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1. Major concepts of personality
2. Factors and determinants of personality
3. Assessment of personality
4. Personality theories(psychoanalytic, trait and
Humanistic
Personality – Concept
• Personality means the constitution of mental as well as
the physical health of an individual.
• In his medical text book, “Principles and Practice of
Medicine,” Davidson states about personality, which is
socially acquired after having a genetic basis, over the
course of time.
• The individual arrives at an adult psychological stage
after passing successively through a series of
maturational stages.
• According to McClelland, “Personality is the most
adequate conceptualisation of an individual’s
behaviour with all its details, which the scientist can
provide in a moment.”
• In the definition given by Davidson, there are three
different aspects-Social, Physiological and
Psychological of one’s personality and its
development and growth.
Cont..
• McClelland has stressed mainly the psychological
aspects effecting desirable changes in the behaviour
and personality of an individual.
• Hence, both these definitions throw some light on
personality development and individual behaviour.
• Thus, both these definitions have utmost
applicability and usefulness in organisational
behaviour apart from the comprehensive approach
made by Allport on the subject.
• Personality of an individual is unique, personal and a
major determinant of his behaviour. Because of
differences in personality, individuals differ in their
manner of responding to different situations.
• Some personality theorists emphasize the need to
recognize the person-situation interaction, i.e., the
social learning aspects of personality. Such an
interpretation is highly meaningful to the study of
human behaviour.
Personality Traits- The Big 5/ Features of personality
7
Factors and determinants of personality
a. Biological factors
b. Situational factors
c. Family and Social Factors
d. Cultural Factors
1. Biological Factors
• The general biological characteristics of human
beings influence the way in which human being
trends to sense external event, (data), interpret and
respond to them.
I. Heredity
II. Brain
III. Physical characteristics
i) Heredity
• The elements that were predetermined at conception are
referred to be hereditary.
• Physical appearance, temperament, level of energy, and
biological rhythms are qualities that, collectively with
one's biological, physiological, and inborn psychological
make up, are typically impacted by one's parents.
• According to the heredity perspective, a person's
personality is determined by the molecular structure of
their chromosomal genes.
ii. Brain
• The function of a person's brain has an impact on
personality as another biological aspect.
• Despite some encouraging advances in research,
psychologists are unable to demonstrate scientifically
how the human brain influences personality.
• The study of the brain may lead to a greater
understanding of human nature and behaviour,
according to preliminary findings from electrical
stimulation of the brain (ESB) research.
iii) Physical characterristics
• It has been demonstrated that a person's personality
is significantly influenced by his outward
appearance.
• In line with Paul H. Mussen "A child's physical
traits may influence how he interacts with others,
what they expect of him, and how they respond to
him.
• These, in turn, might affect how a person develops
their personality."
• A girl or boy that is maturing quickly or slowly may
experience various physical and social conditions
and activities, respectively.
• According to psychologists, a person's personality
will also be influenced by their differing rates of
maturation.
2. Family and Social Factors
• The family is likely to have the biggest influence on
early personality development. A significant body of
empirical research suggests that, in addition to their
direct impact, the parents' total home environment
shapes how children develop into their personalities.
For instance, children raised by parents in a warm,
loving, and interesting environment are considerably
less likely to be socially and emotionally maladjusted
than children raised in a chilly, uninspiring home.
cont..
• In the self-identification probes, which are crucial to a
person's early development, parents play a significant
influence. A child copies their parents' or their
neighbor's behaviour during their formative years.
• Therefore, it is the family's duty for all adults who
interact with the child directly to behave in an ideal
manner.
• The family shapes a child's character through examples,
encouragement, reinforcement, rewards, and
punishment.
The elements those affect the type of family influence
• Race
• Religion
• Parents educational level
• Geographic location
• Socioeconomic status of the family
• Family size
• Birth order and siblings
Cont..
• Social interactions throughout a person's life,
beginning with playmates in childhood, are related
to social influences. While early environmental
interactions have a longer-lasting impact on
behavioural and psychological patterns, later social
interactions and group membership continue to
have a significant impact on an individual's life. "A
man is recognised by the company he maintains," is
a true statement.
cont..
• A baby gets socialised when, out of the incredibly
diverse range of behavioural potentialities that are
available to him at birth, he learns the behaviour
patterns that are expected and acceptable by his
family and social groups. The socialisation process
begins with the mother's first interactions with her
newborn child.
Cont..
Later, social groups and other family members may
have an impact on the socialisation process. Along
with family members, other influences on behaviour
include friends, coworkers, associations, and groups
to which an individual belongs. Such behaviours are a
reflection of a person's personality, and social
influences—both within and outside the workplace—
continue to have an impact on people's personalities
and behaviours throughout their lives. 19
3. Cultural Factors
Hoebel claims that culture is the "sum total of learned
behavioural traits that are manifested and shared by the
members of the society." Culture is a particular set of
perceptions, beliefs, values, norms, patterns of
behaviour, and a code of conduct that shapes how
people behave in a particular society. The culture in which
a person is raised significantly affects his or her
personality. Each culture expects and teaches its
members to act in ways that are acceptable to the group,
according to Mussen. 20
Cont….
