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Use Listening Strategies Based
on Purpose, Familiarity with the
Topic and Levels of Difficulty
of Short Texts Listened to
Directions: Answer the following questions. Do this in your paper.
I. True or False. Write True if the statement is correct, and False if
it is wrong.
____ 1. Hearing and listening are the same thing.
____ 2. If someone does not agree, he/she is not listening.
____ 3. Asking questions improves listening effectiveness.
____ 4. The person speaking is responsible for making sure
his/her message is understood.
____ 5. People with higher IQs are better listeners.
II. Choose the letter of the correct answer.
____ 6. Listening is poor when
A. we do not expend the effort.
B. we experience message overload.
C. we experience psychological noise.
D. All of these are correct.
____ 7. Which is true?
A. Listening and hearing are remarkably similar.
B. It is possible to hear without listening.
C. Listening is physical; hearing is psychological.
D. It is possible to listen without hearing.
____ 8. The stages of listening include all BUT
A. attending.
B. understanding.
C. responding.
D. activating.
____ 9. When listening for information, it is
wise to
A. make some quick judgments about the
speaker, so you are not misled.
B. tie the message and speaker together in
your mind.
C. be opportunistic by learning what you can
from this speaker, even if you learn what not
to do.
D. listen for details rather than the main ideas.
____ 10. Research cited in your text shows
listening to be a significant factor in
maintaining
A. marital relationships.
B. family relationships.
C. career success.
D. All of these are correct
LISTENING
What is the difference between
Listening and Hearing?
LISTENING
- is something done
consciously, that
involve the analysis
and understanding of
the sounds you hear.
HEARING
- refers to one's ability
to perceive sounds,
by receiving vibrations
through ears.
LISTENING is defined as the
learned skill, in which we can
receive sounds through ears,
and transform them into
meaningful messages. To put
simply, it is the process of
diligently hearing and interpreting
the meaning of words and
sentences spoken by the
speaker, during the conversation.
TYPES OF
LISTENING
APPRECIATIVE LISTENING
- A type of listening behavior where the listener seeks
certain information which they will appreciate.
- Meet his/her needs and goals.
- Listening for pleasure and enjoyment
Example: Listening to good music, meditation seminars, poetry, audiobooks
or a speech from a person with an excellent reputation.
EMPATHETIC LISTENING
- Making an emotional connection with the other person and finding
similarities between their experience and your own so you can give a more
heartfelt response.
- Listening to provide emotional support for the speaker.
- Empathetic listening can help prevent or keep misunderstandings from
happening.
Example: Understanding someone else's point of view during an argument
COMPREHENSIVE/ACTIVE LISTENING
- Is about interpreting the words and ideas of the speaker.
- involves understanding the thoughts, ideas, and message.
- This type of listening requires that the listener understands the language
and vocabulary.
Example: Include watching the news, Listening to a peer give a presentation,
or Taking notes during a meeting.
CRITICAL/ANALYTICAL LISTENING
- Listening to evaluate the a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it.
- Focused more on the interpretation and meaning of the actual sound.
- This will then lead to optimal decisions
- Uses critical thinking
Example: You're in a meeting, and your manager asks for your
opinion on a problem.
THE SEARCH
ENGINE
1. What is the World Wide Web?
A) a computer game
B) a software program
C) another name for the Internet
D) a part of the Internet that enables information-
sharing via interconnected pages
2. Which is the best search tool for finding Web sites?
A) library
B) search engines
C) subject directories
D) discussion groups
3. Which of the following is NOT needed in using search
engine?
A) browser
B) internet connection
C) social media account
D) computer or mobile phone
Read the following questions and choose the letter of the best answer.
4. Which description does NOT apply to the Internet?
A) a vast network that connects millions of computers
around the world
B) a public network neither owned nor run by any one
group or individual
C) a catalog of information organized and fact-checked by a
governing body
D) an interconnected system of networks that allows for
communication through e-mail and the World Wide Web
5. Which one of the following is a search engine?
A) Google
B) Netscape
C) Macromedia Flash
D) Librarians’ Index to the Internet
6. Which of the following is a TRUE statement?
A) Web sources must be cited in your report. You are not free to plagiarize.
B) You are free to copy information you find and include it in a report.
C) You do not have to cite the Web sources you use in your research report.
D) You should never consult Web sources when you are doing a research
report
7. What is a URL?
A) a type of UFO
B) a computer software program
C) an acronym for Unlimited Resources for Learning
D) the address of a document or "page" on the World Wide Web
8. Why are search engines important?
A) They sort through information; kind of like a library card catalog.
B) Makes it easier to find information rather than linking to it yourself.
C) You can narrow your search down to the exact information you need
with a search engine.
D) All of the above.
9. Which of the following is a true statement about the
Internet and the library? They both:
A) close after hours.
B) provide up-to-the-minute news.
C) provide access to newspapers, magazines, and
journals.
D) have an expert librarian or specialist to answer your
questions.
10. http://www.classzone.com is an example of what?
A) a URL
B) a server
C) a directory
D) an access code
A search engine is a software system
designed to carry out web searches. To
do this, users enter the desired search
term into the search field. The search
engine then looks through its index for
relevant websites and displays them in
the form of a list. The search engine’s
internal evaluation algorithm determines
which position a website will get in the
search results. Google, Bing and Yahoo
are examples of popular search engines.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cxwInFZJOv8
THREE TYPES OF
SEARCH ENGINE
GENERAL SEARCH ENGINES contain a broad range of
information, develop their own indexes, and search one
index. Some are easier to search and provide better results than
others. An example of this type of search engine is Google.
METASEARCH ENGINE is an online information retrieval tool
that uses the data of a web search engine to produce its own
results. A type of search engine that gives results based on a
combination of results from other search engine databases.
SPECIFIC SEARCH ENGINE operate as directories for
specific types of content. This mean that they only show
results for content that is manually added. These
are targeted at particular subject areas and can help
ensure the results are likely to be relevant.
Observe the following pictures and write the similarities and differences of using the following:
LIBRARY SEARCH ENGINE
FEATURES OF
WEBSITE
What is Website?
- a collection of web pages and
related content that is identified
by a common domain name
and published on at least one
web server.
- it is composed of different parts.
- is the opening page which does the job of welcoming the
website visitors.
- is the name of the main page of a website where visitors can
find hyperlinks to other pages on the site.
HOMEPAGE
- A slider refers to the changing content area that
presents slides of visual information including large
images, texts, announcements, updates and etc.
SLIDERS
HEADER
- is the content at the top of
the website which bears
the logo, as well as the
navigation menu. This part
likewise includes taglines,
addresses, contact
numbers, or buttons used
to sign up or log in.
NAVIGATION MENU
-is the part of the header which bears the links that
take or direct visitors to other parts of the websites.
- is a column placed to the
right or left of a webpage's
primary content area.
