SlideShare a Scribd company logo
BIOSAFETY
AND RISK
MANGMENT
PRESENTATIO
N
Presented By: Shumaila
CONTENT
• What is GMOs?
• Advantages of GMOs
• Disavantages of GMOs
• Types of Gmos
• How GMOs created?
• Example of Genetically modified Crops
• Article: “Golden Rice: Genetically Modified to Reduce
Vitamin A Deficiency, Benefit or Hazard?”
• .
INTRODUCTION
What are Gmos?
A GMO (genetically
modified organism) is a
plant, animal, or
microorganism that has had
its genetic material (DNA)
changed using technology
that generally involves the
specific modification of
DNA, including the
transfer of specific DNA
from one organism to
another.
Advantages of GMOS
•Pest resistant
•GMOs are simpler to grow.
•Herbicide tolerant.
•GMO crops use fewer chemicals than
other crops.
•GMOs can conserve water, soil, and
energy.
Disadvantages of GMOS
• Toxicity
• Allergic Reactions
• Antibiotic Resistance
• Immuno-suppression
• Cancer
• Loss of Nutrition
1. Genetically
Modified
Crops
2. Genetically
Modified
Microorganisms
3.Genetically
Modified
Animals
4. Gene-
Edited
Organisms 5. Pharmaceutical
GMOs
• Step 1 - DNA Extraction
• Step 2 - Copying the Gene
How GMOs
have been
Created?
How
GMOs
have been
Created?
• Step 3 - Modifying the Gene
• Step 4 - Putting the New Gene into a Plant.
Step 5 - Breeding Transgenic Plant with an Elite
Line
Genetically modified Crops
Introduction
• Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or
biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA
of which has been modified using genetic engineering
techniques. Genetic engineering is the simple addition,
deletion, or manipulation of a single trait in an
organism to create a desired change. In most cases, the
aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does
not occur naturally in the species.
• The first GM crop was produced in 1982, an antibiotic
resistant tobacco plant.
• Corn:
Corn is the most commonly grown crop in the United States,
and most of it is GMO. Most GMO corn is created to resist
insect pests or tolerate herbicides.
• Soybean:
Most soy grown in the United States is GMO soy. Most GMO
soy is used for food for animals, predominantly poultry and
livestock, and making soybean oil. It is also used as
ingredients (lecithin, emulsifiers, and proteins) in processed
foods.
• Cotton:
GMO cotton was created to be resistant to bollworms and helped
revive the Alabama cotton industry. GMO cotton not only
provides a reliable source of cotton for the textile industry, it is
also used to make cottonseed oil, which is used in packaged foods
and in many restaurants for frying. GMO cottonseed meal and
hulls are also used in food for animals.
• Alfalfa:
GMO alfalfa is primarily used to feed cattle—mostly dairy cows.
Most GMO alfalfa is resistant to herbicides, allowing farmers to
spray the crops to protect them against destructive weeds that can
reduce alfalfa production and lower the nutritional quality of the
hay.
• Apple:
A few varieties of GMO apples were developed to resist browning
after being cut. This helps cut down on food waste, as many
consumers think brown apples are spoiled.
Author: Buu MyMy
Publication Date: 2003
ABSTRACT
• The quantity of genetically modified (GM) foods has been
consistently increasing while public concern grows. GM foods
have been designed to be resistant to herbicides and high
salinity, increase yields, increase esthetic appeal, use as
vaccines, and increase nutritional value. Golden Rice is a GM
crop intended to increase dietary vitamin A. A serious health
problem in developing countries, vitamin A deficiency can lead
to blindness and premature death. Rice, a food staple produces
geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), an early precursor of beta-
carotene. The whole beta-carotene biosynthesis pathway (2
daffodil genes and 1 bacterium gene) was engineered with into
rice endosperm to convert the GGPP to beta-carotene. The
product, Golden Rice, yields 1.6 – 2.0 μg beta-carotene/g of dry
rice. Beta-carotene is not toxic and can be stored by body. The
body converts beta-carotene into Vitamin A, which is toxic at
high levels. Golden Rice has potential to be a valuable asset
against global Vitamin A deficiency.
Golden rice and vitamin A:
• It is important to understand that golden rice is considered a type of
genetically modified rice (GMO). It is a fortified food that is
produced to combat a vitamin A deficiency in areas where this
vitamin is scarce. More and more people are being diagnosed with a
vitamin A deficiency. In fact, young children are the most vulnerable
to vitamin-related deficiencies. A vitamin A deficiency can severely
affect a child’s eyesight; weaken his/her immune system function
and increase his/her risk of chronic conditions.
• According to WHO, Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a health problem
in countries like Africa and Southeast Asia. There are some
statistics.
• Approximately 400 million people in the world are at the risk of
VAD.
• UNICEF estimated that 124 million children in the world are affected
by VAD.
• Around 250,000 to 500,000 malnourished children go blind each
year due to VAD.
• 30% of 1 to 2.5 million total deaths of preschool children could be
prevented by controlling VAD worldwide.
Lowers Risk
of
Infections,
Cancers and
Diseases
Reduces High
Blood Pressure
and High
Cholesterol
Reduces
Gastrointestinal
Distress
Positive impacts of Golden Rice
Improves
vision
There are
concerns that
food from GM
plants might
harm peopl
Beta carotene
levels in golden
rice may not be
high.
There are fears
that it will cross-
breed with and
contaminate
wild rice
Negative impacts of Golden Rice
Seed for
GM plants
can be
expensive
Refrences:
1.https://www.phytojournal.com/archives/2018/vol7
issue1/PartAG/7-1-178-291.pdf
2.https://www.fda.gov/food/agricultural-
biotechnology/gmo-crops-animal-food-and-beyond
3. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/2h01f05c#main
4.https://www.slideshare.net/MuhammadAnas96/h
ow-golden-rice-is-made
5.https://byjus.com/question-answer/what-are-the-
disadvantages-of-golden-rice/

