must carry the following
information
● Title of the project
● Objective / Purpose of study
● Chapterisation
● Conclusion
General
Guidelines
for project
1) Paper: A4 size Bond
Paper only for 2 sets of
copies & One Soft copy
in PDF format
2) Fonts: Times New
Roman, 12 font size,
“1.5” spacing
3) Binding: Rexin Black
Bound .
Project Fees: The
charges for the project
in the final semester,
which the student must
pay is Rs.1200/-
Assessment of project Report
Scheme of Assessment and Evaluation of project
Item of Assessment
 Area and topic selected for the project work
 Need of the project topic and statement of objectives of the project
work
 The educational implications and recommendations
 Preliminary pages of the project report, typing , binding and get-up of
the report
 Overall impression about the project work and its presentation in the
report format.
 Presentation
POWER POINT
PRESENTATION
All learners will have to prepare a
presentation of the Project work
consisting of min of 7-10 slides
which will cover the entire project.
This PPT will have to be presented
during the Viva Voce.
Project Submission
Soft copy of the Project is to be submitted in PDF format on a CD.
Apart from the soft copy after the completion of the entire project, every
learner has to submit 1 hard copies (before the Viva Vorce) of the
complete project report to COL at the address mentioned below:
Dr D Y Patil Vidyapeeth,
Centre for Online Learning
Sant Tukaram Nagar, Pimpri Pune 411018
Selection of the Project Topic
• Student can choose a topic either from the list given
or they can have the topic of their company’s choice.
Executive Summary of the project
• Executive Summary is 3-4 pages in length. A longer summary is often
used when it contains charts or other illustrations.
• The Executive Summary should be organized according to the following
categories –
1)Project Summary,
2)Background
3)Process in short
4) Finding and Conclusions and Recommendations for Action in brief
A typical executive summary is 5-10% of the length of the report.
Additional Guidelines on Writing an Executive
Summary
• Write the executive summary after completing the
report
• Avoid using technical terminology if your audience will
include people not familiar with the topic
• Make the executive summary concise but not brusque.
Be especially careful not to omit transitional words and
phrases (such as however, moreover, therefore, for
example, and in summary)
• Introduce no information not discussed in the report.
Introduction of the Project Report
Introduction could contain the following.
1) Industry Profile, Company profile
2) Brief statement of the problem
3) Importance/novelty of the problem
4) Scope of the project - precise idea on what is to be achieved in the
work
5) Brief statements on what subsequent chapters contain.
Aims &
Objectives
The aims and objectives must be selected
carefully which will decide the entire
direction of the project report.
Select minimum objectives so that it must
be practically be achieved.
“At the conclusion of your project you will
need to assess whether or not you have
met your objectives and if not, why not”.
• Aims: Are broad statements of desired outcomes, or the general
intentions of the research, which 'paint a picture' of your research project
• Emphasize what is to be accomplished (not how it is to be accomplished)
• Address the long-term project outcomes, i.e. they should reflect the
aspirations and expectations of the research topic.
• Once aims have been established, the next task is to formulate the
objectives. Generally, a project should have no more than two or three
aims statements, while it may include a number of objectives consistent
with them.
• Objectives are subsidiary to aims and:
• Are the steps you are going to take to answer your research questions, or
a specific list of tasks needed to accomplish the goals of the project
• Emphasize how aims are to be accomplished
• Must be highly focused and feasible
• Address the more immediate project outcomes
• Make accurate use of concepts
• Must be sensible and precisely described
• Should read as an 'individual' statement to convey
Here is an example of a project aim and subsidiary objectives:
• Aim
• To critically assess the collection and disposal operations
for bulky household waste in order to identify factors,
which contribute to performance and technical efficiency.
• Objectives
• To critically assess bulky waste operations by local
authorities, including volumes/types of materials arising
and current disposal/recovery routes.
• To classify and evaluate the operation of furniture recovery
schemes nationally.
• To make recommendations to improve the operational
effectiveness of, and to maximize recovery opportunities of
bulky waste collection.
Aims and Objectives should:
Be concise and brief.
Be interrelated; the aim is what you want to achieve, and the
objective describes how you are going to achieve that aim.
Be realistic about what you can accomplish in the duration of
the project and the other commitments you have
Provide you and your supervisor(s) with indicators of how you
intend to:
Need for and importance of project report
• Your Research Topic should be unique and must specify its unique
need with the industries.
The Preparation of a Project Report is of great significance for the
Entrepreneur in his business.
