SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 127
Download to read offline
Fasting
Fasting
Contents
Contents
ObligationofFasting
ObligationofFasting
Qurʾānic Command
‫َب‬‫ِت‬
‫ُك‬
‫ا‬‫َم‬‫َك‬ ‫ُم‬‫ا‬‫َي‬ ‫ِّص‬‫ٱل‬ ‫ُم‬‫ُك‬‫ْي‬‫َل‬‫َع‬ ‫َب‬‫ِت‬
‫ُك‬
‫و‬‫َمُن‬‫ا‬‫َء‬ ‫َن‬‫ي‬‫ِذ‬
‫َّل‬
‫ٱ‬ ‫ا‬‫َه‬‫ُّي‬‫َأ‬
‫ٰٓـ‬‫َي‬
‫َن‬
‫و‬
‫ُق‬‫َّت‬‫َت‬ ‫ْم‬‫ُك‬‫َّل‬‫َع‬‫َل‬ ‫ْم‬‫ُك‬
‫ِل‬
‫ْب‬‫َق‬
‫ِمن‬ ‫َن‬‫ي‬‫ِذ‬
‫َّل‬
‫ٱ‬ ‫ى‬
‫َل‬‫َع‬
O you who believe, fasting is prescribed for you,
as it was prescribed for those before you, so that
you may be mindful of God.
(Sūrah al-Baqarah, 1:183)
Prophetic Ḥadīth
‫َّن‬‫َأ‬‫َو‬ ‫ُه‬‫َّل‬
‫ال‬ ‫ا‬
‫َّل‬
‫إ‬ ‫َه‬‫َل‬
‫إ‬ ‫ا‬
‫َل‬ ‫ْن‬‫َأ‬
‫ِة‬‫َد‬
‫ا‬‫َه‬‫َش‬
‫ٍس‬
‫ْم‬‫َخ‬
‫ى‬
‫َل‬‫َع‬ ‫ُم‬‫ا‬
‫َل‬‫ْس‬
‫ِإ‬
‫ْل‬
‫ا‬ ‫َي‬‫ِن‬‫ُب‬
‫ِّج‬
‫َح‬‫َو‬ ‫ِة‬‫ا‬
‫َك‬‫َّز‬
‫ال‬ ‫ِء‬‫ا‬‫َت‬‫ي‬‫ِإ‬
‫َو‬ ‫ِة‬‫ا‬
‫َل‬ ‫َّص‬
‫ال‬ ‫ِم‬‫ا‬
‫َق‬
‫ِإ‬
‫َو‬ ‫ِه‬
‫َّل‬
‫ال‬
‫ُل‬
‫و‬‫ُس‬‫َر‬ ‫ا‬‫ًد‬‫َّم‬‫ُمَح‬
‫َن‬
‫ا‬
‫َض‬‫َم‬‫َر‬ ‫ِم‬‫ْو‬ ‫َص‬‫َو‬ ‫ِت‬‫ْي‬‫َب‬‫ْل‬
‫ا‬
Islam has been built on five [pillars]: testifying that there is no
god but Allah and that Muḥammad is the Messenger of Allah,
establishing Ṣalāh, paying the Zakāh, making the pilgrimage to
the House [of Allah, i.e, Kaʿbah], and fasting in Ramaḍān.
(Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim)
DefinitionofFasting
DefinitionofFasting
Fasting (Ṣawm)
Linguistic Meaning Legal Meaning
to abstain “... to abstain from eating,
drinking, and sexual intercourse
during the daylight hours, with
an intention of fasting,
performed by one capable and
required to do so.”
“... to abstain from eating, drinking, and
sexual intercourse during the daylight
hours, with an intention of fasting,
performed by one capable and required to
do so.”
something
nutritious
something
not food or drink
but in the ruling of
food and drink
something
customarily eaten
“... to abstain from eating, drinking, and
sexual intercourse during the daylight
hours, with an intention of fasting,
performed by one capable and required to
do so.”
Dawn
(Fajr Start)
Sunrise
(Fajr End)
Ẓuhr ʿAṣr Maghrib
(Sunset)
daylight hours
“... to abstain from eating, drinking, and
sexual intercourse during the daylight
hours, with an intention of fasting,
performed by one capable and required to
do so.”
intention:
not required to say
anything with the
tongue
firm resolve in
your heart to
perform an act
of worship
“... to abstain from eating, drinking, and
sexual intercourse during the daylight
hours, with an intention of fasting,
performed by one capable and required to
do so.”
Upon Whom is Fasting Obligatory
if they are:
1. physically able to fast
2. free from menstruation and lochia (post-natal bleeding)
3. resident, i.e., not traveling
Muslim Sane (ʿĀqil) Mature (Bāligh)
1 2 3
Intention
Intention
principle
intention has to be made
before each fast for it to count
too busy and
forgot to eat or
drink from dawn
to sunset
fast
because no
intention of
worship
Time for Intention
Islamic Midday (Ḍaḥwatal-Kubrā)
midway time between
dawn (Fajr start time) and
sunset (Maghrib)
Dawn
(Fajr Start)
Sunrise
(Fajr End)
Ẓuhr ʿAṣr Maghrib
(Sunset)
4:00 AM 12:00 PM 8:00 PM
8 hrs 8 hrs
Ḍaḥwat
al-Kubrā
Makeup (qaḍāʾ) fasts of Ramaḍān
Fasts of expiation (kaffārah)
Fasts of Ramaḍān in its month (adāʾ )
Optional fasts (nafl)
from Maghrib of the
night before till midday
(ḍaḥwat al-kubrā) of the
following day
intention of a Ramaḍān fast:
DesirableActsinFasting
DesirableActsinFasting
(Mustaḥabbāt)
(Mustaḥabbāt)
To partake of suḥūr (the meal
eaten prior to beginning the
fast in the morning)
1
“Eat suḥūr, for indeed there is
blessing in it.”
(Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī)
To partake of dates in suḥūr
2
“How excellent are dates as the
believer’s suḥūr.”
(Abū Dāwūd)
To delay the suḥūr up to a
little before dawn (ṣubḥ ṣādiq)
3