They're commonly used to
display various types of
supplementary information for
users, such as: Navigational
links to key pages. Ads for
products or services.
sidebar
A Call to Action (CTA) on a
website is an instruction to the
visitor in order to encourage
them to take some kind of
action. A Call to Action might be
simple instructional text, such as
“call us now”, “find out more”, or
“subscribe to our Newsletter”
CALL TO ACTION (CTA)
FOOTER
- is the section of content at the very bottom of a web
page. It typically contains a copyright notice, link to a
privacy policy, sitemap, logo, contact information, social
media icons, and an email sign-up form.
BASIC STEPS IN
RESEARCH PROCESS
What is Research?
- It is systematic
investigation into and
study of materials and
sources in order to
establish facts and
reach new conclusions.
RESEARCH
STEPS
STEP 1: IDENTIFY AND DEVELOP YOUR TOPIC
✓ The research for and writing of a paper will be more enjoyable if you are
writing about something that you find interesting.
✓ Select a topic for which you can find a manageable amount of information.
Once you have identified your topic, it may help to state it as a question.
For example: You are interested in finding out about
the epidemic of COVID 19
"What are the causes of this epidemic?"
STEP 2: DO A PRELIMINARY SEARCH FOR INFORMATION
✓ Before beginning your research in earnest, do a
preliminary search to determine whether there is
enough information out there for your needs and to set
the context of your research.
STEP 3: LOCATE MATERIALS
✓ There are sources of information that can be used to support
the topic you are researching. These can be:
• newspapers
• websites using the search engines like Google, yahoo, etc.
• videos
• images
• podcast (an episodic series of spoken word digital audio files
that a user can download to a personal device for easy listening)
✓ Make sure that your sources of information
are credible, truthful, and reliable. This step is
especially important when using Internet
resources, many of which are regarded as
less than reliable.
STEP 4: EVALUATE YOUR SOURCES
✓ Be sure to document all the sources you consult,
even if you there is a chance you may not use that
particular source. The author, title, publisher, URL,
and other information will be needed later when
creating a bibliography.
STEP 5: MAKE NOTES
STEP 6: WRITE YOUR PAPER
✓ Begin by organizing the information you have collected.
STEP 7: CITE YOUR SOURCES PROPERLY
✓ Give credit where credit is due; cite your sources.
✓ Failure to cite your sources properly is plagiarism.
Plagiarism is avoidable!
STEP 8: PROOFREAD
✓ The final step in the process is to proofread the paper you
have created. Read through the text and check for any errors
in spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Make sure the sources
you used are cited properly. Make sure the message that you
want to get across to the reader has been thoroughly stated.
SUMMARIZING KEY
INFORMATION
What is Summarizing?
- Summarizing is when you give a
brief account of the main ideas and
key events in any piece of text. A
summary is short, sweet and
straight to the point.
- Summarization helps you
remember the main idea and key
points of the text you read.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=98ybKpZbsDQ
Why is summarizing important?
- Summarizing helps you
understand and learn
important information by
reducing information to its key
ideas. Summaries can be
used for annotation and study
notes, as well as to expand
the depth of your writing.
How is summarizing different
from paraphrasing?
To the untrained eye, a summary and a paraphrase may look alike.
However, there are differences.
• A summary is shorter than the original text.
• A paraphrase can be shorter or longer than the original.
• A summary eliminates details, examples, and supporting points.
• A paraphrase describes the original text in different words. It does
not leave out details.
Multimedia
Resources
What is Multimedia?
- a method of presenting
information by combining textual
data, audio, visuals (video),
graphics, and animations.
- is used extensively in education
and other areas like education,
training, reference material,
business presentations,
advertising, and documentaries.
FIVE MAJOR
COMPONENTS OF
MULTIMEDIA
TEXT
- is the most common multimedia element.
All multimedia productions contain some
amount of text. The text can have various
types of fonts and sizes.
- It is usually combined with photographs
and video presentations to augment these
other forms of communication and give a
detailed multimedia description.
GRAPHICS
- make the multimedia application attractive. Graphics represent non-text
information, such as drawings, photographs, charts, tables, graphs, etc.
Graphics are used more often than text to explain a concept and to present
background information, etc. The graphic medium can be combined with the
text medium. There are two types of Graphics:
• Bitmap images- Bitmap images are real images that can be captured from
devices such as digital cameras or scanners. Generally, bitmap images are not
editable. Bitmap images require a large amount of memory.
• Vector Graphics- Vector graphics are drawn on the computer and only require a
small amount of memory. These graphics are editable.
AUDIO
- A multimedia application may require
the use of speech, music, and sound
effects.
- Audios are sounds that can be added
and combined with all other media types
in so many ways. An audio can function
as a musical background to images and
photographs, and even texts.
VIDEO
- The term video refers to the moving
picture, accompanied by a sound like a
television picture. The video element of
multimedia applications gives a lot of
information in a small duration of time.
- Digital video is useful in the multimedia
application for showing real-life objects.
ANIMATION
- is the process of making a static
image look like it is moving. The
animation is just a continuous
series of still images that are
displayed in a sequence. The
place where images and
photographs meet video material
is where animation begins.
USING ORAL LANGUAGE,
STANCE, AND BEHAVIOR
IN DIFFERENT
COMMUNICATION
- Communication is the act of
giving, receiving, and sharing
information -- in other words,
talking or writing, and listening
or reading. Good
communicators listen carefully,
speak or write clearly, and
respect different opinions.
What is Communication?
TYPES OF
COMMUNICATION
VERBAL
- is oral communication
with words that you or
others speak out loud.
NON-VERBAL
- is about what's not
said out loud: gestures,
facial expressions, and
body language.
- Language is any formal
system of gestures, signs,
sounds, and symbols used
or conceived as a means of
communicating thought,
either through written,
enacted, or spoken
means (Barton & Tucker,
2019).
What is Language?
What is Oral Language?
- is the process of utilizing knowledge and skills to
speak and listen effectively through the proper use
of true-to-life ideas/information, words, and
grammar. To achieve oral fluency, speaking loudly
and clearly is also essential, as is the right tone of
one’s voice. For effective and successful
communication, use words to express ideas easily
understood by the person you talk to.
ATTRIBUTES OF EFFECTIVE ORAL LANGUAGE
1. Clarity - Language must have a correct grammatical
structure. Words to be used should also be precise and can be
understood by the audience. Avoid highfalutin or flowery words
so as not to confuse the audience. Just keep it simple and
straightforward.
2. Brevity (Direct and conversational) - Simple words
should make the person you are talking to easily understand
the idea you want to convey rapidly and efficiently.
3. Appropriateness - The language should be used should
be appropriate to the environment or occasion.
4. Vividness - Vividness may be achieved using imagery.
These words of pictures or images produce powerful feelings
in the listener’s mind.
5. Ethical - Words should be carefully chosen considering the
gender, roles, ethnicity, preferences, and status of the person
or people you are talking to.
STANCE AND BEHAVIOR
1. Body language - refers to an interaction where behavior is
used to convey and represent meaning using our movement.
2. Stance/posture - you communicate numerous messages
by the way you stand or sit. Speaking with your back turned
or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided; to avoid
disinterest from your listener.
3. Action - actions or gestures are essential for your listener
to help convey your meaning.