There are a variety of purposes which a Project Report or a
Business Plan will fulfill. Hence, its need in Modern Business.
These purposes of report are as follows :
 Its helps an Entrepreneur judge the profitability of a given
enterprise proposal. If it reveals a proposal to be unviable,
the Entrepreneur will avoid a grave error of investing in an
Unsound Venture.
It is the basis for a Development Bank to sanction Long
Term Financial Assistance & a Commercial Bank to provide
Working CapitalAssistance
RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY
What is research?
Research is the process of finding solutions to a
problem after a thorough study and analysis of
the situational factors
Research provides the needed information that
guides managers to make informed decisions to
successfully deal with problems
The information provided could be the result of a
careful analysis of data gathered firsthand or of
data that are already available (in the company)
Objectives of Research
• The purpose of research is to discover answers
through the application of scientific procedures.
• The objectives are:
• To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to
achieve new insights into it – Exploratory or
Formulative Research.
• To portray accurately the characteristics of a
particular individual, situation or a group –
Descriptive Research.
• To determine the frequency with which
something occurs or with which it is associated
with something else – Diagnostic Research.
• To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship
between variables – Hypothesis-Testing Research.
Characteristics of Research
Research is directed towards the solution of a problem.
Research is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence.
Research demands accurate observation and description.
Research involves gathering new data from primary sources or using existing
data for a new purpose.
Research activities are characterized by carefully designed procedures.
Research requires expertise i.e., skill necessary to carryout investigation,
search the related literature and to understand and analyze the data gathered.
Research is objective and logical – applying every possible test to validate the
data collected and conclusions reached.
Research involves the quest for answers to unsolved problems.
Research requires courage.
Research is characterized by patient and unhurried activity.
Research is carefully recorded and reported.
 Purpose clearly defined.
 Research process detailed.
 Research design thoroughly planned.
 High ethical standards applied.
 Limitations frankly revealed.
 Adequate analysis for decision maker’s needs.
 Findings presented unambiguously.
 Conclusions justified.
 Researcher’s experience reflected.
CRITERIA OF A GOOD RESEARCH
QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCH
• Systematic
• Logical
• Empirical
• Replicable
• Creative
• Use of multiple methods
NEED FOR RESEARCH
♪EXPLORATION
♪DESCRIBE
♪DIAGNOSE
♪HYPOTHESIS
♪INDUCTIONS AND DEDUCTIONS
SCOPE / SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH
 RESEARCH FOR DECISION MAKING
 Throws light on risks and uncertainty
 Identify alternative courses of action
 Helps in economic use of resources
 Helps in project identification
RESEARCH PROCESS
Define
Research
Problem
Review
Concepts
And
theories
Review
Previous
Research
findings
Formulate
hypothesis
Design
Research
(Including
Sample
Design)
Collect
Data
(Execution)
Analyse
Data
(Test
Hypothesis
if any)
Interpret
and
report
FF
F
F F
FF
I
II
III IV V VI VII
F
FF
Feed Back
Feed Forward
Review the literature
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
• Literature Review is the documentation of a comprehensive review of the published and
unpublished work from secondary sources of data in the areas of specific interest to the
researcher.
• The main aim is to find out problems that are already investigated and those that need
further investigation.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
• It is an extensive survey of all available past studies relevant to the field of investigation.
• It gives us knowledge about what others have found out in the related field of study and
how they have done so.
SOURCES OF LITERATURE
• Books and Journals
• Electronic Databases
• Bibliographic Databases
• Abstract Databases
• Full-Text Databases
• Govt. and Industry Reports
• Internet
• Research Dissertations / Thesis
METHODS OF DATA COLLECTIONS
• ⦿ Data are numerical facts. They are figures collected in a
systematic manner for a predetermined purpose. Those figures are
aggregate of facts relating to one or more phenomenon of study. It is
from the data collected that an economist study about a phenomenon
and draw conclusions.
The sources of information are generally
classified as primary or secondary.
PRIMARY DATA
When the researcher himself is trying to
collect the data for his particular purpose
from the sources available it becomes
primary data.
⦿Observation method
⦿Interview method
⦿Questionnaire method
⦿Schedule method
Observation method as the name itself
indicates is based on observation.
Observation is keen and scientific study of a
problem.
For example:- in a study of consumer
behavior the investigator instead of asking
the brand of wrist watch used by the
respondent, may himself look a the watch.
Interview method is a direct method of
collection of data, which is based on
interview. It is the most important methods
of collection of data. Through this method
we can know the views and ideas of other
persons. It s a method of social interaction.