“Verily, we the group of prophets,
have been commanded to delay our
suḥūr.”
(Ibn Ḥibbān)
To end one’s fast immediately
after the sunset by consuming
something, and not to delay
in doing so
4
“The people will remain on goodness as long as
they hasten the opening of the fast.”
(Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī)
To break one’s fast with dates
(fresh or dry) if available; if
dates are not available, then
water is the alternative.
5
“The Messenger of Allah used to open his fast with
some fresh dates before he prayed. If there were no
fresh dates, then with some dry dates. If there were no
(dry dates), then he would drink a few sips of water.”
(Abū Dāwūd)
UndesirableActsinFasting
UndesirableActsinFasting
(Makrūhāt)
(Makrūhāt)
To chew gum, rubber, etc.
To taste any food or drink and then to spit it out.
To collect one’s saliva in the mouth and then to
swallow it, trying to quench thirst.
To intentionally delay an obligatory bath (ghusl)
until after dawn.
To use toothpaste to clean one’s teeth.
(It is permitted to clean using a miswāk.)
1
2
3
4
5
To complain of hunger and thirst.
To take water up the nostrils more than necessary
when cleaning the nose.
To gargle more than necessary.
To quarrel, argue, or use filthy language.
To backbite, tell a lie, and swear, etc.
(These are sinful acts even when one is not fasting.
Therefore, they entail greater sin if done when fasting.)
6
7
8
9
10
InvalidatorsofFasting
InvalidatorsofFasting
(Mufsidāt)
(Mufsidāt)
Kaffārah:
explained later
intercourse ejaculation due
to a physical
stimulus
Qaḍāʾ &
Kaffārah
Qaḍāʾ Only
something
nutritious
something
MORE DETAIL
What is meant by food & drink?
substance
entry point/cavity
place it reached
excuse
Look at 4 things:
Substances of Consequence
1.
Solid
Liquid Gas
Should have a perceptible
body that can be seen, like
smoke of an inhaler, a
cigarette, etc.
2. Entry Points/Cavities of Consequence
Mouth
Thus, other entry points, such
as the ears, eyes, etc., are NOT
cavities of consequence.
Nose
Back Passage
Only those entry points are considered
that are medically established to have a
connection to the digestive system.
Masʿalah
Therefore, ear drops will not invalidate
the fast.
However, if someone has a perforated eardrum
(the eardrum is broken), it will invalidate the fast.
The fast will be invalidated when...
a substance of consequence,
enters through a cavity of consequence...
3. Places of Consequence
Digestive
System
Throat
Stomach
Intestines
The fast will be invalidated when...
a substance of consequence,
enters through a cavity of consequence,
reaches a place of consequence...
4. Excuse
Forgetfulness (details later)
Food stuck in the teeth if smaller than a chickpea (details
later)
Things that one is not able to guard oneself against, and if
one were to do so, then it would entail unbearable
hardship, such as:
Water that remains in the mouth and nose from wuḍūʾ
Possible damp when one is showering
Mucus, Snot, and Saliva
Saliva that may end up on the lips from talking
Bugs and flies entering your mouth involuntarily
4. Excuse
Examples of Invalid Sharʿī Excuses
Accidents
Invalidating the fast out of necessity
Unawareness or not having knowledge
Sleeping
Unconsciousness
Insanity
Being forced
a substance of consequence,
In conclusion, when:
1.
2. enters through a cavity of consequence,
3. reaches a place of consequence, and
4. there is no excuse...
the fast will be
invalidated.
How do we know what is necessary?
InvalidatorsthatNecessitate
InvalidatorsthatNecessitate
QaḍāʾandKaffārah
QaḍāʾandKaffārah
Eating, drinking or breaking
the fast in any other manner,
deliberately without a valid reason
Qaḍāʾ and Kaffārah Necessary
1
To take any type of medicine
intentionally (i.e., through the
mouth or applied through the nose)
without a valid reason
