Computer-assisted language learning(CALL) originates from CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction). lessons should allow the learners to learn on their own using structured and/or unstructured interactive lessons. These lessons carry 2 important features: bidirectional (interactive) learning individualized learning
Computer-assisted languagelearning (CALL) CALL is not a method. It is a tool that helps teachers to facilitate language learning process. CALL can be used to reinforce what has been learned in the classrooms. It can also be used as remedial to help learners with limited language proficiency.
Computer-assisted languagelearning (CALL) Some people may call it a courseware, an educational computerized program. CALL is not a software in the sense that it is not an application program or a utility program. Word processing program, spreadsheet program, graphic presentation software such as PowerPoint, Internet (a general term) are not considered as CALL.
CALL is also known as.. CAI – Computer Aided Instruction (US) CBI – Computer Based Instruction (US) CAT – Computer Assisted Testing (US) CAL – Computer Aided Learning (UK) CBL – Computer Based Learning (UK) CMI – Computer Managed Instruction
Three Phases of CALL Though CALL has developed gradually over the last 30 years, this development can be categorized in terms of three phases 1. Behavioristic CALL 2. Communicative CALL 3. Integrative CALL
1. Behavioristic CALL The first phase of CALL, conceived in the 1950s and implemented in the1960s and 70s, was based on the then-dominant behaviorist theories of learning. Programs of this phase entailed repetitive language drills and can be referred to as "drill and practice" ("drill and kill").
2. Communicative CALL The second phase of CALL was based on the communicative approach to teaching which became prominent in the 1970s and 80s. Proponents of this approach felt that the drill and practice programs of the previous decade did not allow enough authentic communication to be of much value.
3. Integrative CALL Integrative approaches to CALL are based on two important technological developments of the last decade : multimedia computers Internet Multimedia technology - exemplified today by the CD-ROM - allows a variety of media (text, graphics, sound, animation, and video) to be accessed on a single machine. What makes multimedia even more powerful is that it also entails hypermedia. That means that the multimedia resources are all linked together and that learners can navigate their own path simply by pointing and clicking a mouse.
The Classification of CALL TUTOR TOOL TUTEE
The Classification of CALL TUTOR Tutor software is designed to help the student acquire a specific skill—number, facts The content and instructional style of this type of software covers the range from simulation of a task to drill and practice.
The Classification of CALL TOOL Tool software includes word processors, databases, spreadsheets, graphics programs, music composition tools, etc. The focus here is on using the computer as a tool for the creation, capture, development and exploration of ideas in many subject domains.
The Classification of CALL TUTEE Tutee software is based on a model that the student learns best by teaching a concept to others. In this case the ‘other’ is a computer, and the vehicle for communicating ideas to the computer is a programming language.
Advantages of CALL Interesting and fun Immediate feedback Portable Individual learning Repeated learning Interactive Incorporating more than 1 sense
Disadvantages of CALL Depends on the hardware and software Takes a long time to develop Highly trained Costly Too fun
3 TYPES OF SOFTWAREAPPLICATION IN EDUCATION1. Information Software2. Computer Assisted Learning Software3. Creative Software
1. Information Softwarea. References – encyclopedia, dictionary, atlas and thesaurusb. Non-fiction – delivering a complete information on visual abilities of human being, for example on a Classical Musicc. Fiction – including interactive books and novels
Most computer software is published in the same way as materials in conventional media, so that you have information such as the name of the publisher, and perhaps the name of the author, which can help you to judge what you are reading, buying or using. However, this is not usually the case with content on the Web.
There is very little policing or censorship of the Internet and information can be placed on the Web by almost anyone for almost any purpose. It is therefore especially important to think carefully about the status of information on the Web pages you read. One way of doing this is to ask yourself the following questions:
What is the aim of the site? Is it to provide objective information? Is it to put forward a personal opinion? Is it to advertise individuals or companies? Is the purpose to provide language-learning activities? Is it just a page that provides links to other sites that provide the activities? Thus, it is important to identify the aims of the site, and then to decide whether it matches up to its aims.
What authority does the page have? Who wrote the page? Is the name of the author given? (This information is sometimes placed at the bottom of the page together with a contact email address.) Is there any information about the author? (There will sometimes be a link to a personal home page.) What is the name of the company or institution that owns the site where the page is published? Web pages whose addresses end in: .ac or .edu will be academic institutions .org are organizations – often non-profit making .com or .co are owned by a company or commercial organization Web pages located on Websites such as those run by Geocities are almost certainly the personal home pages of individuals.
How up-to-date is the Webpage? When was the page first written? And when was it last updated? (if the Web page does not appear to have been updated recently, the information may be out-of-date.) It is also useful to know how often the information is updated to help decide whether it is worth visiting the site regularly.
What is the depth of the page? Some pages have very little information, others lead to many pages each of which may contain a lot of information or may lead to further pages containing a lot of information. It can be difficult to judge how “deep” a site is from just the opening page.
How accurate is the informationin the Web page? Does the page have spelling or grammar mistakes? Poor editing of this kind may indicate a lack of attention to detail in the content of the page. How accurate is the content of the page? If the information is important to you, it is worth trying to check at least some of the information in the page by reference to other sources.
How good is the design of thepage? To some extent, design issues are a matter of taste and fashion. However, a page should at least be: Easily readable: Easily downloadable: if pages take a long time to download because they contain large graphics or other media files, those files should be essential for the purpose of the page; Easily navigable: if there are a lot of pages at a Website, it is possible to lose your way as you move around them. Some sort of menu of map is important in those cases.
Assignment 1: Using the web page evaluation criteria discussed, find, evaluate and comment on any 1 website. The topic you choose may include: Vocabulary Grammar Speaking Reading Writing Listening Literature The web sites that you choose should specifically be for the teaching/ learning of the English language only.