4. Facial expression - A person's face is a powerful
communicator. A face reveals how a person feels. It shows
emotions or feelings. You can show how you're feeling with your
face by how open or closed your mouth is.
5. Eye Contact - Your eyes are a way of connecting with the
person you are speaking with. This may mean you like that
person or are comfortable talking or communicating with that
person. When you avoid eye contact, it might mean that you
don't want the person you are speaking with to find out too much
about what you are feeling. It could be that you don't like the
person or feel like talking to him/her.
_____1. I won a million pesos.
_____2. "Despite this pandemic, I will continue to study
whatever means will be available."
_____3. "I belong to a poor family, but we are happy, and
we stand through thick and thin."
_____4. "I failed in the first quarter examination because I
got engrossed with other unimportant things."
_____5. "Our neighbor keeps on playing with their videoke
even late at night. I can't concentrate on my homework.
HOW A SELECTION
MAY BE INFLUENCED
BY CULTURE, HISTORY,
ENVIRONMENT
WHY DO WE
NEED TO
SELECT OR
CHOOSE?
IT INFLUENCED BY:
Culture is an umbrella term which encompasses the social
behavior, institutions, and norms found in human societies, as
well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities,
and habits of the individuals in these groups. Culture is often
originated from or attributed to a specific region or location.
Cultural influence may be demonstrated through human behavior,
vocabulary or language used, human emotions or perspectives,
and material items.
History it is the study of the past. It covers all aspects of
human society. It is the story of the past and a form of
collective memory. History is the story of who we are,
where we come from, and can potentially reveal where
we are headed.
Historical influence may be demonstrated through the
use of names of places or presence of events that really
took place in history.
Environment can be defined as a sum total of all the
living and non-living elements and their effects that
influence human life.
Environment and nature are always present in
literature. Many early literary texts utilize nature to
describe origin of things or places. Environmental
influence may be shown through the conditions of
living of a person.
CULTURE HISTORY ENVIRONMENT
- refers to the
beliefs/customs/way
of life of a
particular
society/group/place
/time.
- the study of past
events that relate to
a particular subject,
place, organization,
etc.
-refers to the
conditions and
influences that affect
the growth, health,
progress,
health etc. of
someone or
something.
EXPRESS ONE’S
BELIEFS/CONVICTIONS
BASED ON A
MATERIAL VIEWED
WHAT IS BELIEF?
- is something that an
individual considers as the
truth. It is shaped by the
individual’s background
experiences and is based
on one’s cultural or
personal faith, morality, or
values.
WHAT IS CONVICTION?
- is a firm belief on something that an individual is convinced of.
To be convinced you need to obtain all related information like
• Statistical Data - based on analysis of statistics;
• Observational Data - based on what the person has
Observed or perceived they observed
• Causal Data - based on what fact has caused a particular
factual result; and
• Experiential Data - based on what experience shows can be
inferred from the facts.
VISUAL MATERIALS
As you form convictions/beliefs about materials you
viewed, it is best to familiarize yourself with some
examples of visual materials.
- encompass a wide range of forms
including photographs, cinema,
cartoons, prints, designs and three-
dimensional art such as sculpture and
architecture.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF VISUAL MATERIALS
1. POWERPOINT PRESENTATION
- Microsoft PowerPoint is probably the most commonly used form
of visual aid. Used well, it can really help you in your presentation;
used badly, however, it can have the opposite effect.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF VISUAL MATERIALS
2. VIDEO
- Video gives you a chance to show
stimulating visual information. Use
video to bring movement, pictures and
sound into your presentation. Always
make sure that the clip is directly
relevant to your content. Tell your
audience what to look for. Avoid
showing any more film than you need.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF VISUAL MATERIALS
3. DRAWING
Drawing is creating a picture with a
variety of tools like pencils, crayons,
pens or markers. Artists draw on
different types of surfaces, like
paper or canvas.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF VISUAL MATERIALS
4. PAINTING
Painting is often called the most
important form of visual art. It is
about putting colors on a canvas or
a wall. Painters express their ideas
through a mixture of colors and
different brush strokes. It is also one
of the oldest forms of visual arts.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF VISUAL MATERIALS
5. PHOTOGRAPH
-Photography is making pictures by
letting light pass through the lenses
of a camera onto a film. Images
could then be printed onto special
paper.
-Today, most photography is digital.
Cameras have no film; the images
are recorded onto silicon chips.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF VISUAL MATERIALS
6. FILM
- Filmmaking is the process of
directing and producing movies for
television and cinemas. It is a very
expensive and complicated form of
art, involving many tasks, for
example scriptwriting, casting and
editing film sequences before they
can be shown to an audience.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF VISUAL MATERIALS
7. SCULPTURE
- Sculptures are three-dimensional
pieces of art that are created by
shaping various kinds of material.
Among the popular sculpting
materials are steel, plastic,
ceramics and wood. Sculpture is
often referred to as plastic arts.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF VISUAL MATERIALS
8. CARTOON
- Cartoon is a type of illustration,
sometimes animated, typically in a
non-realistic or semi-realistic style.
Cartoons are drawings and
illustrations that come in several
forms and can have many
meanings. One type of cartoon is
drawings and illustrations in
magazines or newspapers.
https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=vS2-iR32goY
DISTINGUISH
BETWEEN GENERAL
AND SPECIFIC
STATEMENTS
WHAT IS STATEMENT?
- means to express an idea
or mood without using words.
- clear expression of
something in speech or
writing.
GENERAL AND SPECIFIC STATEMENTS
EVIDENCE TO
SUPPORT A GENERAL
STATEMENT
REACT TO WHAT IS
ASSERTED OR
EXPRESSED IN A TEXT
One of the best ways for the author to express his/her
feelings, beliefs, and ideas in a direct way is by asserting.
Assertion is used to let
the readers feel that they
should agree what they
read or hear. It is very
common in various fields
of life, like literature,
politics, and
advertisements.
Reaction is an action taken
in response to something.
Reacting to assertion is an
essential skill in language
learning. Making reactions
will allow readers to express
their thoughts and feelings
about the text or situations
presented.
FEATURES OF
ACADEMIC WRITING
Academic Writing vs Literary Writing
Academic writing is a type of
writing that communicates ideas,
information and research to a
wider academic community. It is
what students are expected to
produce for classes and what
professors and academic
researchers use to write scholarly
materials.
Examples are: book reviews,
critique paper, essays, movie
review, reports, and research
papers, among others.
Literary writing is, in essence, a
'response', a subjective personal
view which the writer expresses
through his themes, ideas, thoughts,
experiences using his imagination. It
touches us while teaching us. It is
an art form that entertains and
inspires.
Examples are: stories, poems,
drama, novels, personal essay,
biographies, autobiographies,
folklore, folktales fables and a lot
more.
STRATEGIES USED FOR
EFFECTIVE CONVERSATION
OR DIALOGUE
Communication is the art of exchanging messages
between two or more people.
Interpersonal communication
is the process by which
people exchange information
through verbal and non-
verbal messages.