(Note: intravenous or intramuscular
injections do not break the fast)
Qaḍāʾ and Kaffārah Necessary
2
To have sexual intercourse
intentionally while remembering
that one is fasting
Qaḍāʾ and Kaffārah Necessary
3
Eating, drinking or breaking the fast in any other
manner, deliberately without a valid reason
To take any type of medicine intentionally (i.e.,
through the mouth or applied through the nose)
(Note: intravenous or intramuscular injections
do not break the fast)
To have sexual intercourse intentionally while
remembering that one is fasting
Qaḍāʾ and Kaffārah Necessary
1
2
3
know you are fasting
eat/drink something
on purpose
Deliberate Forgetful Accidental
forget you are fasting
eat/drink something
on purpose
know you are fasting
eat/drink something
accidentally
(something goes down
your throat)
No Consequence
Qaḍāʾ &
Kaffārah
only Qaḍāʾ
InvalidatorsthatNecessitate
InvalidatorsthatNecessitate
OnlyQaḍāʾ
OnlyQaḍāʾ
Effective intercourse
ejaculation due to self-stimulation
Accidentally eating
(know you are fasting)
Intentionally swallowing a pebble,
paper, or any item that isn’t
normally used as food or medicine
(things that fall under the category
of ‘effective’ food & drink)
Thinking Fajr hasn’t started and
continuing to eat
(due to a faulty watch, for example)
Breaking the fast before the time of
Maghrib, thinking sunset already
happened
Inhaling medicine through
the mouth or nose
Swallowing water by accident
when gargling for wuḍūʾ or ghusl
(with the exception of water that
remains in the mouth)
Anything put by force into the
mouth of a fasting person which is
consequently swallowed
(it came previously that being
forced is not a sharʿī excuse)
To purposely inhale smoke or
steam, or anything with a
perceptible body
Swallowing toothpaste
or mouthwash
Swallowing the blood from
the gums, if the blood is more
than the saliva with which it
is mixed
Vomit
no consequence
qaḍāʾ
necessary
no qaḍāʾ
unless
swallowed deliberately
hence, if swallowed involuntarily,
no consequence
qaḍāʾ necessary
qaḍāʾ
necessary
no consequence
Food Stuck in the Teeth
Non-Invalidators
Non-Invalidators
principle
For a fast to get invalidated,
a substance of consequence [solid, liquid, or discernible gas]
enters through an opening of consequence [nose, throat, or
back passage]
reaches a place of consequence [throat, stomach, or intestines]
and there is no excuse.
easy for us to identify the non-invalidators:
Eyedrops
do not invalidate the fast
because
the eyes are not an opening of consequence
do not invalidate the fast
because
the ears are not an opening of consequence
(unless the ears are perforated)
Eardrops
Injections
do not invalidate the fast
because
they are not given through an opening of consequence
(insulin injections injected directly into the stomach
will invalidate the fast)
Mosquito, fly, dirt, dust, etc. going
down the throat unintentionally
do not invalidate the fast
because
there is an excuse
Blood Tests & Withdrawing Blood
do not invalidate the fast
because
nothing of consequence is entering any opening of
consequence
if the person will become extremely weak due to the
blood test, it will be disliked (makrūh) to take the test
Nicotine Patches
do not invalidate the fast
because
it is not entering any opening of consequence
Taking a bath to keep cool
Vomiting unintentionally
Brushing the teeth
without toothpaste
do not invalidate the fast
in principle does not invalidate the fast
however,
there is a strong possibility of some substance, such as water from the
cleaning dispenser, going down the throat, thus invalidating the fast.
Therefore, it is advisable to postpone the tooth extraction.
(If there is severe need, one should try his best that blood does not enter
the throat. If blood enters the throat, the fast will be nullified if the