• Researchers were unable to demonstrate a linear
relationship between the ideas of "personality" and
"culture" despite the significance of culture on
personality.
• People who are born into a certain culture are exposed
to the current values, beliefs, and standards of that
society with regard to what constitutes acceptable
behaviour.
• Such cultures would also outline the mechanisms by
which these behaviours are rewarded. 21
Cont..
For instance, the American cultural environment
rewards a spirit of independence, aggression, and
competition, whereas the Japanese cultural
environment rewards attitudes of cooperation and
teamwork. Similar to how cultural influences lead to
more impersonal and functional authority in American
organisations, managers actively participate in their
employees' personal life in Japanese culture.
22
4. Situational Factors
• An individual interacts with a variety of constantly
changing conditions every day.
• Although generally constant and steady, a person's
personality might alter depending on the circumstances.
• Different facets of a person's personality are brought
forth by the various demands of various circumstances.
• A person's behaviour is either encouraged or
discouraged by their environment.
23
• It includes a lot of elements that influence one's
personality, including freedom challenges,
competition, encouragement, facilities, risk and
uncertainties, participation training, relationships,
support, leadership style, rewarding and punishing
system, different kinds of work groups, place of
employment, natural climate/atmosphere, etc.
24
Personality Determinants
I. Heredity
II. Environment
III.Situation
Heredity
25
Cont….
• Heredity refers to those factors, which predisposes
to certain physical, mental and emotional states. It
sets the outer parameters of an individual. It also
limits the range of development of characters. The
arrangement and structure of genes that are
located in the chromosomes is passed around 20%
to 50% from one generation to another. The
studies reveal that twins though brought up in
different places exhibit similar characters. 26
• Thus, heredity is the transmission of qualities from
ancestor to descendent through, a mechanism lying
primarily in the genes. There are very many achievers
in their own field like Sachin Tendulkar, U.R. Rao, N.R.
Narayana Murthy, Former Prime Minister P.V.
Narasimha Rao, who gave a new turn to Indian
economy and many such others, who are unique in
their own, way. These achievers’ performance is
directed by hereditary factor to certain extent. 27
2. Environment Determinants
• Environment refers to the surroundings in which the individuals are
brought up. The environmental factors relating to the formation of
personality includes culture, family, society upbringing and experiences.
Experiences relate to the confrontation with that of family members,
relatives, and friends and to the social groups, which they belong. Culture
helps to find the similarity and difference in behaviour.
• Family environment refers to the individual’s upbringing, the social and
economic status the family holds and the size of the family. The society
makes an individual to play different roles thus shaping his/her their
personality. Environment tends to strengthen or weaken hereditary traits.
For example, when an individual interacts with the environment through
speech, his speech organs guarantee that he/she is learning to speak.28
3. Situation Determinant:
• Situation has an effect both on environment and heredity.
Situation demands certain behaviour. Various psychologists
have discovered what personality trait matters to an
individual in his or her career.
• Being successful or unsuccessful depends upon how the
individuals control their behaviour in various situations.
• For example, a candidate attending an interview may exhibit
limited traits. The other trait or behaviour is concealed or not
exhibited.
29
Personality Assessment
How do psychologists measure personality? Measuring
personality can help predict how people will behave at
work, at school, and in therapy.
To capture a personality as unique characteristic of an
individual, they are expected to know how personality
is “measured”. Psychologists use interviews,
observation, questionnaires, and projective tests to
assess personality (Burger, 2008).
Each method has strengths and limitations. For this
reason, they are often used in combination. 30
• Formal personality measures are refinements of more casual
ways of judging a person. At one time or another, you have
probably “sized up” a potential date, friend, or roommate by
engaging in conversation (interview). Perhaps you have asked
a friend, “When I am delayed I get angry. Do you?”
(Questionnaire). Maybe you watch your professors when they
are angry or embarrassed to learn what they are “really” like
when they’re caught off-guard (observation). Or possibly you
have noticed that when you say, “I think people feel . . . ,” you
may be expressing your own feelings (projection).
31
• Personality measurement and assessment
procedures are useful in understanding the person.
• They are broadly categorized as objective as well as
projective tests. Objective tests include:
A. Interviews
B. Observation
C. Rating scales
D. Personality tests 32
Objective Personality Tests
1. Interviews
The interview is the most commonly used
procedure in psychological assessment. Interviews
provide an opportunity to ask people for their own
descriptions of their problems. Interviews also
allow clinicians to observe important features of a
person’s appearance and nonverbal behavior.
33
• In an interview, direct questioning is used to learn
about a person’s life history, personality traits, or
current mental state (Sommers-Flanagan &
Sommers-Flanagan, 2002).
• In an unstructured interview, conversation is
informal and topics are taken up freely as they
arise. In a structured interview, information is
gathered by asking a planned series of questions.
34
• How are interviews used? Interviews are used to
identify personality disturbances; to select people for
jobs, college, or special programs; and to study the
dynamics of personality. Interviews also provide
information for counseling or therapy. For instance, a
counselor might ask a depressed person, “Have you
ever contemplated suicide? What were the
circumstances?” The counselor might then follow by
asking, “How did you feel about it?” or, “How is what
you are now feeling different from what you felt then?”