Interviews can be conducted through
personal and telephone.
This is an important and very popular method
of data collection. This is adopted by
individuals, organization and government. In
this method, a questionnaire is prepared and
sent to respondent by post. It is a set of
questions. The success of this method
depends on the proper drafting of the
questions.
It is a proforma containing a set of questions. This
proforma is filled by enumerators who are specially
identified for the purpose. The enumerators are
persons acting under the direction of researchers.
Requisite of a good schedule
 Accurate communication
 Schedules must be attractive
 Schedules must be attractive
Secondary data are those data which have
collected by some other person for their
purpose and published. So a researcher is
said to make use of secondary data if he
makes use of data already compiled by some
other person. Secondary data are in the
shape of a finished products.
Sources of secondary data may be classified
broadly as internal and external. Internal
sources of data represents the data that are
already available with the research
organization. The information available with
outside organization are External.
There a re variety of published sources from
which one can get information for his
research work.
o Official publications of the central, state and local
governments.
o Official publication of the foreign governments and
international bodies like UNO and its subordinate
bodies.
o Technical journals, newspapers, books, periodicals,
etc.
o Publication of research organizations, centres,
institutes and reports submitted by economists,
research scholars etc.
SAMPLING
• Sampling: the process of learning about population on the basis of
sample drawn from it.
• Three elements in process of sampling:
• Selecting the sample
• Collecting the information
• Making inference about population
• Statistics: values obtained from study of a sample.
• Parameters: such values from study of population.
NEED FOR SAMPLING
DATA
(acc. to source)
Primary Secondary
1.ORIGINALIN
CHARACTER
2. GENERATED IN LARGE
NO. OFSURVEYS
OBTAINED FROM
1. PUBLISHED SOURCES
2.UNPUBLISHED
SOURCES
SAMPLING METHODS
NON
PROBABILITY
PROBABILITY MIXED
JUDGMENT
QUOTA
CONVENIENCE
SNOWBALL
SIMPLE RANDOM
STRATIFIED
RANDOM
SYSTEMATIC
CLUSTER
MUL
TISTAGE
MULTIPHASE
LOTQUALITY
ASSURANCE
Introduction to Data Analysis
• Why do we analyze data?
• Make sense of data we have collected
• Basic steps in preliminary data analysis
• Editing
• Coding
• Tabulating
Introduction to Data Analysis
• Editing of data
• Impose minimal quality standards on the raw data
• Field Edit -- preliminary edit, used to detect glaring omissions
and inaccuracies (often involves respondent follow up)
• Completeness
• Legibility
• Comprehensibility
• Consistency
• Uniformity
Introduction to Data Analysis
• Central office edit
• More complete and exacting edit
• Best performed by a number of editors, each looking at one part
of the data
• Decision on how to handle item non-response and other
omissions need to be made
• List-wise deletion (drop for all analyses) vs. case-wise
• deletion (drop only for present analysis)
Introduction to Data Analysis
• Coding -- transforming raw data into symbols (usually numbers) for
tabulating, counting, and analyzing
• Must determine categories
• Completely exhaustive
• Mutually exclusive
• Assign numbers to categories
• Make sure to code an ID number for each completed
instrument
Introduction to Data Analysis
• Tabulation -- counting the number of cases that fall into each category
• Initial tabulations should be preformed for each item
• One-way tabulations
• Determines degree of item non-response
• Locates errors
• Locates outliers
• Determines the data distribution
Preliminary Data Analysis
• Tabulation
• Simple Counts
• For example
• 74 families in the study
• own 1 car
• 2 families own 3
• Missing data (9)
• 1 Family did not report
• Not useful for further
• analysis
Number of
Cars
Number of
Families
1 75
2 23
3 2
9 1
Total 101
Preliminary Data Analysis
• Tabulation
• Compute Percentages
• Eliminate non-responses
• Note – Report without
missing data
Number of
Cars
Number of
Families
1 75%
2 23%
3 2%
Total 100
Preliminary Data Analysis
• Cross Tabulation
• Simultaneous count of two
• or more items
• Note marginal totals are
• equal to frequency totals
• Allows researcher to
determine if a relationship
exists between two variables
• Used a final analysis step in
majority of real-world
applications
• Investigatesthe relationship
between two ordinal-scaled
variables
Number
of Cars
Lower
Income
Higher
Income
Total
1 48 27 75
2 or
More
6 19 25
Total 54 46 100
Preliminary Data Analysis
• Cross Tabulation
• To analyze the data
• Calculate percentages
in the direction of the
“causal variable”
• Does number of cars
• “cause” income level?