Interpersonal skills also include the ability to:
1.Listen and Understand
2. Solve Problems
3. Make Decisions
4. Manage Personal Stress
Verbal communication is the use of
sounds and words to express yourself,
especially in contrast to using gestures
or mannerisms.
Non-verbal communication is the
transfer of information through the use
of body language including eye contact,
facial expressions, gestures and more.
STRATEGIES USED IN
CONDUCTING AN
EFFECTIVE INTERVIEW
If you want to find out about people, you usually read about them or
watch a documentary. People are sources of information and an interview
is a way to gather detailed or revealing information.
DURING PREPARATION
- Preparation for interviewing is very important. It requires
both a friendly manner and a careful preparation. A formal
interview can be requested through a phone call, letter or in
person. Here is a checklist of the important things you need to
discuss with your interviewee before the interview.
HOW TO WRITE EFFECTIVE QUESTIONS
- As a good interviewer, you need to be selective with the
questions you have because not all questions are effective
during an interview.
DETERMINING THE
WORTH OF IDEAS/
DETERMINING
IMPORTANCE
- It simply means focusing on what is
significant on the information you
have listened to. You decide, from
among everything that you are
listening to, what is most important to
attend to and remember.
- IMPORTANT INFORMATION
refers to main ideas or key topics
that you need to better understand
the concept you are listening to
while interesting information is
little detail or additional detail,
which could be a cool fact,
distractor, or less important
concept, that is present in the
article (Allen & Reason, 2015).
This means that it helps you filter information
and organize your thinking around big ideas.
Filtering means selecting only the information
necessary to better understand the selection
that you are listening to (“Introduction,” 2020).
According to Stephanie Harvey and Anne Goudvis (2000) (as cited by
Draper, 2011) determining the worth of ideas mentioned in the text
listened to varies by genre:
- In narrative genres, determining importance asks the reader to identify
main ideas and infer themes of the story. It’s mostly about recognizing the
elements of a story to better grasp its summary.
- In nonfiction, determining importance is more on retaining important
information and learning from the text. Listeners must be able to shift
through information and decide what is most important. To determine
importance in nonfiction, readers must understand many features and
structures specific to the genre.
DISCOVER THE CONFLICTS
PRESENTED IN LITERARY
SELECTIONS AND THE NEED
TO RESOLVE THESE CONFLICTS
IN NON-VIOLENT WAYS
What is conflict?
“In literature, a conflict is a literary
device characterized by a struggle
between two opposing forces.
Conflict provides crucial tension in
any story and is used to reveal a
deeper meaning in a narrative while
highlighting characters’ motivations,
values and weaknesses.”
Conflict is an important element in the study of stories, novels, plays, movies etc.
What are the two categories of conflict?
1. Internal Conflict is when a character struggles with their own opposing
desires or beliefs. Internal conflict happens within them and it drives their
development as a character.
2. External Conflict sets a character against something or someone
beyond their control. External forces stand in the way of a character’s
motivations and create a tension as the character tries to reach their goals.
6 TYPES OF LITERARY CONFLICTS?
1. Character vs. Self
- This is an internal conflict, meaning that the opposition the
character faces is coming within. This may entail a struggle to
discern what the moral or “right” choice is, or it may also
encompass mental health struggles. All other types of conflict
are external – meaning that a character comes up against an
outside force that creates a conflict.
6 TYPES OF LITERARY CONFLICTS?
2. Character vs. Character
- This is a common type of conflict in which one character’s
needs or wants are at odds with another’s. A character conflict
can be depicted as a straight-forward fist fight, or as intricate
and nuanced as the ongoing struggle for power in the HBO
series of Game of Thrones.
6 TYPES OF LITERARY CONFLICTS?
3. Character vs. Nature
-In a nature conflict, a character is set in opposition to nature. This can
mean the weather, the wilderness, or a natural disaster.
4. Character vs. Supernatural
- Pitting characters against phenomena like ghosts, gods, or monsters raises
the stakes of a conflict by creating an unequal playing field. Supernatural
conflict also covers characters, like Harry Potter or Odysseus, who have a
fate or destiny and struggle to accept the sacrifices that come along with it.
6 TYPES OF LITERARY CONFLICTS?
5. Character vs. Technology
- In this case, a character is in conflict with some kind of
technology. It is the hallmark of science fiction, which explores
the problems that arise when technology grows beyond its
intended use.
6 TYPES OF LITERARY CONFLICTS?
6. Character vs. Society
- A character vs. society conflict is an external conflict that
occurs in literature when the protagonist is placed in
opposition with the society, the government, or a cultural
tradition or societal norm of some kind. Characters may be
motivated to take action against their society by a need to
survive, a moral sense of right and wrong, or a desire for
happiness, freedom, justice or love.
WHY IS CONFLICT IMPORTANT IN A STORY?
-Most of the time, readers become more interested in a literary
piece because of the tension in the story. Readers are simply
hooked in order to discover which of the characters or forces will
eventually prevail. Conflict is a necessary element for all stories
whether it is a novel, short story, mystery, romance, children’s
story because it makes the plot interesting and exciting. A conflict
in a literary piece also reveals opposing beliefs and truths about
life that readers can easily relate to.
HOW ARE CONFLICTS RESOLVED IN A STORY?
- In actuality, conflict is not always bad and does not have to
result in violence or hurt feelings. Conflicts are part of everyday
life and they cannot be avoided. However, whether a conflict
escalates, ends negatively or is resolved and ends peacefully in a
literary selection, is entirely based on the choices a character/s
make. The choices made by a character in a story reveals his/her
feelings, values and attitudes. Most often than not, his/her
response to a conflict determines how a situation ends.
Elements of
Fiction
WHAT IS FICTION?
- is a term used to describe e an
imaginative work of prose, either a
folktale, a myth, a novel, a short story
or a novella. It is the creation of the
writer’s imagination, or simply an
imagined story – not true.
THE ELEMENTS OF FICTION
1. CHARACTER/S.
-This element refers to a
representation of a human being or
any other creature in the course of
the story. A character can be any
person, a figure, an animate object,
or animal usually endowed with
human qualities. The characters are
the people or any figures in the story.
2. POINT-OF-VIEW.
- Point of view is the perspective from which the story or work is
told. It is also defined as the eyes and mind through which the
reader views the unfolding of events. It tells through whose eyes
we are seeing the story and as well reveals the attitude of the
writer toward the character.
3. PLOT.
- This refers to the series or sequence of e vents that give a
story its meaning and effect. It is built around the events that
take place within a definite period. This is what happens to the
characters found in the work.
4. SETTING AND ATMOSPHERE.
- Setting is the story’s time and place. Setting is
made up of geographical location, its
topography, scenery, physical arrangements, the
occupations and the daily living of the
characters, the time or period in which the
actions take place. Setting tells when and where
the events occurred.
5. CONFLICT.
- A story without conflict or problem is lifeless.
Every good story must have a conflict. Conflict is a
problem or obstacle encountered by the character
within the story. Conflict creates tension and
interest in a story by adding doubt as to the
outcome.