More Related Content

Similar to GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM'S PRESENTATION.ppt

Genetically modified crops and food Security..scientific facts
Genetically modified crops and food Security..scientific factsGenetically modified crops and food Security..scientific facts
Genetically modified crops and food Security..scientific facts
Rajdeeep sidhu
 
geneticallymodifiedcrops-130712064832-phpapp01-converted.pptx
geneticallymodifiedcrops-130712064832-phpapp01-converted.pptxgeneticallymodifiedcrops-130712064832-phpapp01-converted.pptx
geneticallymodifiedcrops-130712064832-phpapp01-converted.pptx
SadiaBatool90
 
Genetically modified organism
Genetically modified organismGenetically modified organism
Genetically modified organism
erikatrinidad
 
Genetically Modified Organisms
Genetically Modified  OrganismsGenetically Modified  Organisms
Genetically Modified Organisms
R.S. McLaughlin C.V.I.
 
GM food
GM foodGM food
GM food
AshrafAlhamod
 
Nutritional measures to overcome malnutrition
Nutritional measures to overcome malnutritionNutritional measures to overcome malnutrition
Nutritional measures to overcome malnutrition
ShivaniM14
 
Genetically modified food
Genetically modified foodGenetically modified food
Genetically modified food
rachmartin
 
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)
Saeed Malik
 
Gm crops for long term food security
Gm crops for long term food securityGm crops for long term food security
Gm crops for long term food security
Geetanjali kumari kharwar
 
Genetic modification
Genetic modificationGenetic modification
Genetic modification
Nombuso Siphiwe Khumalo
 
Gmf
GmfGmf
Hazrads of genetically modified foods
Hazrads of genetically modified foodsHazrads of genetically modified foods
Hazrads of genetically modified foods
Asma Bano
 
Genetically Modified Organisms and Biotechnology
Genetically Modified Organisms and BiotechnologyGenetically Modified Organisms and Biotechnology
Genetically Modified Organisms and Biotechnology
MorrisCenteno2
 