Num
ber of
Cars
Lower
Income
Higher
Income
Total
1 64% 36% 100%
2 or
More
24% 76% 100%
Total 54% 46% 100%
Preliminary Data Analysis
 Cross Tabulation
 To analyze the data
 Does income level
“cause” number of cars?
 Seem like this is the
case.
 In the direction of
income – thus, income
marginal totals should be
100%
Num
ber
of
Cars
Lower
Income
Higher
Income
Total
1 89% 59% 75%
2 or
More
11% 41% 25%
Total 100% 100% 100%
Preliminary Data Analysis
 Cross Tabulation allows the development of
hypotheses
 Develop by comparing percentages across
 Lower income more likely to have one car (89%) than
the higher income group (59%)
 Higher income more likely to have multiple cars (41%)
than the lower income group (11%)
 Are results statistically significant?
 To test must employ chi-square analysis
Types of Data
Continuous
Discrete
Nominal
TheAssignment
of Numbers for
Classification
Purposes;
Categorical
Data
E.g. Sex, Blood
Gr
Ordinal
Quantitative Values
Providing a
Classification
According to Order
or Magnitude
Eg: V
AS; SE Status
Interval
ClassificationAccording
to a Continuum With
Interval Equality &
Subdivision Sensibility
Eg: Temp.
Ratio
Interval Data
With An
Absolute
Value of 0
Eg: Height;
weight
Measurement Scales & Types of Data
Type of Data
data
Qualitative
Quantitative
Normal distribution Any
Kind of
comparison
distribution
two
samples
2-test,
Z test
t-Test , Z test
(n>30)
Comparison for proportion
one sign-test, one sample
Wilcoxon;Mann-
Whitney-test
Chi Square
sign-
of two
test,
groups sample Mc.Nemar-test t-Test one-sample -
Wilcoxon-test
Comparison independ. 2-test one-way analysis Kruskal-
Wallis-test
of more
than two
samples of variance
one Cochran’s two-way analysis Friedman-test
groups sample wQww-.tderjasyetshpatidar
.blogspootf.covmariance
Statistical Tests: Overview
14
15
What is findings and suggestion?
The principal outcomes of a research project; what the project
suggested, revealed or indicated. This usually refers to the totality
of outcomes, rather than the conclusions or recommendations
drawn from them.
How do I write a bibliography?
Collect this information for each Web Site:
1.author name.
2.title of the publication (and the title of the article if it's
a magazine or encyclopedia)
3.date of publication.
4.the place of publication of a book.
5.the publishing company of a book.
6.the volume number of a magazine or printed
encyclopedia.
7.the page number(s)
THANK YOU

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MBA Project Report Gideline PPT.pptx

  • 2. Meaning of a Project: The word project means something that comes before anything else is done. . A project can be defined as a temporary endeavor undertaken to achieve a particular aim or it is a study of information for comprehending and applying the various concepts of the course into practice. In Simple Words, a Project is an Idea or a Plan that is intended to be carried out. The dictionary meaning of Project is that it is a Scheme of something intended to be done ; a Proposal for an Undertaking, design, speculative imagination etc.
  • 3. In simple words, a project can be understood as mentioned under: It is a practice of verification or demonstration of concepts or processes learnt. It is also a technique of self-learning, learning by doing. It has a practical value. The purpose of project is not to generalize but to study the situation with a practical orientation. Learners are allowed to take up any topic of their interest and choice for project work.
  • 4. How to Do the Project Report? The MBA Project report must be completed by the Learners into the Industry it can be completed by the learners as per their area of interest. Your project report must have a duration of 45 to 60 Days Internship Project Report. Where to do the Project Report? It can be completed into the any Industry like Manufacturing, Banking, Agriculture, E Commerce, IT etc.
  • 5. How to Select the Research Project Report Topic ? Why Selection of Project Research Topic is Important? If you select the wrong research topic it will be your waste of Time and energy and will not give any output to the Researcher and the Society. The topic selected for the research project must fulfill the need of the Industry and must add value to the Society.