Write a summary of the “Legend of Mayon Volcano”.
https://depedtambayan.net/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/ENG7-Q4-MOD1.pdf
https://depedtambayan.net/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/ENG7-Q4-MOD2.pdf
https://depedtambayan.net/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/ENG7-Q4-MOD3.pdf
https://depedtambayan.net/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/ENG7-Q4-MOD4.pdf
https://depedtambayan.net/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/ENG7-Q4-MOD4.pdf
https://depedtambayan.net/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/ENG7-Q4-MOD6.pdf
LINKS FOR 4TH QUARTER
https://www.studocu.com/ph/document/the-national-teachers-college/information-technology/engl7q3-w2-
using-oral-language-stance-and-behavior-in-different-oral-communication-situations/27443440
https://www.studocu.com/ph/document/national-defense-college-of-the-philippines/mechanics-of-
materials/english-7-q3-module-4-text-types/23731228
https://depedtambayan.net/wp-content/uploads/2022/02/ENG7-Q3-MODULE5.pdf
Links for exam

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GRADE 7 NEW PPT ENGLISH 1 [Autosaved].pp

  • 1. Use Listening Strategies Based on Purpose, Familiarity with the Topic and Levels of Difficulty of Short Texts Listened to
  • 2. Directions: Answer the following questions. Do this in your paper. I. True or False. Write True if the statement is correct, and False if it is wrong. ____ 1. Hearing and listening are the same thing. ____ 2. If someone does not agree, he/she is not listening. ____ 3. Asking questions improves listening effectiveness. ____ 4. The person speaking is responsible for making sure his/her message is understood. ____ 5. People with higher IQs are better listeners.
  • 3. II. Choose the letter of the correct answer. ____ 6. Listening is poor when A. we do not expend the effort. B. we experience message overload. C. we experience psychological noise. D. All of these are correct. ____ 7. Which is true? A. Listening and hearing are remarkably similar. B. It is possible to hear without listening. C. Listening is physical; hearing is psychological. D. It is possible to listen without hearing. ____ 8. The stages of listening include all BUT A. attending. B. understanding. C. responding. D. activating. ____ 9. When listening for information, it is wise to A. make some quick judgments about the speaker, so you are not misled. B. tie the message and speaker together in your mind. C. be opportunistic by learning what you can from this speaker, even if you learn what not to do. D. listen for details rather than the main ideas. ____ 10. Research cited in your text shows listening to be a significant factor in maintaining A. marital relationships. B. family relationships. C. career success. D. All of these are correct
  • 5. What is the difference between Listening and Hearing? LISTENING - is something done consciously, that involve the analysis and understanding of the sounds you hear. HEARING - refers to one's ability to perceive sounds, by receiving vibrations through ears.
  • 6. LISTENING is defined as the learned skill, in which we can receive sounds through ears, and transform them into meaningful messages. To put simply, it is the process of diligently hearing and interpreting the meaning of words and sentences spoken by the speaker, during the conversation.
  • 8. APPRECIATIVE LISTENING - A type of listening behavior where the listener seeks certain information which they will appreciate. - Meet his/her needs and goals. - Listening for pleasure and enjoyment Example: Listening to good music, meditation seminars, poetry, audiobooks or a speech from a person with an excellent reputation.
  • 9. EMPATHETIC LISTENING - Making an emotional connection with the other person and finding similarities between their experience and your own so you can give a more heartfelt response. - Listening to provide emotional support for the speaker. - Empathetic listening can help prevent or keep misunderstandings from happening. Example: Understanding someone else's point of view during an argument
  • 10. COMPREHENSIVE/ACTIVE LISTENING - Is about interpreting the words and ideas of the speaker. - involves understanding the thoughts, ideas, and message. - This type of listening requires that the listener understands the language and vocabulary. Example: Include watching the news, Listening to a peer give a presentation, or Taking notes during a meeting.
  • 11. CRITICAL/ANALYTICAL LISTENING - Listening to evaluate the a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it. - Focused more on the interpretation and meaning of the actual sound. - This will then lead to optimal decisions - Uses critical thinking Example: You're in a meeting, and your manager asks for your opinion on a problem.
  • 13. 1. What is the World Wide Web? A) a computer game B) a software program C) another name for the Internet D) a part of the Internet that enables information- sharing via interconnected pages 2. Which is the best search tool for finding Web sites? A) library B) search engines C) subject directories D) discussion groups 3. Which of the following is NOT needed in using search engine? A) browser B) internet connection C) social media account D) computer or mobile phone Read the following questions and choose the letter of the best answer. 4. Which description does NOT apply to the Internet? A) a vast network that connects millions of computers around the world B) a public network neither owned nor run by any one group or individual C) a catalog of information organized and fact-checked by a governing body D) an interconnected system of networks that allows for communication through e-mail and the World Wide Web 5. Which one of the following is a search engine? A) Google B) Netscape C) Macromedia Flash D) Librarians’ Index to the Internet
  • 14. 6. Which of the following is a TRUE statement? A) Web sources must be cited in your report. You are not free to plagiarize. B) You are free to copy information you find and include it in a report. C) You do not have to cite the Web sources you use in your research report. D) You should never consult Web sources when you are doing a research report 7. What is a URL? A) a type of UFO B) a computer software program C) an acronym for Unlimited Resources for Learning D) the address of a document or "page" on the World Wide Web 8. Why are search engines important? A) They sort through information; kind of like a library card catalog. B) Makes it easier to find information rather than linking to it yourself. C) You can narrow your search down to the exact information you need with a search engine. D) All of the above. 9. Which of the following is a true statement about the Internet and the library? They both: A) close after hours. B) provide up-to-the-minute news. C) provide access to newspapers, magazines, and journals. D) have an expert librarian or specialist to answer your questions. 10. http://www.classzone.com is an example of what? A) a URL B) a server C) a directory D) an access code
  • 15. A search engine is a software system designed to carry out web searches. To do this, users enter the desired search term into the search field. The search engine then looks through its index for relevant websites and displays them in the form of a list. The search engine’s internal evaluation algorithm determines which position a website will get in the search results. Google, Bing and Yahoo are examples of popular search engines. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cxwInFZJOv8
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  • 19. GENERAL SEARCH ENGINES contain a broad range of information, develop their own indexes, and search one index. Some are easier to search and provide better results than others. An example of this type of search engine is Google.
  • 20. METASEARCH ENGINE is an online information retrieval tool that uses the data of a web search engine to produce its own results. A type of search engine that gives results based on a combination of results from other search engine databases.
  • 21. SPECIFIC SEARCH ENGINE operate as directories for specific types of content. This mean that they only show results for content that is manually added. These are targeted at particular subject areas and can help ensure the results are likely to be relevant.
  • 22. Observe the following pictures and write the similarities and differences of using the following: LIBRARY SEARCH ENGINE
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  • 25. What is Website? - a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at least one web server. - it is composed of different parts.
  • 26.