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) - Science, Biology
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) - Science, Biology Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) - Science, Biology
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) - Science, Biology
IvanArcenafutureseaman1234
 
Gm foods
Gm foodsGm foods
Gm foods
RSGaudham
 
Powerpoint Presentation of GMO by Joshua H. Cabarle BSED I-C
Powerpoint Presentation of GMO by Joshua H. Cabarle BSED I-CPowerpoint Presentation of GMO by Joshua H. Cabarle BSED I-C
Powerpoint Presentation of GMO by Joshua H. Cabarle BSED I-C
CABARLE
 
Agro-Buzz | GM crops:The True Picture
Agro-Buzz | GM crops:The True PictureAgro-Buzz | GM crops:The True Picture
Agro-Buzz | GM crops:The True Picture
GodrejAgrovet
 
ppt.pptx
ppt.pptxppt.pptx
ppt.pptx
SadiaBatool90
 
Gem ppt-14-genetically modified foods
Gem ppt-14-genetically modified foodsGem ppt-14-genetically modified foods
Gem ppt-14-genetically modified foods
ijcparish
 
GM Crops for long term food and Nutritional Security”
GM Crops for long term food and  Nutritional Security”GM Crops for long term food and  Nutritional Security”
GM Crops for long term food and Nutritional Security”
ShekhAlisha
 

Similar to GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM'S PRESENTATION.ppt (20)

Genetically modified crops and food Security..scientific facts
Genetically modified crops and food Security..scientific factsGenetically modified crops and food Security..scientific facts
Genetically modified crops and food Security..scientific facts
 
geneticallymodifiedcrops-130712064832-phpapp01-converted.pptx
geneticallymodifiedcrops-130712064832-phpapp01-converted.pptxgeneticallymodifiedcrops-130712064832-phpapp01-converted.pptx
geneticallymodifiedcrops-130712064832-phpapp01-converted.pptx
 
Genetically modified organism
Genetically modified organismGenetically modified organism
Genetically modified organism
 
Genetically Modified Organisms
Genetically Modified  OrganismsGenetically Modified  Organisms
Genetically Modified Organisms
 
GM food
GM foodGM food
GM food
 
Nutritional measures to overcome malnutrition
Nutritional measures to overcome malnutritionNutritional measures to overcome malnutrition
Nutritional measures to overcome malnutrition
 
Genetically modified food
Genetically modified foodGenetically modified food
Genetically modified food
 
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)
 
Gm crops for long term food security
Gm crops for long term food securityGm crops for long term food security
Gm crops for long term food security
 
Genetic modification
Genetic modificationGenetic modification
Genetic modification
 
Gmf
GmfGmf
Gmf
 
Hazrads of genetically modified foods
Hazrads of genetically modified foodsHazrads of genetically modified foods
Hazrads of genetically modified foods
 
Genetically Modified Organisms and Biotechnology
Genetically Modified Organisms and BiotechnologyGenetically Modified Organisms and Biotechnology
Genetically Modified Organisms and Biotechnology
 
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) - Science, Biology
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) - Science, Biology Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) - Science, Biology
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) - Science, Biology
 
Gm foods
Gm foodsGm foods
Gm foods
 
Powerpoint Presentation of GMO by Joshua H. Cabarle BSED I-C
Powerpoint Presentation of GMO by Joshua H. Cabarle BSED I-CPowerpoint Presentation of GMO by Joshua H. Cabarle BSED I-C
Powerpoint Presentation of GMO by Joshua H. Cabarle BSED I-C
 
Agro-Buzz | GM crops:The True Picture
Agro-Buzz | GM crops:The True PictureAgro-Buzz | GM crops:The True Picture
Agro-Buzz | GM crops:The True Picture
 
ppt.pptx
ppt.pptxppt.pptx
ppt.pptx
 
Gem ppt-14-genetically modified foods
Gem ppt-14-genetically modified foodsGem ppt-14-genetically modified foods
Gem ppt-14-genetically modified foods
 
