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Goal-based Priorization
Lourenço P. Soares | Alexandre Klaser
Backlog

http://www.flickr.com/photos/toiletqueue/
Backlog

http://www.flickr.com/photos/herby_fr/
Goal-Based Priorization - Ágiles 2013
Ok, but...
Ok, but...
...if there’s no backlog,
what is there?
Effort aligned
to business
goals
Effort aligned
to business
goals
Independent
streams of
work
Effort aligned
to business
goals
Independent
streams of
work
Just enough
to meet the
goal
Recaptulando...

ed
as
-b
oal ation
G
riz
io
Pr
Effort aligned to business goals

!  What’s the expected result when we
implement a given functionality?
!  How can we guarantee we are doing what
must be done?

http://www.flickr.com/photos/morganhh/
...
WE BELIEVE THAT
FOR...
WILL ACHIEVE...

Hypoth
esis
Mode
l

N...
SUCCESSFUL WHE
ARE
WE WILL KNOW WE
Once upon a time...
Goal-Based Priorization - Ágiles 2013
. E T e ..
1IEVThHATg.oal
WE BEL
FOR...
WILL ACHIEVE...

protection agains
t the
weather

N...
SUCCESSFUL WHE
ARE
WE WILL KNOW WE
...
WE BELIEVE THAT
FOR...
WILL ACHIEVE...

2. What we measure

protection agains
t the
weather

...
UCCESSFUL WHEN
ARE S
WE WILL KNOW WE

e is
dry and the temperatur
we are
between 15 and 35°C
...
WE BELIEVE THAT
FOR...

a family

WILL ACHIEVE...

For whom
3.
protection agains
t the
weather

N...
SUCCESSFUL WHE
ARE
WE WILL KNOW WE

e is
dry and the temperatur
we are
between 15 and 35°C
...
WE BELIEVE THAT
FOR...

a family

WILL ACHIEVE...

building a cabin
protection agains
t the
weather

N...
SUCCESSFUL WHE
ARE
WE WILL KNOW WE

What we will do
4.

e is
dry and the temperatur
we are
between 15 and 35°C
...
WE BELIEVE THAT
FOR...

a family

WILL ACHIEVE...

building a cabin
protection agains
t the
weather

N...
SUCCESSFUL WHE
ARE
WE WILL KNOW WE

e is
dry and the temperatur
we are
between 15 and 35°C
Independent streams of work
!  What to do when a hypothesis is wrong or
cannot be validated?
!  How to prioritize streams of work and maintain
business alignment?

http://www.flickr.com/photos/elsie/
Multiple hypothesis

...
THAT
EVE
BELI
WE
..

FOR.

..

HEN.
UL W
SSF
CCE
LA
WIL
E SU
E AR
W
KNOW
ILL
WE W
E...
HIEV
C
Prioritized by value

User value

High

Low
Low

Business Value

High
Prioritized by value

User value

High

Low
Low

Business Value

High
Prioritized by value

User value

High

Low
Low

Business Value

High
Prioritized by value
High

H3

User value

H5

H2

H6

H1

H4

H7

Low
Low

Business Value

High
Just enough to meet the goal
!  How to validate a hypothesis with the least
possible effort?
!  How to avoid that dependency between stories
prevent progress in small increments?

http://www.flickr.com/photos/pasukaru76/
I
N
V
E
S
T

ndependent
egotiable
aluable
estimable
mall
estable
I
N
V
E
S
T

ndependent
egotiable
aluable
estimable
mall
estable
I
N
V
E
S
T

ndependent
egotiable
aluable
estimable
mall
estable
Hypothesis are like onions

…
We believe
For…
v e…
Will achie
o w w h e n…
We will kn
Satisfaction

Kano Model

Implementation

Basic

met ≠ J
not met = L
Adapted from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kano_model
Satisfaction

Kano Model
Performance
met = J
not met = L
Implementation

Basic

met ≠ J
not met = L
Adapted from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kano_model
Excitement

met = J
not met ≠ L

Satisfaction

Kano Model
Performance
met = J
not met = L
Implementation

Basic

met ≠ J
not met = L
Adapted from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kano_model
We believe that

building a cabin

a family
er
gainst the weath
tion a
achieve protec
will
e dry
ul when we ar
successf
ill know we are
we w
etween 15 and
b
e temperature is
and th
35°C

for
Goal-Based Priorization - Ágiles 2013
Provide

Levels of attainment of goals
!   Basic mechanics
!   It is impossible to know if it is doable
before validating this much
!   You need to know it to use it
Provide

Levels of attainment of goals
!   Basic mechanics
!   It is impossible to know if it is doable
before validating this much
!   You need to know it to use it

“It’s a proof of concept... Without
this, the experience is broken... I
would never go live with only
this...”
Goal-Based Priorization - Ágiles 2013
Provide

!   Basic mechanics
!   It is impossible to know if it is doable
before validating this much
!   You need to know it to use it

Satisfy

Levels of attainment of goals

!   Basic functionality
!   Meets user needs
!   Anyone with minimum knowledge
should be able to use it

“It’s a proof of concept... Without
this, the experience is broken... I
would never go live with only
this...”
Provide

!   Basic mechanics
!   It is impossible to know if it is doable
before validating this much
!   You need to know it to use it

“It’s a proof of concept... Without
this, the experience is broken... I
would never go live with only
this...”