  • 27. - is the opening page which does the job of welcoming the website visitors. - is the name of the main page of a website where visitors can find hyperlinks to other pages on the site. HOMEPAGE
  • 28. - A slider refers to the changing content area that presents slides of visual information including large images, texts, announcements, updates and etc. SLIDERS
  • 29. HEADER - is the content at the top of the website which bears the logo, as well as the navigation menu. This part likewise includes taglines, addresses, contact numbers, or buttons used to sign up or log in.
  • 30. NAVIGATION MENU -is the part of the header which bears the links that take or direct visitors to other parts of the websites.
  • 31. - is a column placed to the right or left of a webpage's primary content area. They're commonly used to display various types of supplementary information for users, such as: Navigational links to key pages. Ads for products or services. sidebar
  • 32. A Call to Action (CTA) on a website is an instruction to the visitor in order to encourage them to take some kind of action. A Call to Action might be simple instructional text, such as “call us now”, “find out more”, or “subscribe to our Newsletter” CALL TO ACTION (CTA)
  • 33. FOOTER - is the section of content at the very bottom of a web page. It typically contains a copyright notice, link to a privacy policy, sitemap, logo, contact information, social media icons, and an email sign-up form.
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  • 36. What is Research? - It is systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
  • 38. STEP 1: IDENTIFY AND DEVELOP YOUR TOPIC ✓ The research for and writing of a paper will be more enjoyable if you are writing about something that you find interesting. ✓ Select a topic for which you can find a manageable amount of information. Once you have identified your topic, it may help to state it as a question. For example: You are interested in finding out about the epidemic of COVID 19 "What are the causes of this epidemic?"
  • 39. STEP 2: DO A PRELIMINARY SEARCH FOR INFORMATION ✓ Before beginning your research in earnest, do a preliminary search to determine whether there is enough information out there for your needs and to set the context of your research.
  • 40. STEP 3: LOCATE MATERIALS ✓ There are sources of information that can be used to support the topic you are researching. These can be: • newspapers • websites using the search engines like Google, yahoo, etc. • videos • images • podcast (an episodic series of spoken word digital audio files that a user can download to a personal device for easy listening)
  • 41. ✓ Make sure that your sources of information are credible, truthful, and reliable. This step is especially important when using Internet resources, many of which are regarded as less than reliable. STEP 4: EVALUATE YOUR SOURCES
  • 42. ✓ Be sure to document all the sources you consult, even if you there is a chance you may not use that particular source. The author, title, publisher, URL, and other information will be needed later when creating a bibliography. STEP 5: MAKE NOTES
  • 43. STEP 6: WRITE YOUR PAPER ✓ Begin by organizing the information you have collected. STEP 7: CITE YOUR SOURCES PROPERLY ✓ Give credit where credit is due; cite your sources. ✓ Failure to cite your sources properly is plagiarism. Plagiarism is avoidable!
  • 44. STEP 8: PROOFREAD ✓ The final step in the process is to proofread the paper you have created. Read through the text and check for any errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Make sure the sources you used are cited properly. Make sure the message that you want to get across to the reader has been thoroughly stated.
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  • 48.
  • 50. What is Summarizing? - Summarizing is when you give a brief account of the main ideas and key events in any piece of text. A summary is short, sweet and straight to the point. - Summarization helps you remember the main idea and key points of the text you read. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=98ybKpZbsDQ
  • 51. Why is summarizing important? - Summarizing helps you understand and learn important information by reducing information to its key ideas. Summaries can be used for annotation and study notes, as well as to expand the depth of your writing.
  • 52. How is summarizing different from paraphrasing? To the untrained eye, a summary and a paraphrase may look alike. However, there are differences. • A summary is shorter than the original text. • A paraphrase can be shorter or longer than the original. • A summary eliminates details, examples, and supporting points. • A paraphrase describes the original text in different words. It does not leave out details.
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  • 56.
  • 58. What is Multimedia? - a method of presenting information by combining textual data, audio, visuals (video), graphics, and animations. - is used extensively in education and other areas like education, training, reference material, business presentations, advertising, and documentaries.
  • 60. TEXT - is the most common multimedia element. All multimedia productions contain some amount of text. The text can have various types of fonts and sizes. - It is usually combined with photographs and video presentations to augment these other forms of communication and give a detailed multimedia description.
  • 61. GRAPHICS - make the multimedia application attractive. Graphics represent non-text information, such as drawings, photographs, charts, tables, graphs, etc. Graphics are used more often than text to explain a concept and to present background information, etc. The graphic medium can be combined with the text medium. There are two types of Graphics: • Bitmap images- Bitmap images are real images that can be captured from devices such as digital cameras or scanners. Generally, bitmap images are not editable. Bitmap images require a large amount of memory. • Vector Graphics- Vector graphics are drawn on the computer and only require a small amount of memory. These graphics are editable.
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  • 63. AUDIO - A multimedia application may require the use of speech, music, and sound effects. - Audios are sounds that can be added and combined with all other media types in so many ways. An audio can function as a musical background to images and photographs, and even texts.
  • 64. VIDEO - The term video refers to the moving picture, accompanied by a sound like a television picture. The video element of multimedia applications gives a lot of information in a small duration of time. - Digital video is useful in the multimedia application for showing real-life objects.
  • 65. ANIMATION - is the process of making a static image look like it is moving. The animation is just a continuous series of still images that are displayed in a sequence. The place where images and photographs meet video material is where animation begins.
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  • 69. USING ORAL LANGUAGE, STANCE, AND BEHAVIOR IN DIFFERENT COMMUNICATION
  • 70. - Communication is the act of giving, receiving, and sharing information -- in other words, talking or writing, and listening or reading. Good communicators listen carefully, speak or write clearly, and respect different opinions. What is Communication?
  • 71. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION VERBAL - is oral communication with words that you or others speak out loud. NON-VERBAL - is about what's not said out loud: gestures, facial expressions, and body language.
  • 72. - Language is any formal system of gestures, signs, sounds, and symbols used or conceived as a means of communicating thought, either through written, enacted, or spoken means (Barton & Tucker, 2019). What is Language?
  • 73. What is Oral Language? - is the process of utilizing knowledge and skills to speak and listen effectively through the proper use of true-to-life ideas/information, words, and grammar. To achieve oral fluency, speaking loudly and clearly is also essential, as is the right tone of one’s voice. For effective and successful communication, use words to express ideas easily understood by the person you talk to.
  • 74. ATTRIBUTES OF EFFECTIVE ORAL LANGUAGE 1. Clarity - Language must have a correct grammatical structure. Words to be used should also be precise and can be understood by the audience. Avoid highfalutin or flowery words so as not to confuse the audience. Just keep it simple and straightforward. 2. Brevity (Direct and conversational) - Simple words should make the person you are talking to easily understand the idea you want to convey rapidly and efficiently. 3. Appropriateness - The language should be used should be appropriate to the environment or occasion.
  • 75. 4. Vividness - Vividness may be achieved using imagery. These words of pictures or images produce powerful feelings in the listener’s mind. 5. Ethical - Words should be carefully chosen considering the gender, roles, ethnicity, preferences, and status of the person or people you are talking to.