35
• In addition to providing information, interviews
make it possible to observe a person’s tone of voice,
hand gestures, posture, and facial expressions.
• Such “body language” cues are important because
they may radically alter the message sent, as when
a person claims to be “completely calm” but
trembles uncontrollably.
36
Computerized Interviews
• If you were distressed and went to a psychologist or
psychiatrist, what is the first thing she or he might do?
Typically, a diagnostic interview is used to find out how
a person is feeling and what complaints or symptoms
he or she has. In many cases, such interviews are based
on a specific series of questions. Because the questions
are always the same, some researchers have begun to
wonder, “Why not let a computer ask them?” The
results of computerized interviews have been
promising.
37
• In one study, people were interviewed by both a computer
and a psychiatrist. Eighty-five percent of these people
thought the computer did an acceptable interview (Dignon,
1996). Another study found that a computerized interview
was highly accurate at identifying psychiatric disorders and
symptoms. It also closely agreed with diagnoses made by
psychiatrists (Marion, Shayka, & Marcus, 1996). Thus, it may
soon become common for people to “Tell it to the computer,”
at least in the first stages of seeking help (Peters, Clark, &
Carroll, 1998).
38
Limitations of Interview
Interviews give rapid insight into personality, but they
have limitations
For one thing, interviewers can be swayed by
preconceptions. A person identified as a “housewife,”
“college student,” or “high school athlete,” may be
misjudged because of an interviewer’s personal biases.
Second, an interviewer’s own personality, or even
gender, may influence a client’s behavior. When this
occurs, it can accentuate or distort the person’s
apparent traits (Pollner, 1998). 39
A third problem is that people sometimes try to
deceive interviewers. For example, a person
accused of a crime might try to avoid punishment
by pretending to be mentally disabled.
A fourth problem is the halo effect, which is the
tendency to generalize a favorable (or unfavorable)
impression to an entire personality (Lance,
LaPointe, & Stewart, 1994).
40
• Because of the halo effect, a person who is likable or physically
attractive may be rated more mature, intelligent, or mentally
healthy than she or he actually is. The halo effect is something to
keep in mind at job interviews. First impressions do make a
difference (Lance, LaPointe, & Stewart, 1994).
• Even with their limitations, interviews are a respected method of
assessment. In many cases, interviews are the first step in
evaluating personality and an essential prelude to therapy.
Nevertheless, interviews are usually not enough and must be
supplemented by other measures and tests (Meyer et al., 2001).
41
2. Direct Observation and Rating Scales
• Observational skills play an important part in most
assessment procedures. Sometimes the things that
we observe confirm the person’s self-report, and at
other times the person’s overt behavior appears to
be at odds with what he or she says. Observational
procedures may be either informal or formal.
Informal observations are primarily qualitative.
42
• The clinician observes the person’s behavior and
the environment in which it occurs without
attempting to record the frequency or intensity of
specific responses. Although observations are often
conducted in the natural environment, there are
times when it is useful to observe the person’s
behavior in a situation that the psychologist can
arrange and control.
43
• Wouldn’t observation be subject to the same problems
of misperception as an interview? Yes. Misperceptions
can be a difficulty, which is why rating scales are
sometimes used. A rating scale is a list of personality
traits or aspects of behavior that can be used to
evaluate a person. Rating scales limit the chance that
some traits will be overlooked while others are
exaggerated (Synhorst et al., 2005). Perhaps they
should be a standard procedure for choosing a
roommate, spouse, or lover! 44
3. The Mental Status Examination
• The mental status examination involves systematic
observation of an individual’s behavior. This type of
observation occurs when one individual interacts
with another. Mental status examination can be
structured and detailed. It covers five categories:
I. Appearance and behavior
II. Thought Process
III. Mood and affect.
IV. Intellectual Function
V. Perception of person, place and time.
45
• The mental status examination tells us how people
think, feel and behave and how these actions might
contribute to explain their problems. So actually, we
are doing behavioral assessment of people. This
behavioral assessment is done by using direct
observation of an individual’s thought, feelings and
behavior in situations or context where the
individual is having problems.
46
4. Rating Scales
• A rating scale is a procedure in which the observer
is asked to make judgments that place the person
somewhere along a dimension. Ratings can also be
made on the basis of information collected during
an interview. Rating scales provide abstract
descriptions of a person’s behavior rather than a
specific record of exactly what the person has done.
These are assessment tools, which are used before
the treatment to assess changes in patient’s
behavior after the treatment. Brief psychiatric
rating scales are usually used and completed by
hospital staff to assess an individual on different
constructs related with physical or psychological
illness. 47
5. Behavioral Coding Systems
• Rather than making judgments about where the person
falls on a particular dimension, behavioral coding
systems focus on the frequency of specific behavioral
events. For example, a psychologist working with
hospitalized mental patients might note the frequency
of a patient’s aggression, self-care, speech, and unusual
behaviors. Some adult clients are able to make records
and keep track of their own behavior—a procedure is
known as self-monitoring. 48
• Behavioral assessments can also be used to probe
thought processes. In one study, for example,
couples were assessed while talking with each other
about their sexuality. Couples with sexual
difficulties were less likely to be receptive to
discussing their sexuality and more likely to blame
each other than were couples with no sexual
difficulties 49
6. Personality Questionnaires
• Personality questionnaires are paper-and-pencil
tests that reveal personality characteristics.