Satisfy

Levels of attainment of goals

!   Basic functionality
!   Meets user needs
!   Anyone with minimum knowledge
should be able to use it

“All of our competitors have it... I
would expect it to work... It’s
something even my mom would
understand...”
Goal-Based Priorization - Ágiles 2013
Provide

!   Basic mechanics
!   It is impossible to know if it is doable
before validating this much
!   You need to know it to use it

“It’s a proof of concept... Without
this, the experience is broken... I
would never go live with only
this...”

Satisfy

!   Basic functionality
!   Meets user needs
!   Anyone with minimum knowledge
should be able to use it

“All of our competitors have it... I
would expect it to work... It’s
something even my mom would
understand...”

Excel

Levels of attainment of goals

!   Diferentiating proposition
!   Only the main features of the
product should be at this level
!   Draw users to the product
Provide

!   Basic mechanics
!   It is impossible to know if it is doable
before validating this much
!   You need to know it to use it

“It’s a proof of concept... Without
this, the experience is broken... I
would never go live with only
this...”

Satisfy

!   Basic functionality
!   Meets user needs
!   Anyone with minimum knowledge
should be able to use it

“All of our competitors have it... I
would expect it to work... It’s
something even my mom would
understand...”

Excel

Levels of attainment of goals

!   Diferentiating proposition
!   Only the main features of the
product should be at this level
!   Draw users to the product

“Only your product does this...
Makes me come back time and
time again... Everyone is talking
about it...”
Goal-Based Priorization - Ágiles 2013
Deming Cycle
PLAN

ACT

DO

CHECK
Prioritized hypothesis
High

H3

User value

H5

H2

H6

H1

H4

H7

Low
Low

Business Value

High
Priority Matrix

Excel

Satisfy

Provide

H1

H2

H3

H4

H5

H6

H7
Now add stories

Excel

Satisfy

Provide

H1

H2

H3

H4

H5

on
sssspers sony
er
p
ele
ho e n m
s sa ahommelof overthe usually
AA
o
o
a an r ll
wwnt ta a wa
II
et
ad
heainy sidedon’t lget w in
t ess ra
r
I
o othat t I ige dy
ha a ns n
SS t
i
r
hen nitit is w
wwhe

H6

H7
Priority Matrix

Excel

Satisfy

Provide

H1
Story

H2
Story

Story

H3
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H5

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H4

Story

Story

Story

H6
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H7
Story

Story

Story
A real-world example
Consuming stories

Excel

Satisfy

Provide

H1
Story

H2
Story

Story

H3
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H5

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H4

Story

Story

Story

H6
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H7
Story

Story

Story
Consuming stories

Excel

Satisfy

Provide

H1
Story

H2
Story

Story

H3
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H5

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H4

Story

Story

Story

H6
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H7
Story

Story

Story
Consuming stories

Excel

Satisfy

Provide

H1
Story

H2
Story

Story

H3
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H5

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H4

Story

Story

Story

H6
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H7
Story

Story

Story
Consuming stories
Provide
Satisfy
Excel

Story

H2
Story

Story

H3
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H5
Story

Story

Story

Story

H4

^

H1

H6
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H7
Story

Story

Story
Identifying scope creep

Excel

Satisfy

Provide

H1
Story

H2
Story

Story

H3
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H5

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H4

Story

Story

Story

H6
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H7
Story

Story

Story
Identifying scope creep

Excel

Satisfy

Provide

H1
Story

H2
Story

Story

H3
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H4

Story

Story

Story

H5

Story

Story

H6
Story

Story

Why is this
in scope?

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H7
Story

Story

Story
Small finite increments

Excel

Satisfy

Provide

H1

ü

H2
Story

Story

H3
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H5

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H4

Story

Story

Story

H6
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H7
Story

Story

Story
Small finite increments

Excel

Satisfy

Provide

H1

ü

H2

ü

Story

H3
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H5

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H4

Story

Story

Story

H6
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H7
Story

Story

Story
Small finite increments
Provide

Story

Excel

ü

Satisfy

H1

H2

ü

Story

H3
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H5

Story

Story

Story

ü

Story

H4

Story

Story

Story

H6
Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H7
Story

Story

Story
Small finite increments
Provide

Story

Excel

ü

Satisfy

H1

H2

ü

Story

H3
Story

Story

ü

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H4
Story

Story

H5
Story

H6
Story

Story

tests
  Can have functional
ü
Story
Story
Story
Story
Storyoduction
Story
  Can be deployed in pr
ü
r experience
Story   Can test useStory
Story
ü

Story

H7
Story

Story

Story
Small finite increments
Provide

Story

Excel

ü

Satisfy

H1

H2

ü

Story

H3
Story

Story

ü

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

Story

H4
Story

Story

H5
Story

H6
Story

Story

H7
Story

Story

Story

tests
  Can have functional
ü
Story
Story
Story
Story
Storyoduction
Story
  Can be deployed in pr
ü
r experience
Story   Can test useStory
Story
ü

VAL
ID
LEA ATED
RNIN
G!