  • 6. Step 1- Steps in Selection of Research Topic • Topic should be your OWN it should be from your Interest Area. • Your Interest if suppose your interest area is Marketing Management and in Marketing in Retailing and If you select a topic related to supply chain management and Finance then you will not be able to do justice with your research. • After your MBA in which area / industry you want to start with your career ? Let us take example , If some student want to start career in retailing after your MBA then you can develop your topic for SIP around the retailing • Your Topic can be Consumer behavior towards organized retailing sector Online shopping behavior of consumer • If some students want to go in equity, then he or she should select topic like fundamental analysis , technical analysis Therefore , my suggestion is first figure out your plan after your MBA and select the topic in that area
  • 7. Marketing Management Interested to start career in Banking then you can select following options. . Research Topic • Service Quality Assessment of Baking Services • Customer Satisfaction about Banking Services • Customer Expectations about Banking Services • Study the 07 P's of Bank Comparative study of " Public Sector Bank " and " Private Sector Bank " . .
  • 8. Human Resource Management • Interested to start career in IT / BPO / KPO then you can select following options Research Topic • Impact of Training and Development in IT / BPO / KPO • Recruitment and selection process in IT / BPO / KPO • Employee Engagement activities in IT / BPO / KPO Employee Satisfaction in IT / BPO / KPO • Performance Management System in IT / BPO / KPO
  • 9. Financial Management Interested to start career in Mutual Fund / Equity / Insurance then you can select following options Research Topic • Assess the perception of mutual fund investors on investment pattern and preference of retail investors Risk perception and portfolio management of equity investors. • Financial planning for salaried employee and strategies for tax savings • A study on perception of investors investing in life insurance • A study on investment pattern and preference of retail investors • Risk perception and portfolio management of equity investors
  • 10. Step 2 Background of Study • Before going to understand the background of the study we must understood What is the Aim of the Research? • Basically, research add values to the existing concept of the system and science, knowledge or phenomena. • If you are selecting the research topic where lot of research has been done, then What are you doing you are only revising the concept but not adding value to it. • So, it is essential to understand the background of the study means review of literature.
  • 11. Review of literature • If someone wants to do study on the • Service Quality Assessment of Banking Services. • Employee engagement activities in KPO/BPO • A study on investment pattern and preferences of retail investors. So if a researchers found that there is no specific work has been done on this research then you may Find out the Research Gap i.e. Difference between the existing level of the study and projected study or desired research outcome. You can do this study by referring and studying the secondary data i.e by study of research article, research papers etc.
  • 12. Step 03-Select Specific Topic/Limiting your Scope • After this select the specific topic • If you want to study the " Quality of Education in India " Now this topic is very vast • We need to specify the topic • Like In Education- You should only focus on Higher Education or you can focus on only one program again you can specific topic for private university or affiliated colleges or government colleges • Your specific research topic can be – • Assessments of Service quality of management education in Nashik and Pune with special reference to MBA institute affiliated to SPPU.
  • 13. • If your research topic is related to " Employee retention strategies " We can specify this topic with reference industry , Area • Your specific research topic can be, • Study of employee retention strategies of IT companies in Pune
  • 14. Project Supervisor (Guide) Q. Who will be your project supervisor? Ans: Projects will be carried out under the guidance of 2 guides. FIRST GUIDE : ( INDUSTRY GUIDE) where the student is working for his/her project.  Person who is working in the managerial cadre in any industry, business, IT organization etc. (Learners are advised to send the Bio-data of Project supervisor (Guide) to The Director for approval of guide)
  • 15. Proposal of the project Proposal must carry the following information ● Title of the project ● Objective / Purpose of study ● Chapterisation ● Conclusion
  • 16. General Guidelines for project 1) Paper: A4 size Bond Paper only for 2 sets of copies & One Soft copy in PDF format 2) Fonts: Times New Roman, 12 font size, “1.5” spacing 3) Binding: Rexin Black Bound . Project Fees: The charges for the project in the final semester, which the student must pay is Rs.1200/-
  • 17. Assessment of project Report Scheme of Assessment and Evaluation of project Item of Assessment  Area and topic selected for the project work  Need of the project topic and statement of objectives of the project work  The educational implications and recommendations  Preliminary pages of the project report, typing , binding and get-up of the report  Overall impression about the project work and its presentation in the report format.  Presentation
  • 18. POWER POINT PRESENTATION All learners will have to prepare a presentation of the Project work consisting of min of 7-10 slides which will cover the entire project. This PPT will have to be presented during the Viva Voce.
  • 19. Project Submission Soft copy of the Project is to be submitted in PDF format on a CD. Apart from the soft copy after the completion of the entire project, every learner has to submit 1 hard copies (before the Viva Vorce) of the complete project report to COL at the address mentioned below: Dr D Y Patil Vidyapeeth, Centre for Online Learning Sant Tukaram Nagar, Pimpri Pune 411018
  • 20. Selection of the Project Topic • Student can choose a topic either from the list given or they can have the topic of their company’s choice.