Questionnaires are more objective than interviews
or observation.
• (An objective test gives the same score when
different people correct it.) Questions,
administration, and scoring are all standardized so
that scores are unaffected by any biases an
examiner may have.
50
• However, this is not enough to ensure accuracy. A
good test must also be reliable and valid. A test is
reliable if it yields close to the same score each time
it is given to the same person. A test has validity if it
measures what it claims to measure. Unfortunately,
many personality tests you will encounter, such as
those in magazines or on the Internet, have little or
no validity.
51
Projective Personality Tests
• Projective tests take a different approach to personality.
Interviews, observation, rating scales, and inventories try to
directly identify overt, observable traits (Leichtman, 2004). By
contrast, projective tests seek to uncover deeply hidden or
unconscious wishes, thoughts, and needs. As a child you may
have delighted in finding faces and objects in cloud
formations. Or perhaps you have learned something about
your friends’ personalities from their reactions to movies or
paintings. If so, you will have some insight into the rationale
for projective tests.
52
• Psychoanalytic personality theorists have developed several
assessment measures known as projective tests. They include
a variety of methods in which ambiguous stimuli, such as
pictures of people, or things are presented to a person who is
asked to describe what he or she sees.
• The theory here is that people ‘project’ their own personality,
their needs, their wishes, their desires and their unconscious
fears on other people and things such as ink blots, pictures,
sometimes vague and sometimes structure. 53
• Everyone sees something different in a projective test, and
what is perceived can reveal the inner workings of
personality. Projective tests have no right or wrong answers,
which makes them difficult to fake (Leichtman, 2004).
• Moreover, projective tests can be a rich source of
information, because responses are not restricted to simple
true/false or yes/no answer. Some of the most widely used
projective tests are Rorschach Ink Blot Test, the Thematic
Apperception Test (TAT), and the Rotter’s Incomplete
Sentence Blank (RISB).
54
A) The Rorschach Inkblot Test
• The inkblot test, or Rorschach (ROAR-shock) Technique, is one
of the oldest and most widely used projective tests.
• Developed by Swiss psychologist Hermann Rorschach in the
1920s, it consists of 10 standardized inkblots.
• These vary in color, shading, form, and complexity.
• Projective techniques such as the Rorschach test were
originally based on psychodynamic assumptions about the
nature of personality and psychopathology and impulses of
which the person is largely unaware.
55
B) The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
• Another popular projective test is the Thematic
Apperception Test (TAT) developed by personality
theorist Henry Murray (1893–1988) which consists of
20 sketches depicting various scenes and life situations.
• During testing, a person is shown each sketch and
asked to make up a story about the people in it.
• The story should have a title, a beginning, a middle part
and an end.
56
• Later, the person looks at each sketch a second or a
third time and elaborates on previous stories or
creates new stories.
• To score the TAT, a psychologist analyzes the content
of the stories. Interpretations focus on how people
feel, how they interact, what events led up to the
incidents depicted in the sketch, and how the story
will end.
57
• For example, TAT stories told by bereaved college
students typically include themes of death, grief,
and coping with loss (Balk et al., 1998).
• The girl is going to see the guy again, anyway. As
this example implies, the TAT is especially good at
revealing feelings about a person’s social
relationships (Alvarado, 1994; Aronow, Altman
Weiss, & Reznikoff, 2001).
58
• A psychologist might also count the number of times
the central figure in a TAT story is angry, overlooked,
apathetic, jealous, or threatened. Here is a story
written by a student to describe. The girl has been
seeing this guy her mother doesn’t like. The mother is
telling her that she better not see him again.
• The mother says, “He’s just like your father.” The
mother and father are divorced. The mother is smiling
because she thinks she is right. But she doesn’t really
know what the girl wants. 59
C) Rotter’s Incomplete Sentence Blank Test (RISB)
• This test consists of a series unfinished sentences that
people are asked to complete, usually it is considered a
good spring board to explore and pinpoint areas of an
individual’s life that are problematic or conflicting. The
sentences are usually, I wish _____. My father is
______. Girls are _____. Home is a place ________.
• This test explores an individual’s social, familial and
general attitudes towards life. This test has 40 items
which are in form of incomplete sentences. This test
has qualitative and quantitative scoring procedures.60
Advantages of Projective Tests:
• Projective tests can provide an interesting source of
information regarding the person’s unique view of the
world, and they can be a useful supplement to
information obtained with other assessment tools.
• To whatever extent a person’s relationships with other
people are governed by unconscious cognitive and
emotional events, projective tests may provide
information that cannot be obtained through direct
interviewing methods or observational procedures. 61
Limitations of Projective Tests:
• Although projective tests have been popular, their
validity is considered lowest among tests of
personality.
• Objectivity and reliability (consistency) are also low
for different users of the TAT and Rorschach.
• Lack of standardization in administration and
scoring is also serious problem.
• Little information is available on which to base
comparisons to normal adults or children.