amount of blood exceeds the amount of saliva or if both are equal.)
Tooth Extraction
Note:
what has been mentioned is the general rule,
simplified for easy understanding
for specific cases, refer to local, reliable ʿulamāʾ
Expiation
Expiation
(Kaffārah)
(Kaffārah)
Fast 60 days consecutively.
If one day is missed in-
between, you will have
to start over again.
However, if a woman experiences
menstruation during these days, due to which
she was unable fast, it will not be regarded as
discontinuity.
If one is unable to do this, due to an unrecoverable
and continuous illness or old age, then:
Feed 60 poor people
two meals for a day
Feed one poor person
two meals for sixty days
1 2
Give 60 poor people
3½ lbs. of wheat, or its
value in cash, rice, or
food grains, etc.
Give one poor person 3½
Ibs. of wheat, or its value
in cash, rice or food
grains, etc., for sixty days
3 4
Along with fasting the 60
consecutive days, the person will
also have to fast one more day as
qaḍāʾ for the broken fast.
60 Days + 1 Day = 61 Days
Expiation
(Kaffārah)
Makeup
(Qaḍāʾ) Total
Kaffārah is only for breaking a
Ramaḍān fast.
Breaking a nafl fast necessitates
qaḍāʾ only.
ExemptionsfromFasting
ExemptionsfromFasting
(ʿAwāriḍ)
(ʿAwāriḍ)
Sickness
fasting will make
them more sick
fasting will delay
their recovery
will make up the fast later
(if unable to do so due to a chronic illness,
he will give fidyah)
fasting will make
them more sick
fasting will
significantly delay
their recovery
How will this be determined?
if it is a non-Muslim doctor,
or non-religious Muslim doctor,
or the doctor is scared to give a judgement for fear of being liable,
then the patient will take his word but will also use his own
judgement and look at his past experience
the doctor will be asked for his medical opinion
and not for a fatwā
the person is aware that every single year, in
this certain season that Ramaḍān happened to
fall in this year, he gets very sick...
it is very obvious that the person is
extremely ill and unable to fast that day
Masʿalah
If a person suffers from an illness or has an
asthma attack, and there is no option but to
take medicine or use an inhaler, it will be
permissible to break the fast.
However, he will have to do Qaḍāʾ.
Woman in Menses or
Postnatal Bleeding
will make up the fast later
Ramaḍān has begun
while she is in the
state of menstruation.
Menstruation starts
during the day.
Menstruation stops
during the day.
1 2 3
She should eat in a
manner that no
fasting person sees
her eating.
She should break
her fast and eat, but
in a manner that
no fasting person
sees her eating.
She should conduct herself
like a fasting person and
abstain from eating and
drinking for the rest of the
day.
Pregnant or Nursing Women
expected to fast
if there is legitimate harm for herself or the
baby, she can miss/break the fast
(same criteria for establishing harm as above)
will make up the fast later
Hunger & Thirst
if there is severe hunger or thirst that
may lead to extreme illness or death,
can miss/break the fast
will make up the fast later
Traveler
journey is more than 54 miles
does not intend to stay for more than
14 days
will make up the fast
later if he doesn't
fasting highly recommended
City Boundary
City Boundary
Current Time: 5:00
Dawn (Fajr Start): 5:00
even though he intends to travel later
in the day,
or he has already started his journey,
because he is still in his hometown
when Fajr enters:
has to fast
City Boundary
City Boundary
Current Time: 5:00
Dawn (Fajr Start): 5:00
because he is on his journey and
outside his hometown when Fajr
enters:
fasting highly
recommended
Fidyah
Fidyah
A very old person who does not have the
strength to fast,
or a very sickly or diseased person who has
no hope of recovering after Ramaḍān,
should pay an expiation (fidyah) for each fast
missed in Ramaḍān.
3½ lbs of wheat
or