  • 21. Executive Summary of the project • Executive Summary is 3-4 pages in length. A longer summary is often used when it contains charts or other illustrations. • The Executive Summary should be organized according to the following categories – 1)Project Summary, 2)Background 3)Process in short 4) Finding and Conclusions and Recommendations for Action in brief A typical executive summary is 5-10% of the length of the report.
  • 22. Additional Guidelines on Writing an Executive Summary • Write the executive summary after completing the report • Avoid using technical terminology if your audience will include people not familiar with the topic • Make the executive summary concise but not brusque. Be especially careful not to omit transitional words and phrases (such as however, moreover, therefore, for example, and in summary) • Introduce no information not discussed in the report.
  • 23. Introduction of the Project Report Introduction could contain the following. 1) Industry Profile, Company profile 2) Brief statement of the problem 3) Importance/novelty of the problem 4) Scope of the project - precise idea on what is to be achieved in the work 5) Brief statements on what subsequent chapters contain.
  • 24. Aims & Objectives The aims and objectives must be selected carefully which will decide the entire direction of the project report. Select minimum objectives so that it must be practically be achieved. “At the conclusion of your project you will need to assess whether or not you have met your objectives and if not, why not”.
  • 25. • Aims: Are broad statements of desired outcomes, or the general intentions of the research, which 'paint a picture' of your research project • Emphasize what is to be accomplished (not how it is to be accomplished) • Address the long-term project outcomes, i.e. they should reflect the aspirations and expectations of the research topic. • Once aims have been established, the next task is to formulate the objectives. Generally, a project should have no more than two or three aims statements, while it may include a number of objectives consistent with them. • Objectives are subsidiary to aims and: • Are the steps you are going to take to answer your research questions, or a specific list of tasks needed to accomplish the goals of the project • Emphasize how aims are to be accomplished • Must be highly focused and feasible • Address the more immediate project outcomes • Make accurate use of concepts • Must be sensible and precisely described • Should read as an 'individual' statement to convey
  • 26. Here is an example of a project aim and subsidiary objectives: • Aim • To critically assess the collection and disposal operations for bulky household waste in order to identify factors, which contribute to performance and technical efficiency. • Objectives • To critically assess bulky waste operations by local authorities, including volumes/types of materials arising and current disposal/recovery routes. • To classify and evaluate the operation of furniture recovery schemes nationally. • To make recommendations to improve the operational effectiveness of, and to maximize recovery opportunities of bulky waste collection.
  • 27. Aims and Objectives should: Be concise and brief. Be interrelated; the aim is what you want to achieve, and the objective describes how you are going to achieve that aim. Be realistic about what you can accomplish in the duration of the project and the other commitments you have Provide you and your supervisor(s) with indicators of how you intend to:
  • 28. Need for and importance of project report • Your Research Topic should be unique and must specify its unique need with the industries. The Preparation of a Project Report is of great significance for the Entrepreneur in his business. There are a variety of purposes which a Project Report or a Business Plan will fulfill. Hence, its need in Modern Business. These purposes of report are as follows :  Its helps an Entrepreneur judge the profitability of a given enterprise proposal. If it reveals a proposal to be unviable, the Entrepreneur will avoid a grave error of investing in an Unsound Venture. It is the basis for a Development Bank to sanction Long Term Financial Assistance & a Commercial Bank to provide Working CapitalAssistance
  • 29. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY What is research? Research is the process of finding solutions to a problem after a thorough study and analysis of the situational factors Research provides the needed information that guides managers to make informed decisions to successfully deal with problems The information provided could be the result of a careful analysis of data gathered firsthand or of data that are already available (in the company)
  • 30. Objectives of Research • The purpose of research is to discover answers through the application of scientific procedures. • The objectives are: • To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it – Exploratory or Formulative Research. • To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group – Descriptive Research. • To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else – Diagnostic Research. • To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables – Hypothesis-Testing Research.
  • 31. Characteristics of Research Research is directed towards the solution of a problem. Research is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence. Research demands accurate observation and description. Research involves gathering new data from primary sources or using existing data for a new purpose. Research activities are characterized by carefully designed procedures. Research requires expertise i.e., skill necessary to carryout investigation, search the related literature and to understand and analyze the data gathered. Research is objective and logical – applying every possible test to validate the data collected and conclusions reached. Research involves the quest for answers to unsolved problems. Research requires courage. Research is characterized by patient and unhurried activity. Research is carefully recorded and reported.