62
• Some projective procedures, such as the Rorschach,
can be very time-consuming. Note that after a
person interprets an ambiguous stimulus, the scorer
must interpret the person’s (sometimes) ambiguous
responses.
• In a sense, the interpretation of a projective test
may be a projective test for the scorer!
63

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  • 1.
  • 2. 1. Major concepts of personality 2. Factors and determinants of personality 3. Assessment of personality 4. Personality theories(psychoanalytic, trait and Humanistic
  • 3. Personality – Concept • Personality means the constitution of mental as well as the physical health of an individual. • In his medical text book, “Principles and Practice of Medicine,” Davidson states about personality, which is socially acquired after having a genetic basis, over the course of time. • The individual arrives at an adult psychological stage after passing successively through a series of maturational stages.
  • 4. • According to McClelland, “Personality is the most adequate conceptualisation of an individual’s behaviour with all its details, which the scientist can provide in a moment.” • In the definition given by Davidson, there are three different aspects-Social, Physiological and Psychological of one’s personality and its development and growth.
  • 5. Cont.. • McClelland has stressed mainly the psychological aspects effecting desirable changes in the behaviour and personality of an individual. • Hence, both these definitions throw some light on personality development and individual behaviour. • Thus, both these definitions have utmost applicability and usefulness in organisational behaviour apart from the comprehensive approach made by Allport on the subject.
  • 6. • Personality of an individual is unique, personal and a major determinant of his behaviour. Because of differences in personality, individuals differ in their manner of responding to different situations. • Some personality theorists emphasize the need to recognize the person-situation interaction, i.e., the social learning aspects of personality. Such an interpretation is highly meaningful to the study of human behaviour.
  • 7. Personality Traits- The Big 5/ Features of personality 7
  • 8. Factors and determinants of personality a. Biological factors b. Situational factors c. Family and Social Factors d. Cultural Factors
  • 9. 1. Biological Factors • The general biological characteristics of human beings influence the way in which human being trends to sense external event, (data), interpret and respond to them. I. Heredity II. Brain III. Physical characteristics
  • 10. i) Heredity • The elements that were predetermined at conception are referred to be hereditary. • Physical appearance, temperament, level of energy, and biological rhythms are qualities that, collectively with one's biological, physiological, and inborn psychological make up, are typically impacted by one's parents. • According to the heredity perspective, a person's personality is determined by the molecular structure of their chromosomal genes.
  • 11. ii. Brain • The function of a person's brain has an impact on personality as another biological aspect. • Despite some encouraging advances in research, psychologists are unable to demonstrate scientifically how the human brain influences personality. • The study of the brain may lead to a greater understanding of human nature and behaviour, according to preliminary findings from electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB) research.
  • 12. iii) Physical characterristics • It has been demonstrated that a person's personality is significantly influenced by his outward appearance. • In line with Paul H. Mussen "A child's physical traits may influence how he interacts with others, what they expect of him, and how they respond to him.
  • 13. • These, in turn, might affect how a person develops their personality." • A girl or boy that is maturing quickly or slowly may experience various physical and social conditions and activities, respectively. • According to psychologists, a person's personality will also be influenced by their differing rates of maturation.
  • 14. 2. Family and Social Factors • The family is likely to have the biggest influence on early personality development. A significant body of empirical research suggests that, in addition to their direct impact, the parents' total home environment shapes how children develop into their personalities. For instance, children raised by parents in a warm, loving, and interesting environment are considerably less likely to be socially and emotionally maladjusted than children raised in a chilly, uninspiring home.
  • 15. cont.. • In the self-identification probes, which are crucial to a person's early development, parents play a significant influence. A child copies their parents' or their neighbor's behaviour during their formative years. • Therefore, it is the family's duty for all adults who interact with the child directly to behave in an ideal manner. • The family shapes a child's character through examples, encouragement, reinforcement, rewards, and punishment.
  • 16. The elements those affect the type of family influence • Race • Religion • Parents educational level • Geographic location • Socioeconomic status of the family • Family size • Birth order and siblings
  • 17. Cont.. • Social interactions throughout a person's life, beginning with playmates in childhood, are related to social influences. While early environmental interactions have a longer-lasting impact on behavioural and psychological patterns, later social interactions and group membership continue to have a significant impact on an individual's life. "A man is recognised by the company he maintains," is a true statement.
  • 18. cont.. • A baby gets socialised when, out of the incredibly diverse range of behavioural potentialities that are available to him at birth, he learns the behaviour patterns that are expected and acceptable by his family and social groups. The socialisation process begins with the mother's first interactions with her newborn child.