7 lbs of barley
or
the equivalent of the above in cash
Fidyah Amount
Note: This can also be identified as the
amount given in Ṣadaqat al-Fiṭr.
If the person paid the fidyah, then recovers,
the missed fasts would have to made up and
the expiation paid would be considered
ṣadaqah.
Masʿalah
FAQsand
FAQsand
ImportantMasāʾil
ImportantMasāʾil
When should qaḍāʾ fasts be performed?
Question:
They should be performed as soon
as possible, as they must be
completed before we die.
Answer:
I haven't fasted all my life; do I need
to keep both qaḍāʾ and kaffārah?
Question:
No, only qaḍāʾ of the missing fasts is
necessary.
Answer:
What is the ruling for smoking while fasting?
Question:
Smoking will break the fast and
necessitate qaḍāʾ and kaffārah.
Answer:
Should children fast?
Question:
Minor (non-bāligh) children are not
obligated to fast, but should be
encouraged to fast from a young age.
Answer:
What should a person do if he has to break
his fast (due to a reason mentioned above)?
Question:
It is wājib to abstain from eating and
drinking for the rest of the day and
act like a fasting person.
Answer:
What happens if a person eats or drinks
forgetting that he is fasting?
Question:
The fast will not break and
no harm is done.
Answer:
Can I brush my teeth while fasting?
Question:
It is makrūh as there is a possibility it
mixes with the saliva and enters the
throat.
Answer:
While gargling during wuḍūʾ, some water reached
my throat by mistake; did my fast break?
Question:
Yes, the fast has broken as this was
accidental and not out of forgetfulness
(because you were aware you were fasting).
You will be required to perform qaḍāʾ.
Answer:
SummaryofInvalidatorsand
SummaryofInvalidatorsand
Non-Invalidators
Non-Invalidators
The Following Do Not Invalidate the Fast
Eating or drinking
forgetfully (whilst not
conscious of fast)
Swallowing one’s own saliva
Ear drops
Eye drops
Sniffing up mucus
Inhaling smoke or dust
unintentionally
Inhaling oxygen as long as
not combined with another
substance
Using nicotine patches,
creams, deodorant,
makeup or oil
Kissing or touching one’s
spouse
Involuntary ejaculation or
engaging in sexual
intercourse forgetfully
Backbiting or lying
The Following Do Not Invalidate the Fast
Starting the fast in the state
of major ritual impurity
Injection, blood transfusion,
or kidney dialysis
Blood test or any form of
blood extraction
Tooth extraction subject to
not swallowing the blood or
medicine
Swimming without
swallowing water
Miswāk or toothbrush
(toothpaste should be
avoided for risk of being
swallowed)
Vomiting unintentionally
or vomiting intentionally
less than a mouthful
Swallowing vomit that
emerges unintentionally
even if it is a mouthful
The Following Do Invalidate the Fast
Eating or drinking
deliberately or accidentally
(whilst conscious of fast)
Swallowing toothpaste or
mouthwash
Swallowing blood from
the gums or toothpaste
or mouthwash if they
dominate over the saliva
Swallowing the saliva of
one’s spouse
This includes:
Swallowing what is
between the teeth if it is
the size of a small
chickpea or larger
Nasal spray if the
medication passes the
throat
Medicine inhalers such
as an asthma inhaler
The Following Do Invalidate the Fast
Inhaling smoke deliberately;
Sexual intercourse deliberately
Ejaculation caused by physical stimulation;
Vomiting a mouthful deliberately
Returning a mouthful vomit down the throat
deliberately
Menstruation or post-natal bleeding
this includes smoking cigarettes
this includes masturbation
May Allāh subḥānahū wa-taʿālā accept our
actions, grant us all the tawfīq and ability
to act upon what we learn, and carry out
those actions that are pleasing to Him.
If you have any questions or comments,
or notice any errors in the presentation,
please feel free to .
contact us
Ar-Rahmah Institute
Ar-Rahmah Institute
V1.2.23