  • 32.  Purpose clearly defined.  Research process detailed.  Research design thoroughly planned.  High ethical standards applied.  Limitations frankly revealed.  Adequate analysis for decision maker’s needs.  Findings presented unambiguously.  Conclusions justified.  Researcher’s experience reflected. CRITERIA OF A GOOD RESEARCH
  • 33. QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCH • Systematic • Logical • Empirical • Replicable • Creative • Use of multiple methods
  • 35. SCOPE / SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH  RESEARCH FOR DECISION MAKING  Throws light on risks and uncertainty  Identify alternative courses of action  Helps in economic use of resources  Helps in project identification
  • 37. REVIEW OF LITERATURE • Literature Review is the documentation of a comprehensive review of the published and unpublished work from secondary sources of data in the areas of specific interest to the researcher. • The main aim is to find out problems that are already investigated and those that need further investigation.
  • 38. REVIEW OF LITERATURE • It is an extensive survey of all available past studies relevant to the field of investigation. • It gives us knowledge about what others have found out in the related field of study and how they have done so.
  • 39. SOURCES OF LITERATURE • Books and Journals • Electronic Databases • Bibliographic Databases • Abstract Databases • Full-Text Databases • Govt. and Industry Reports • Internet • Research Dissertations / Thesis
  • 40. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTIONS • ⦿ Data are numerical facts. They are figures collected in a systematic manner for a predetermined purpose. Those figures are aggregate of facts relating to one or more phenomenon of study. It is from the data collected that an economist study about a phenomenon and draw conclusions.
  • 41. The sources of information are generally classified as primary or secondary. PRIMARY DATA When the researcher himself is trying to collect the data for his particular purpose from the sources available it becomes primary data.
  • 43. Observation method as the name itself indicates is based on observation. Observation is keen and scientific study of a problem. For example:- in a study of consumer behavior the investigator instead of asking the brand of wrist watch used by the respondent, may himself look a the watch.
  • 44. Interview method is a direct method of collection of data, which is based on interview. It is the most important methods of collection of data. Through this method we can know the views and ideas of other persons. It s a method of social interaction. Interviews can be conducted through personal and telephone.
  • 45. This is an important and very popular method of data collection. This is adopted by individuals, organization and government. In this method, a questionnaire is prepared and sent to respondent by post. It is a set of questions. The success of this method depends on the proper drafting of the questions.
  • 46. It is a proforma containing a set of questions. This proforma is filled by enumerators who are specially identified for the purpose. The enumerators are persons acting under the direction of researchers. Requisite of a good schedule  Accurate communication  Schedules must be attractive  Schedules must be attractive
  • 47. Secondary data are those data which have collected by some other person for their purpose and published. So a researcher is said to make use of secondary data if he makes use of data already compiled by some other person. Secondary data are in the shape of a finished products.
  • 48. Sources of secondary data may be classified broadly as internal and external. Internal sources of data represents the data that are already available with the research organization. The information available with outside organization are External. There a re variety of published sources from which one can get information for his research work.
  • 49. o Official publications of the central, state and local governments. o Official publication of the foreign governments and international bodies like UNO and its subordinate bodies. o Technical journals, newspapers, books, periodicals, etc. o Publication of research organizations, centres, institutes and reports submitted by economists, research scholars etc.
  • 50. SAMPLING • Sampling: the process of learning about population on the basis of sample drawn from it. • Three elements in process of sampling: • Selecting the sample • Collecting the information • Making inference about population • Statistics: values obtained from study of a sample. • Parameters: such values from study of population.