  • 19. Cont.. Later, social groups and other family members may have an impact on the socialisation process. Along with family members, other influences on behaviour include friends, coworkers, associations, and groups to which an individual belongs. Such behaviours are a reflection of a person's personality, and social influences—both within and outside the workplace— continue to have an impact on people's personalities and behaviours throughout their lives. 19
  • 20. 3. Cultural Factors Hoebel claims that culture is the "sum total of learned behavioural traits that are manifested and shared by the members of the society." Culture is a particular set of perceptions, beliefs, values, norms, patterns of behaviour, and a code of conduct that shapes how people behave in a particular society. The culture in which a person is raised significantly affects his or her personality. Each culture expects and teaches its members to act in ways that are acceptable to the group, according to Mussen. 20
  • 21. Cont…. • Researchers were unable to demonstrate a linear relationship between the ideas of "personality" and "culture" despite the significance of culture on personality. • People who are born into a certain culture are exposed to the current values, beliefs, and standards of that society with regard to what constitutes acceptable behaviour. • Such cultures would also outline the mechanisms by which these behaviours are rewarded. 21
  • 22. Cont.. For instance, the American cultural environment rewards a spirit of independence, aggression, and competition, whereas the Japanese cultural environment rewards attitudes of cooperation and teamwork. Similar to how cultural influences lead to more impersonal and functional authority in American organisations, managers actively participate in their employees' personal life in Japanese culture. 22
  • 23. 4. Situational Factors • An individual interacts with a variety of constantly changing conditions every day. • Although generally constant and steady, a person's personality might alter depending on the circumstances. • Different facets of a person's personality are brought forth by the various demands of various circumstances. • A person's behaviour is either encouraged or discouraged by their environment. 23
  • 24. • It includes a lot of elements that influence one's personality, including freedom challenges, competition, encouragement, facilities, risk and uncertainties, participation training, relationships, support, leadership style, rewarding and punishing system, different kinds of work groups, place of employment, natural climate/atmosphere, etc. 24
  • 25. Personality Determinants I. Heredity II. Environment III.Situation Heredity 25
  • 26. Cont…. • Heredity refers to those factors, which predisposes to certain physical, mental and emotional states. It sets the outer parameters of an individual. It also limits the range of development of characters. The arrangement and structure of genes that are located in the chromosomes is passed around 20% to 50% from one generation to another. The studies reveal that twins though brought up in different places exhibit similar characters. 26
  • 27. • Thus, heredity is the transmission of qualities from ancestor to descendent through, a mechanism lying primarily in the genes. There are very many achievers in their own field like Sachin Tendulkar, U.R. Rao, N.R. Narayana Murthy, Former Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao, who gave a new turn to Indian economy and many such others, who are unique in their own, way. These achievers’ performance is directed by hereditary factor to certain extent. 27
  • 28. 2. Environment Determinants • Environment refers to the surroundings in which the individuals are brought up. The environmental factors relating to the formation of personality includes culture, family, society upbringing and experiences. Experiences relate to the confrontation with that of family members, relatives, and friends and to the social groups, which they belong. Culture helps to find the similarity and difference in behaviour. • Family environment refers to the individual’s upbringing, the social and economic status the family holds and the size of the family. The society makes an individual to play different roles thus shaping his/her their personality. Environment tends to strengthen or weaken hereditary traits. For example, when an individual interacts with the environment through speech, his speech organs guarantee that he/she is learning to speak.28
  • 29. 3. Situation Determinant: • Situation has an effect both on environment and heredity. Situation demands certain behaviour. Various psychologists have discovered what personality trait matters to an individual in his or her career. • Being successful or unsuccessful depends upon how the individuals control their behaviour in various situations. • For example, a candidate attending an interview may exhibit limited traits. The other trait or behaviour is concealed or not exhibited. 29
  • 30. Personality Assessment How do psychologists measure personality? Measuring personality can help predict how people will behave at work, at school, and in therapy. To capture a personality as unique characteristic of an individual, they are expected to know how personality is “measured”. Psychologists use interviews, observation, questionnaires, and projective tests to assess personality (Burger, 2008). Each method has strengths and limitations. For this reason, they are often used in combination. 30
  • 31. • Formal personality measures are refinements of more casual ways of judging a person. At one time or another, you have probably “sized up” a potential date, friend, or roommate by engaging in conversation (interview). Perhaps you have asked a friend, “When I am delayed I get angry. Do you?” (Questionnaire). Maybe you watch your professors when they are angry or embarrassed to learn what they are “really” like when they’re caught off-guard (observation). Or possibly you have noticed that when you say, “I think people feel . . . ,” you may be expressing your own feelings (projection). 31
  • 32. • Personality measurement and assessment procedures are useful in understanding the person. • They are broadly categorized as objective as well as projective tests. Objective tests include: A. Interviews B. Observation C. Rating scales D. Personality tests 32
  • 33. Objective Personality Tests 1. Interviews The interview is the most commonly used procedure in psychological assessment. Interviews provide an opportunity to ask people for their own descriptions of their problems. Interviews also allow clinicians to observe important features of a person’s appearance and nonverbal behavior. 33