Story
It works in practice…

Actual product
owner using the
board
The whole team using the board

“It helps a great deal when finding
the most important stories”
Recaptulando...

Questions,
Comments,
Suggestions?
aklaser@thoughtworks.com
@alklaser
lous@thoughtworks.com
about.me/lous
Recaptulando...reading
Further
!  Beyond Good Enough – Darius Kumana (bit.ly/darius_bge)
!  Systemico Model – Barry O’Rilley & Lourenço P. Soares (bit.ly/systemico)
!  Kano Model – Jason Mesut (bit.ly/kano_model)
!  Replacing Requirements with Hypotheses– Josh Seiden (bit.ly/josh_hdd)
!  INVEST in Good Stories, and SMART Tasks – Bill Wake (bit.ly/invest_stories)

aklaser@thoughtworks.com
@alklaser
lous@thoughtworks.com
about.me/lous
Another real-world example

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Goal-Based Priorization - Ágiles 2013

Editor's Notes

  1. Apresentaçãopessoal1 - QuemaquiéAnalista de Negócio?2 - Quemestáàespera de umapalestrasobreprincípios?Vamosfalar de uma PRÁTICA – “priorizaçãoporobjetivos”Disclaimer: nãoé silver bullet – uma entre outrastantas
  2. When we shifted from waterfall to agile we reduced major analysis upfront, but we’re left with a big story list describing the entire scope in order to keep track of everything that needs to be delivered.
  3. This leads to a huge inventory of stories that need to be tracked and managed, which is one of the seven types of waste. Other waste here is waiting.And when business circumstances change, there is a lot of effort to reprioritize and understand them.Story card hell – James ShoreWhat should we do then?
  4. Let’s try to reduce another type of waste, over-processing, and think about what we really need when we create scope for the project…
  5. Similar to Impact Mapping – first define goals then derive from itFocus on doing just the necessary to reach the business goalsDeviations: political pressure, “gold plating”Examples: demanda de tráfegocarrinho de compras com íconeanimadoBUT… UX can be relevant to the business goals!
  6. Value is not linear…We can’t know that the top priority hypothesis is the one that will bring more value to the customerDiversifying risk: if one work stream gets blocked, it’s possible to keep on with the otherDon’t put all your eggs in one basket
  7. Not too big, not too small… just enough to reach the goal.Avoid spending too much time developing a feature before getting feedback (anticipate TTM)Waste: over-production
  8. Do the right thing + more than one thing + of the right size
  9. What is the expected result?
  10. Hypothesismodel: Josh Seiden
  11. Setting the context…A happy family (in the countryside, desert island…)
  12. What is the goal?
  13. KPIs
  14. A different goal can be “be well fed”…
  15. Differencebetweenuservalueand businessvalue. Example: tracking cookies
  16. How much effort is enough to get feedback?This helps us to think in a division of stories that aims to minimize the feedback timeExample… (TV channel)
  17. Bill Wake
  18. Bill Wake
  19. Bill Wake
  20. To tell stories, we begin from the center of the problem – the most important part – and then add layers around itYou can’t have outer layers without the inner layers, the same way it isn’t worth to have a pole without a traffic light.Naturally, in a bigger system, it’s hard to avoid some order relation between stories, this is natural and expected
  21. The Kano model is a theory of product development and customer satisfaction, developed in the 80s by professor Noriaki Kano.Example: Hotmail vs. Gmail – let’s go back to 2007Basic: login
  22. Hotmail: 2 MB (“it should be enough for anybody”)Gmail: 1 GB
  23. Hotmail: foldersGmail: labels and threaded conversations!Over time, extraordinary things end up becoming commodity- Gmail pioneered the use of Ajax.
  24. How do you start building a cabin?(Perguntarpara a audiência?)what would be the first thing to do?
  25. Até uma caverna é melhor que isso!Mas já estamos aprendendoCuidar com a analogia da fundação, ela pode deixar as pessoas inseguras. Tem que deixar claro que temos diversas hipóteses, e outra pode lidar com a durabilidade da obra. Lembrar que DESENVOLVIMENTO de software é diferente de PRODUÇÃO. A primeira pessoas que resolveu construir sua casa não começou pela fundação... Comparar aprendizado proporcionado/chance de dar certo
  26. Darius Kumana
  27. DariusKumanaStories: good for developmentbutnotholisticEpics:notestimable
  28. We killed the linear backlog, placing stories in a multi-threaded processing
  29. When can you measure if the goal was reached?
  30. When can you measure if the goal was reached?Max & Michael talk