  • 51. NEED FOR SAMPLING DATA (acc. to source) Primary Secondary 1.ORIGINALIN CHARACTER 2. GENERATED IN LARGE NO. OFSURVEYS OBTAINED FROM 1. PUBLISHED SOURCES 2.UNPUBLISHED SOURCES
  • 52. SAMPLING METHODS NON PROBABILITY PROBABILITY MIXED JUDGMENT QUOTA CONVENIENCE SNOWBALL SIMPLE RANDOM STRATIFIED RANDOM SYSTEMATIC CLUSTER MUL TISTAGE MULTIPHASE LOTQUALITY ASSURANCE
  • 53. Introduction to Data Analysis • Why do we analyze data? • Make sense of data we have collected • Basic steps in preliminary data analysis • Editing • Coding • Tabulating
  • 54. Introduction to Data Analysis • Editing of data • Impose minimal quality standards on the raw data • Field Edit -- preliminary edit, used to detect glaring omissions and inaccuracies (often involves respondent follow up) • Completeness • Legibility • Comprehensibility • Consistency • Uniformity
  • 55. Introduction to Data Analysis • Central office edit • More complete and exacting edit • Best performed by a number of editors, each looking at one part of the data • Decision on how to handle item non-response and other omissions need to be made • List-wise deletion (drop for all analyses) vs. case-wise • deletion (drop only for present analysis)
  • 56. Introduction to Data Analysis • Coding -- transforming raw data into symbols (usually numbers) for tabulating, counting, and analyzing • Must determine categories • Completely exhaustive • Mutually exclusive • Assign numbers to categories • Make sure to code an ID number for each completed instrument
  • 57. Introduction to Data Analysis • Tabulation -- counting the number of cases that fall into each category • Initial tabulations should be preformed for each item • One-way tabulations • Determines degree of item non-response • Locates errors • Locates outliers • Determines the data distribution
  • 58. Preliminary Data Analysis • Tabulation • Simple Counts • For example • 74 families in the study • own 1 car • 2 families own 3 • Missing data (9) • 1 Family did not report • Not useful for further • analysis Number of Cars Number of Families 1 75 2 23 3 2 9 1 Total 101
  • 59. Preliminary Data Analysis • Tabulation • Compute Percentages • Eliminate non-responses • Note – Report without missing data Number of Cars Number of Families 1 75% 2 23% 3 2% Total 100
  • 60. Preliminary Data Analysis • Cross Tabulation • Simultaneous count of two • or more items • Note marginal totals are • equal to frequency totals • Allows researcher to determine if a relationship exists between two variables • Used a final analysis step in majority of real-world applications • Investigatesthe relationship between two ordinal-scaled variables Number of Cars Lower Income Higher Income Total 1 48 27 75 2 or More 6 19 25 Total 54 46 100
  • 61. Preliminary Data Analysis • Cross Tabulation • To analyze the data • Calculate percentages in the direction of the “causal variable” • Does number of cars • “cause” income level? Num ber of Cars Lower Income Higher Income Total 1 64% 36% 100% 2 or More 24% 76% 100% Total 54% 46% 100%
  • 62. Preliminary Data Analysis  Cross Tabulation  To analyze the data  Does income level “cause” number of cars?  Seem like this is the case.  In the direction of income – thus, income marginal totals should be 100% Num ber of Cars Lower Income Higher Income Total 1 89% 59% 75% 2 or More 11% 41% 25% Total 100% 100% 100%
  • 63. Preliminary Data Analysis  Cross Tabulation allows the development of hypotheses  Develop by comparing percentages across  Lower income more likely to have one car (89%) than the higher income group (59%)  Higher income more likely to have multiple cars (41%) than the lower income group (11%)  Are results statistically significant?  To test must employ chi-square analysis
  • 64. Types of Data Continuous Discrete Nominal TheAssignment of Numbers for Classification Purposes; Categorical Data E.g. Sex, Blood Gr Ordinal Quantitative Values Providing a Classification According to Order or Magnitude Eg: V AS; SE Status Interval ClassificationAccording to a Continuum With Interval Equality & Subdivision Sensibility Eg: Temp. Ratio Interval Data With An Absolute Value of 0 Eg: Height; weight Measurement Scales & Types of Data
  • 65. Type of Data data Qualitative Quantitative Normal distribution Any Kind of comparison distribution two samples 2-test, Z test t-Test , Z test (n>30) Comparison for proportion one sign-test, one sample Wilcoxon;Mann- Whitney-test Chi Square sign- of two test, groups sample Mc.Nemar-test t-Test one-sample - Wilcoxon-test Comparison independ. 2-test one-way analysis Kruskal- Wallis-test of more than two samples of variance one Cochran’s two-way analysis Friedman-test groups sample wQww-.tderjasyetshpatidar .blogspootf.covmariance Statistical Tests: Overview 14
  • 66. 15
  • 67. What is findings and suggestion? The principal outcomes of a research project; what the project suggested, revealed or indicated. This usually refers to the totality of outcomes, rather than the conclusions or recommendations drawn from them.
  • 68. How do I write a bibliography? Collect this information for each Web Site: 1.author name. 2.title of the publication (and the title of the article if it's a magazine or encyclopedia) 3.date of publication. 4.the place of publication of a book. 5.the publishing company of a book. 6.the volume number of a magazine or printed encyclopedia. 7.the page number(s)