  • 34. • In an interview, direct questioning is used to learn about a person’s life history, personality traits, or current mental state (Sommers-Flanagan & Sommers-Flanagan, 2002). • In an unstructured interview, conversation is informal and topics are taken up freely as they arise. In a structured interview, information is gathered by asking a planned series of questions. 34
  • 35. • How are interviews used? Interviews are used to identify personality disturbances; to select people for jobs, college, or special programs; and to study the dynamics of personality. Interviews also provide information for counseling or therapy. For instance, a counselor might ask a depressed person, “Have you ever contemplated suicide? What were the circumstances?” The counselor might then follow by asking, “How did you feel about it?” or, “How is what you are now feeling different from what you felt then?” 35
  • 36. • In addition to providing information, interviews make it possible to observe a person’s tone of voice, hand gestures, posture, and facial expressions. • Such “body language” cues are important because they may radically alter the message sent, as when a person claims to be “completely calm” but trembles uncontrollably. 36
  • 37. Computerized Interviews • If you were distressed and went to a psychologist or psychiatrist, what is the first thing she or he might do? Typically, a diagnostic interview is used to find out how a person is feeling and what complaints or symptoms he or she has. In many cases, such interviews are based on a specific series of questions. Because the questions are always the same, some researchers have begun to wonder, “Why not let a computer ask them?” The results of computerized interviews have been promising. 37
  • 38. • In one study, people were interviewed by both a computer and a psychiatrist. Eighty-five percent of these people thought the computer did an acceptable interview (Dignon, 1996). Another study found that a computerized interview was highly accurate at identifying psychiatric disorders and symptoms. It also closely agreed with diagnoses made by psychiatrists (Marion, Shayka, & Marcus, 1996). Thus, it may soon become common for people to “Tell it to the computer,” at least in the first stages of seeking help (Peters, Clark, & Carroll, 1998). 38
  • 39. Limitations of Interview Interviews give rapid insight into personality, but they have limitations For one thing, interviewers can be swayed by preconceptions. A person identified as a “housewife,” “college student,” or “high school athlete,” may be misjudged because of an interviewer’s personal biases. Second, an interviewer’s own personality, or even gender, may influence a client’s behavior. When this occurs, it can accentuate or distort the person’s apparent traits (Pollner, 1998). 39
  • 40. A third problem is that people sometimes try to deceive interviewers. For example, a person accused of a crime might try to avoid punishment by pretending to be mentally disabled. A fourth problem is the halo effect, which is the tendency to generalize a favorable (or unfavorable) impression to an entire personality (Lance, LaPointe, & Stewart, 1994). 40
  • 41. • Because of the halo effect, a person who is likable or physically attractive may be rated more mature, intelligent, or mentally healthy than she or he actually is. The halo effect is something to keep in mind at job interviews. First impressions do make a difference (Lance, LaPointe, & Stewart, 1994). • Even with their limitations, interviews are a respected method of assessment. In many cases, interviews are the first step in evaluating personality and an essential prelude to therapy. Nevertheless, interviews are usually not enough and must be supplemented by other measures and tests (Meyer et al., 2001). 41
  • 42. 2. Direct Observation and Rating Scales • Observational skills play an important part in most assessment procedures. Sometimes the things that we observe confirm the person’s self-report, and at other times the person’s overt behavior appears to be at odds with what he or she says. Observational procedures may be either informal or formal. Informal observations are primarily qualitative. 42
  • 43. • The clinician observes the person’s behavior and the environment in which it occurs without attempting to record the frequency or intensity of specific responses. Although observations are often conducted in the natural environment, there are times when it is useful to observe the person’s behavior in a situation that the psychologist can arrange and control. 43
  • 44. • Wouldn’t observation be subject to the same problems of misperception as an interview? Yes. Misperceptions can be a difficulty, which is why rating scales are sometimes used. A rating scale is a list of personality traits or aspects of behavior that can be used to evaluate a person. Rating scales limit the chance that some traits will be overlooked while others are exaggerated (Synhorst et al., 2005). Perhaps they should be a standard procedure for choosing a roommate, spouse, or lover! 44
  • 45. 3. The Mental Status Examination • The mental status examination involves systematic observation of an individual’s behavior. This type of observation occurs when one individual interacts with another. Mental status examination can be structured and detailed. It covers five categories: I. Appearance and behavior II. Thought Process III. Mood and affect. IV. Intellectual Function V. Perception of person, place and time. 45
  • 46. • The mental status examination tells us how people think, feel and behave and how these actions might contribute to explain their problems. So actually, we are doing behavioral assessment of people. This behavioral assessment is done by using direct observation of an individual’s thought, feelings and behavior in situations or context where the individual is having problems. 46
  • 47. 4. Rating Scales • A rating scale is a procedure in which the observer is asked to make judgments that place the person somewhere along a dimension. Ratings can also be made on the basis of information collected during an interview. Rating scales provide abstract descriptions of a person’s behavior rather than a specific record of exactly what the person has done. These are assessment tools, which are used before the treatment to assess changes in patient’s behavior after the treatment. Brief psychiatric rating scales are usually used and completed by hospital staff to assess an individual on different constructs related with physical or psychological illness. 47
  • 48. 5. Behavioral Coding Systems • Rather than making judgments about where the person falls on a particular dimension, behavioral coding systems focus on the frequency of specific behavioral events. For example, a psychologist working with hospitalized mental patients might note the frequency of a patient’s aggression, self-care, speech, and unusual behaviors. Some adult clients are able to make records and keep track of their own behavior—a procedure is known as self-monitoring. 48