GM Crops for long term food and Nutritional Security”
GM Crops for long term food and  Nutritional Security”GM Crops for long term food and  Nutritional Security”
GM Crops for long term food and Nutritional Security”
 

Recently uploaded

快速办理(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证一模一样
快速办理(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证一模一样快速办理(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证一模一样
快速办理(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证一模一样
hozt8xgk
 
AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf
AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdfAJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf
AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf
AJAY KUMAR
 
Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...
Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...
Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...
Leonel Morgado
 
Gadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdf
Gadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdfGadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdf
Gadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdf
PirithiRaju
 
Sexuality - Issues, Attitude and Behaviour - Applied Social Psychology - Psyc...
Sexuality - Issues, Attitude and Behaviour - Applied Social Psychology - Psyc...Sexuality - Issues, Attitude and Behaviour - Applied Social Psychology - Psyc...
Sexuality - Issues, Attitude and Behaviour - Applied Social Psychology - Psyc...
PsychoTech Services
 
JAMES WEBB STUDY THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE SEEDS
JAMES WEBB STUDY THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE SEEDSJAMES WEBB STUDY THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE SEEDS
JAMES WEBB STUDY THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE SEEDS
Sérgio Sacani
 
Physiology of Nervous System presentation.pptx
Physiology of Nervous System presentation.pptxPhysiology of Nervous System presentation.pptx
Physiology of Nervous System presentation.pptx
fatima132662
 
Male reproduction physiology by Suyash Garg .pptx
Male reproduction physiology by Suyash Garg .pptxMale reproduction physiology by Suyash Garg .pptx
Male reproduction physiology by Suyash Garg .pptx
suyashempire
 
Summary Of transcription and Translation.pdf
Summary Of transcription and Translation.pdfSummary Of transcription and Translation.pdf
Summary Of transcription and Translation.pdf
vadgavevedant86
 
gastroretentive drug delivery system-PPT.pptx
gastroretentive drug delivery system-PPT.pptxgastroretentive drug delivery system-PPT.pptx
gastroretentive drug delivery system-PPT.pptx
Shekar Boddu
 
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selectionThe cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
Carl Bergstrom
 
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdfMethods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
PirithiRaju
 
Pests of Storage_Identification_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of Storage_Identification_Dr.UPR.pdfPests of Storage_Identification_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of Storage_Identification_Dr.UPR.pdf
PirithiRaju
 
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
vluwdy49
 
Compexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titration
Compexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titrationCompexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titration
Compexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titration
Vandana Devesh Sharma
 
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of ProteinsGBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
Areesha Ahmad
 
Direct Seeded Rice - Climate Smart Agriculture
Direct Seeded Rice - Climate Smart AgricultureDirect Seeded Rice - Climate Smart Agriculture
Direct Seeded Rice - Climate Smart Agriculture
International Food Policy Research Institute- South Asia Office
 
LEARNING TO LIVE WITH LAWS OF MOTION .pptx
LEARNING TO LIVE WITH LAWS OF MOTION .pptxLEARNING TO LIVE WITH LAWS OF MOTION .pptx
LEARNING TO LIVE WITH LAWS OF MOTION .pptx
yourprojectpartner05
 
Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...
Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...
Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...
Sérgio Sacani
 
(June 12, 2024) Webinar: Development of PET theranostics targeting the molecu...
(June 12, 2024) Webinar: Development of PET theranostics targeting the molecu...(June 12, 2024) Webinar: Development of PET theranostics targeting the molecu...
(June 12, 2024) Webinar: Development of PET theranostics targeting the molecu...
Scintica Instrumentation
 

Recently uploaded (20)

快速办理(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证一模一样
快速办理(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证一模一样快速办理(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证一模一样
快速办理(UAM毕业证书)马德里自治大学毕业证学位证一模一样
 
AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf
AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdfAJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf
AJAY KUMAR NIET GreNo Guava Project File.pdf
 
Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...
Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...
Authoring a personal GPT for your research and practice: How we created the Q...
 
Gadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdf
Gadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdfGadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdf
Gadgets for management of stored product pests_Dr.UPR.pdf
 
Sexuality - Issues, Attitude and Behaviour - Applied Social Psychology - Psyc...
Sexuality - Issues, Attitude and Behaviour - Applied Social Psychology - Psyc...Sexuality - Issues, Attitude and Behaviour - Applied Social Psychology - Psyc...
Sexuality - Issues, Attitude and Behaviour - Applied Social Psychology - Psyc...
 
JAMES WEBB STUDY THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE SEEDS
JAMES WEBB STUDY THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE SEEDSJAMES WEBB STUDY THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE SEEDS
JAMES WEBB STUDY THE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE SEEDS
 
Physiology of Nervous System presentation.pptx
Physiology of Nervous System presentation.pptxPhysiology of Nervous System presentation.pptx
Physiology of Nervous System presentation.pptx
 
Male reproduction physiology by Suyash Garg .pptx
Male reproduction physiology by Suyash Garg .pptxMale reproduction physiology by Suyash Garg .pptx
Male reproduction physiology by Suyash Garg .pptx
 
Summary Of transcription and Translation.pdf
Summary Of transcription and Translation.pdfSummary Of transcription and Translation.pdf
Summary Of transcription and Translation.pdf
 
gastroretentive drug delivery system-PPT.pptx
gastroretentive drug delivery system-PPT.pptxgastroretentive drug delivery system-PPT.pptx
gastroretentive drug delivery system-PPT.pptx
 
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selectionThe cost of acquiring information by natural selection
The cost of acquiring information by natural selection
 
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdfMethods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
Methods of grain storage Structures in India.pdf
 
Pests of Storage_Identification_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of Storage_Identification_Dr.UPR.pdfPests of Storage_Identification_Dr.UPR.pdf
Pests of Storage_Identification_Dr.UPR.pdf
 
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
在线办理(salfor毕业证书)索尔福德大学毕业证毕业完成信一模一样
 
Compexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titration
Compexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titrationCompexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titration
Compexometric titration/Chelatorphy titration/chelating titration
 
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of ProteinsGBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 6) Chemistry of Proteins
 
Direct Seeded Rice - Climate Smart Agriculture
Direct Seeded Rice - Climate Smart AgricultureDirect Seeded Rice - Climate Smart Agriculture
Direct Seeded Rice - Climate Smart Agriculture
 
LEARNING TO LIVE WITH LAWS OF MOTION .pptx
LEARNING TO LIVE WITH LAWS OF MOTION .pptxLEARNING TO LIVE WITH LAWS OF MOTION .pptx
LEARNING TO LIVE WITH LAWS OF MOTION .pptx
 
Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...
Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...
Candidate young stellar objects in the S-cluster: Kinematic analysis of a sub...
 
(June 12, 2024) Webinar: Development of PET theranostics targeting the molecu...
(June 12, 2024) Webinar: Development of PET theranostics targeting the molecu...(June 12, 2024) Webinar: Development of PET theranostics targeting the molecu...
(June 12, 2024) Webinar: Development of PET theranostics targeting the molecu...
 

GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM'S PRESENTATION.ppt

  • 2. CONTENT • What is GMOs? • Advantages of GMOs • Disavantages of GMOs • Types of Gmos • How GMOs created? • Example of Genetically modified Crops • Article: “Golden Rice: Genetically Modified to Reduce Vitamin A Deficiency, Benefit or Hazard?” • .
  • 3. INTRODUCTION What are Gmos? A GMO (genetically modified organism) is a plant, animal, or microorganism that has had its genetic material (DNA) changed using technology that generally involves the specific modification of DNA, including the transfer of specific DNA from one organism to another.
  • 4. Advantages of GMOS •Pest resistant •GMOs are simpler to grow. •Herbicide tolerant. •GMO crops use fewer chemicals than other crops. •GMOs can conserve water, soil, and energy.
  • 5. Disadvantages of GMOS • Toxicity • Allergic Reactions • Antibiotic Resistance • Immuno-suppression • Cancer • Loss of Nutrition
  • 7. • Step 1 - DNA Extraction • Step 2 - Copying the Gene How GMOs have been Created?
  • 8. How GMOs have been Created? • Step 3 - Modifying the Gene • Step 4 - Putting the New Gene into a Plant. Step 5 - Breeding Transgenic Plant with an Elite Line
  • 9. Genetically modified Crops Introduction • Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering techniques. Genetic engineering is the simple addition, deletion, or manipulation of a single trait in an organism to create a desired change. In most cases, the aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species. • The first GM crop was produced in 1982, an antibiotic resistant tobacco plant.
  • 10. • Corn: Corn is the most commonly grown crop in the United States, and most of it is GMO. Most GMO corn is created to resist insect pests or tolerate herbicides. • Soybean: Most soy grown in the United States is GMO soy. Most GMO soy is used for food for animals, predominantly poultry and livestock, and making soybean oil. It is also used as ingredients (lecithin, emulsifiers, and proteins) in processed foods.
  • 11. • Cotton: GMO cotton was created to be resistant to bollworms and helped revive the Alabama cotton industry. GMO cotton not only provides a reliable source of cotton for the textile industry, it is also used to make cottonseed oil, which is used in packaged foods and in many restaurants for frying. GMO cottonseed meal and hulls are also used in food for animals. • Alfalfa: GMO alfalfa is primarily used to feed cattle—mostly dairy cows. Most GMO alfalfa is resistant to herbicides, allowing farmers to spray the crops to protect them against destructive weeds that can reduce alfalfa production and lower the nutritional quality of the hay. • Apple: A few varieties of GMO apples were developed to resist browning after being cut. This helps cut down on food waste, as many consumers think brown apples are spoiled.
  • 13. ABSTRACT • The quantity of genetically modified (GM) foods has been consistently increasing while public concern grows. GM foods have been designed to be resistant to herbicides and high salinity, increase yields, increase esthetic appeal, use as vaccines, and increase nutritional value. Golden Rice is a GM crop intended to increase dietary vitamin A. A serious health problem in developing countries, vitamin A deficiency can lead to blindness and premature death. Rice, a food staple produces geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), an early precursor of beta- carotene. The whole beta-carotene biosynthesis pathway (2 daffodil genes and 1 bacterium gene) was engineered with into rice endosperm to convert the GGPP to beta-carotene. The product, Golden Rice, yields 1.6 – 2.0 μg beta-carotene/g of dry rice. Beta-carotene is not toxic and can be stored by body. The body converts beta-carotene into Vitamin A, which is toxic at high levels. Golden Rice has potential to be a valuable asset against global Vitamin A deficiency.
  • 14. Golden rice and vitamin A: • It is important to understand that golden rice is considered a type of genetically modified rice (GMO). It is a fortified food that is produced to combat a vitamin A deficiency in areas where this vitamin is scarce. More and more people are being diagnosed with a vitamin A deficiency. In fact, young children are the most vulnerable to vitamin-related deficiencies. A vitamin A deficiency can severely affect a child’s eyesight; weaken his/her immune system function and increase his/her risk of chronic conditions. • According to WHO, Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a health problem in countries like Africa and Southeast Asia. There are some statistics. • Approximately 400 million people in the world are at the risk of VAD. • UNICEF estimated that 124 million children in the world are affected by VAD. • Around 250,000 to 500,000 malnourished children go blind each year due to VAD. • 30% of 1 to 2.5 million total deaths of preschool children could be prevented by controlling VAD worldwide.
  • 15.
  • 16. Lowers Risk of Infections, Cancers and Diseases Reduces High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol Reduces Gastrointestinal Distress Positive impacts of Golden Rice Improves vision
  • 17. There are concerns that food from GM plants might harm peopl Beta carotene levels in golden rice may not be high. There are fears that it will cross- breed with and contaminate wild rice Negative impacts of Golden Rice Seed for GM plants can be expensive
  • 18.