  • 76. STANCE AND BEHAVIOR 1. Body language - refers to an interaction where behavior is used to convey and represent meaning using our movement. 2. Stance/posture - you communicate numerous messages by the way you stand or sit. Speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided; to avoid disinterest from your listener. 3. Action - actions or gestures are essential for your listener to help convey your meaning.
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  • 78. 4. Facial expression - A person's face is a powerful communicator. A face reveals how a person feels. It shows emotions or feelings. You can show how you're feeling with your face by how open or closed your mouth is. 5. Eye Contact - Your eyes are a way of connecting with the person you are speaking with. This may mean you like that person or are comfortable talking or communicating with that person. When you avoid eye contact, it might mean that you don't want the person you are speaking with to find out too much about what you are feeling. It could be that you don't like the person or feel like talking to him/her.
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  • 80. _____1. I won a million pesos. _____2. "Despite this pandemic, I will continue to study whatever means will be available." _____3. "I belong to a poor family, but we are happy, and we stand through thick and thin." _____4. "I failed in the first quarter examination because I got engrossed with other unimportant things." _____5. "Our neighbor keeps on playing with their videoke even late at night. I can't concentrate on my homework.
  • 81. HOW A SELECTION MAY BE INFLUENCED BY CULTURE, HISTORY, ENVIRONMENT
  • 82. WHY DO WE NEED TO SELECT OR CHOOSE?
  • 84. Culture is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior, institutions, and norms found in human societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in these groups. Culture is often originated from or attributed to a specific region or location. Cultural influence may be demonstrated through human behavior, vocabulary or language used, human emotions or perspectives, and material items.
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  • 87. History it is the study of the past. It covers all aspects of human society. It is the story of the past and a form of collective memory. History is the story of who we are, where we come from, and can potentially reveal where we are headed. Historical influence may be demonstrated through the use of names of places or presence of events that really took place in history.
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  • 89. Environment can be defined as a sum total of all the living and non-living elements and their effects that influence human life. Environment and nature are always present in literature. Many early literary texts utilize nature to describe origin of things or places. Environmental influence may be shown through the conditions of living of a person.
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  • 91. CULTURE HISTORY ENVIRONMENT - refers to the beliefs/customs/way of life of a particular society/group/place /time. - the study of past events that relate to a particular subject, place, organization, etc. -refers to the conditions and influences that affect the growth, health, progress, health etc. of someone or something.
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  • 98. WHAT IS BELIEF? - is something that an individual considers as the truth. It is shaped by the individual’s background experiences and is based on one’s cultural or personal faith, morality, or values.
  • 99. WHAT IS CONVICTION? - is a firm belief on something that an individual is convinced of. To be convinced you need to obtain all related information like • Statistical Data - based on analysis of statistics; • Observational Data - based on what the person has Observed or perceived they observed • Causal Data - based on what fact has caused a particular factual result; and • Experiential Data - based on what experience shows can be inferred from the facts.
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  • 101. VISUAL MATERIALS As you form convictions/beliefs about materials you viewed, it is best to familiarize yourself with some examples of visual materials. - encompass a wide range of forms including photographs, cinema, cartoons, prints, designs and three- dimensional art such as sculpture and architecture.
  • 102. DIFFERENT TYPES OF VISUAL MATERIALS 1. POWERPOINT PRESENTATION - Microsoft PowerPoint is probably the most commonly used form of visual aid. Used well, it can really help you in your presentation; used badly, however, it can have the opposite effect.
  • 103. DIFFERENT TYPES OF VISUAL MATERIALS 2. VIDEO - Video gives you a chance to show stimulating visual information. Use video to bring movement, pictures and sound into your presentation. Always make sure that the clip is directly relevant to your content. Tell your audience what to look for. Avoid showing any more film than you need.
  • 104. DIFFERENT TYPES OF VISUAL MATERIALS 3. DRAWING Drawing is creating a picture with a variety of tools like pencils, crayons, pens or markers. Artists draw on different types of surfaces, like paper or canvas.
  • 105. DIFFERENT TYPES OF VISUAL MATERIALS 4. PAINTING Painting is often called the most important form of visual art. It is about putting colors on a canvas or a wall. Painters express their ideas through a mixture of colors and different brush strokes. It is also one of the oldest forms of visual arts.
  • 106. DIFFERENT TYPES OF VISUAL MATERIALS 5. PHOTOGRAPH -Photography is making pictures by letting light pass through the lenses of a camera onto a film. Images could then be printed onto special paper. -Today, most photography is digital. Cameras have no film; the images are recorded onto silicon chips.
  • 107. DIFFERENT TYPES OF VISUAL MATERIALS 6. FILM - Filmmaking is the process of directing and producing movies for television and cinemas. It is a very expensive and complicated form of art, involving many tasks, for example scriptwriting, casting and editing film sequences before they can be shown to an audience.
  • 108. DIFFERENT TYPES OF VISUAL MATERIALS 7. SCULPTURE - Sculptures are three-dimensional pieces of art that are created by shaping various kinds of material. Among the popular sculpting materials are steel, plastic, ceramics and wood. Sculpture is often referred to as plastic arts.
  • 109. DIFFERENT TYPES OF VISUAL MATERIALS 8. CARTOON - Cartoon is a type of illustration, sometimes animated, typically in a non-realistic or semi-realistic style. Cartoons are drawings and illustrations that come in several forms and can have many meanings. One type of cartoon is drawings and illustrations in magazines or newspapers.
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  • 113. WHAT IS STATEMENT? - means to express an idea or mood without using words. - clear expression of something in speech or writing.
  • 114. GENERAL AND SPECIFIC STATEMENTS
  • 115. EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT A GENERAL STATEMENT
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  • 120. REACT TO WHAT IS ASSERTED OR EXPRESSED IN A TEXT
  • 121. One of the best ways for the author to express his/her feelings, beliefs, and ideas in a direct way is by asserting. Assertion is used to let the readers feel that they should agree what they read or hear. It is very common in various fields of life, like literature, politics, and advertisements. Reaction is an action taken in response to something. Reacting to assertion is an essential skill in language learning. Making reactions will allow readers to express their thoughts and feelings about the text or situations presented.
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  • 129. Academic Writing vs Literary Writing Academic writing is a type of writing that communicates ideas, information and research to a wider academic community. It is what students are expected to produce for classes and what professors and academic researchers use to write scholarly materials. Examples are: book reviews, critique paper, essays, movie review, reports, and research papers, among others. Literary writing is, in essence, a 'response', a subjective personal view which the writer expresses through his themes, ideas, thoughts, experiences using his imagination. It touches us while teaching us. It is an art form that entertains and inspires. Examples are: stories, poems, drama, novels, personal essay, biographies, autobiographies, folklore, folktales fables and a lot more.
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  • 142. STRATEGIES USED FOR EFFECTIVE CONVERSATION OR DIALOGUE
  • 143. Communication is the art of exchanging messages between two or more people. Interpersonal communication is the process by which people exchange information through verbal and non- verbal messages.