  • 49. • Behavioral assessments can also be used to probe thought processes. In one study, for example, couples were assessed while talking with each other about their sexuality. Couples with sexual difficulties were less likely to be receptive to discussing their sexuality and more likely to blame each other than were couples with no sexual difficulties 49
  • 50. 6. Personality Questionnaires • Personality questionnaires are paper-and-pencil tests that reveal personality characteristics. Questionnaires are more objective than interviews or observation. • (An objective test gives the same score when different people correct it.) Questions, administration, and scoring are all standardized so that scores are unaffected by any biases an examiner may have. 50
  • 51. • However, this is not enough to ensure accuracy. A good test must also be reliable and valid. A test is reliable if it yields close to the same score each time it is given to the same person. A test has validity if it measures what it claims to measure. Unfortunately, many personality tests you will encounter, such as those in magazines or on the Internet, have little or no validity. 51
  • 52. Projective Personality Tests • Projective tests take a different approach to personality. Interviews, observation, rating scales, and inventories try to directly identify overt, observable traits (Leichtman, 2004). By contrast, projective tests seek to uncover deeply hidden or unconscious wishes, thoughts, and needs. As a child you may have delighted in finding faces and objects in cloud formations. Or perhaps you have learned something about your friends’ personalities from their reactions to movies or paintings. If so, you will have some insight into the rationale for projective tests. 52
  • 53. • Psychoanalytic personality theorists have developed several assessment measures known as projective tests. They include a variety of methods in which ambiguous stimuli, such as pictures of people, or things are presented to a person who is asked to describe what he or she sees. • The theory here is that people ‘project’ their own personality, their needs, their wishes, their desires and their unconscious fears on other people and things such as ink blots, pictures, sometimes vague and sometimes structure. 53
  • 54. • Everyone sees something different in a projective test, and what is perceived can reveal the inner workings of personality. Projective tests have no right or wrong answers, which makes them difficult to fake (Leichtman, 2004). • Moreover, projective tests can be a rich source of information, because responses are not restricted to simple true/false or yes/no answer. Some of the most widely used projective tests are Rorschach Ink Blot Test, the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), and the Rotter’s Incomplete Sentence Blank (RISB). 54
  • 55. A) The Rorschach Inkblot Test • The inkblot test, or Rorschach (ROAR-shock) Technique, is one of the oldest and most widely used projective tests. • Developed by Swiss psychologist Hermann Rorschach in the 1920s, it consists of 10 standardized inkblots. • These vary in color, shading, form, and complexity. • Projective techniques such as the Rorschach test were originally based on psychodynamic assumptions about the nature of personality and psychopathology and impulses of which the person is largely unaware. 55
  • 56. B) The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) • Another popular projective test is the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) developed by personality theorist Henry Murray (1893–1988) which consists of 20 sketches depicting various scenes and life situations. • During testing, a person is shown each sketch and asked to make up a story about the people in it. • The story should have a title, a beginning, a middle part and an end. 56
  • 57. • Later, the person looks at each sketch a second or a third time and elaborates on previous stories or creates new stories. • To score the TAT, a psychologist analyzes the content of the stories. Interpretations focus on how people feel, how they interact, what events led up to the incidents depicted in the sketch, and how the story will end. 57
  • 58. • For example, TAT stories told by bereaved college students typically include themes of death, grief, and coping with loss (Balk et al., 1998). • The girl is going to see the guy again, anyway. As this example implies, the TAT is especially good at revealing feelings about a person’s social relationships (Alvarado, 1994; Aronow, Altman Weiss, & Reznikoff, 2001). 58
  • 59. • A psychologist might also count the number of times the central figure in a TAT story is angry, overlooked, apathetic, jealous, or threatened. Here is a story written by a student to describe. The girl has been seeing this guy her mother doesn’t like. The mother is telling her that she better not see him again. • The mother says, “He’s just like your father.” The mother and father are divorced. The mother is smiling because she thinks she is right. But she doesn’t really know what the girl wants. 59
  • 60. C) Rotter’s Incomplete Sentence Blank Test (RISB) • This test consists of a series unfinished sentences that people are asked to complete, usually it is considered a good spring board to explore and pinpoint areas of an individual’s life that are problematic or conflicting. The sentences are usually, I wish _____. My father is ______. Girls are _____. Home is a place ________. • This test explores an individual’s social, familial and general attitudes towards life. This test has 40 items which are in form of incomplete sentences. This test has qualitative and quantitative scoring procedures.60
  • 61. Advantages of Projective Tests: • Projective tests can provide an interesting source of information regarding the person’s unique view of the world, and they can be a useful supplement to information obtained with other assessment tools. • To whatever extent a person’s relationships with other people are governed by unconscious cognitive and emotional events, projective tests may provide information that cannot be obtained through direct interviewing methods or observational procedures. 61
  • 62. Limitations of Projective Tests: • Although projective tests have been popular, their validity is considered lowest among tests of personality. • Objectivity and reliability (consistency) are also low for different users of the TAT and Rorschach. • Lack of standardization in administration and scoring is also serious problem. • Little information is available on which to base comparisons to normal adults or children. 62
  • 63. • Some projective procedures, such as the Rorschach, can be very time-consuming. Note that after a person interprets an ambiguous stimulus, the scorer must interpret the person’s (sometimes) ambiguous responses. • In a sense, the interpretation of a projective test may be a projective test for the scorer! 63