  • 144. Interpersonal skills also include the ability to: 1.Listen and Understand 2. Solve Problems 3. Make Decisions 4. Manage Personal Stress
  • 145. Verbal communication is the use of sounds and words to express yourself, especially in contrast to using gestures or mannerisms. Non-verbal communication is the transfer of information through the use of body language including eye contact, facial expressions, gestures and more.
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  • 148. STRATEGIES USED IN CONDUCTING AN EFFECTIVE INTERVIEW
  • 149. If you want to find out about people, you usually read about them or watch a documentary. People are sources of information and an interview is a way to gather detailed or revealing information.
  • 150. DURING PREPARATION - Preparation for interviewing is very important. It requires both a friendly manner and a careful preparation. A formal interview can be requested through a phone call, letter or in person. Here is a checklist of the important things you need to discuss with your interviewee before the interview.
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  • 152. HOW TO WRITE EFFECTIVE QUESTIONS - As a good interviewer, you need to be selective with the questions you have because not all questions are effective during an interview.
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  • 158. DETERMINING THE WORTH OF IDEAS/ DETERMINING IMPORTANCE
  • 159. - It simply means focusing on what is significant on the information you have listened to. You decide, from among everything that you are listening to, what is most important to attend to and remember.
  • 160. - IMPORTANT INFORMATION refers to main ideas or key topics that you need to better understand the concept you are listening to while interesting information is little detail or additional detail, which could be a cool fact, distractor, or less important concept, that is present in the article (Allen & Reason, 2015).
  • 161. This means that it helps you filter information and organize your thinking around big ideas. Filtering means selecting only the information necessary to better understand the selection that you are listening to (“Introduction,” 2020).
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  • 164. According to Stephanie Harvey and Anne Goudvis (2000) (as cited by Draper, 2011) determining the worth of ideas mentioned in the text listened to varies by genre: - In narrative genres, determining importance asks the reader to identify main ideas and infer themes of the story. It’s mostly about recognizing the elements of a story to better grasp its summary.
  • 165. - In nonfiction, determining importance is more on retaining important information and learning from the text. Listeners must be able to shift through information and decide what is most important. To determine importance in nonfiction, readers must understand many features and structures specific to the genre.
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  • 170. DISCOVER THE CONFLICTS PRESENTED IN LITERARY SELECTIONS AND THE NEED TO RESOLVE THESE CONFLICTS IN NON-VIOLENT WAYS
  • 171. What is conflict? “In literature, a conflict is a literary device characterized by a struggle between two opposing forces. Conflict provides crucial tension in any story and is used to reveal a deeper meaning in a narrative while highlighting characters’ motivations, values and weaknesses.”
  • 172. Conflict is an important element in the study of stories, novels, plays, movies etc. What are the two categories of conflict? 1. Internal Conflict is when a character struggles with their own opposing desires or beliefs. Internal conflict happens within them and it drives their development as a character. 2. External Conflict sets a character against something or someone beyond their control. External forces stand in the way of a character’s motivations and create a tension as the character tries to reach their goals.
  • 173. 6 TYPES OF LITERARY CONFLICTS? 1. Character vs. Self - This is an internal conflict, meaning that the opposition the character faces is coming within. This may entail a struggle to discern what the moral or “right” choice is, or it may also encompass mental health struggles. All other types of conflict are external – meaning that a character comes up against an outside force that creates a conflict.
  • 174. 6 TYPES OF LITERARY CONFLICTS? 2. Character vs. Character - This is a common type of conflict in which one character’s needs or wants are at odds with another’s. A character conflict can be depicted as a straight-forward fist fight, or as intricate and nuanced as the ongoing struggle for power in the HBO series of Game of Thrones.
  • 175. 6 TYPES OF LITERARY CONFLICTS? 3. Character vs. Nature -In a nature conflict, a character is set in opposition to nature. This can mean the weather, the wilderness, or a natural disaster. 4. Character vs. Supernatural - Pitting characters against phenomena like ghosts, gods, or monsters raises the stakes of a conflict by creating an unequal playing field. Supernatural conflict also covers characters, like Harry Potter or Odysseus, who have a fate or destiny and struggle to accept the sacrifices that come along with it.
  • 176. 6 TYPES OF LITERARY CONFLICTS? 5. Character vs. Technology - In this case, a character is in conflict with some kind of technology. It is the hallmark of science fiction, which explores the problems that arise when technology grows beyond its intended use.
  • 177. 6 TYPES OF LITERARY CONFLICTS? 6. Character vs. Society - A character vs. society conflict is an external conflict that occurs in literature when the protagonist is placed in opposition with the society, the government, or a cultural tradition or societal norm of some kind. Characters may be motivated to take action against their society by a need to survive, a moral sense of right and wrong, or a desire for happiness, freedom, justice or love.
  • 178. WHY IS CONFLICT IMPORTANT IN A STORY? -Most of the time, readers become more interested in a literary piece because of the tension in the story. Readers are simply hooked in order to discover which of the characters or forces will eventually prevail. Conflict is a necessary element for all stories whether it is a novel, short story, mystery, romance, children’s story because it makes the plot interesting and exciting. A conflict in a literary piece also reveals opposing beliefs and truths about life that readers can easily relate to.
  • 179. HOW ARE CONFLICTS RESOLVED IN A STORY? - In actuality, conflict is not always bad and does not have to result in violence or hurt feelings. Conflicts are part of everyday life and they cannot be avoided. However, whether a conflict escalates, ends negatively or is resolved and ends peacefully in a literary selection, is entirely based on the choices a character/s make. The choices made by a character in a story reveals his/her feelings, values and attitudes. Most often than not, his/her response to a conflict determines how a situation ends.
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  • 187. WHAT IS FICTION? - is a term used to describe e an imaginative work of prose, either a folktale, a myth, a novel, a short story or a novella. It is the creation of the writer’s imagination, or simply an imagined story – not true.
  • 188. THE ELEMENTS OF FICTION 1. CHARACTER/S. -This element refers to a representation of a human being or any other creature in the course of the story. A character can be any person, a figure, an animate object, or animal usually endowed with human qualities. The characters are the people or any figures in the story.
  • 189. 2. POINT-OF-VIEW. - Point of view is the perspective from which the story or work is told. It is also defined as the eyes and mind through which the reader views the unfolding of events. It tells through whose eyes we are seeing the story and as well reveals the attitude of the writer toward the character.
  • 190. 3. PLOT. - This refers to the series or sequence of e vents that give a story its meaning and effect. It is built around the events that take place within a definite period. This is what happens to the characters found in the work.
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  • 192. 4. SETTING AND ATMOSPHERE. - Setting is the story’s time and place. Setting is made up of geographical location, its topography, scenery, physical arrangements, the occupations and the daily living of the characters, the time or period in which the actions take place. Setting tells when and where the events occurred.
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  • 194. 5. CONFLICT. - A story without conflict or problem is lifeless. Every good story must have a conflict. Conflict is a problem or obstacle encountered by the character within the story. Conflict creates tension and interest in a story by adding doubt as to the outcome.
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  • 196. Write a summary of the “Legend of Mayon Volcano”.
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  • 198.