More Related Content

Similar to Fiqh of Fasting Fiqh of Fasting Fiqh of Fasting

tahara-120113014250-phpapp01.pdf
tahara-120113014250-phpapp01.pdftahara-120113014250-phpapp01.pdf
tahara-120113014250-phpapp01.pdfMOHAMMED ISHAQ
 
Islamic way of worship week 1,2 & 3
Islamic way of worship week 1,2 & 3Islamic way of worship week 1,2 & 3
Islamic way of worship week 1,2 & 3isoccleveland
 
Taharat(purity)
Taharat(purity)Taharat(purity)
Taharat(purity)SCHOOL
 
Method of Istinja (Cleaning Oneself after Defecation and Urination)
Method of Istinja (Cleaning Oneself after Defecation and Urination)Method of Istinja (Cleaning Oneself after Defecation and Urination)
Method of Istinja (Cleaning Oneself after Defecation and Urination)Ahmed@3604
 
Menstruation & Bleeding
Menstruation & BleedingMenstruation & Bleeding
Menstruation & Bleedingzakir2012
 
Clean the environmemt of the home before you begin your ruqyah.
Clean the environmemt of the home before you begin your ruqyah.Clean the environmemt of the home before you begin your ruqyah.
Clean the environmemt of the home before you begin your ruqyah.abd5050
 
A simple guide to the description of the ablution of the prophet
A simple guide to the description of the ablution of the prophetA simple guide to the description of the ablution of the prophet
A simple guide to the description of the ablution of the prophetSonali Jannat
 
How to clean the stomach from any effect of sihr(magic)
How to clean the stomach from any effect of sihr(magic)How to clean the stomach from any effect of sihr(magic)
How to clean the stomach from any effect of sihr(magic)abd5050
 
Tahaarat
TahaaratTahaarat
TahaaratHlcyn
 
Method of Ghusl
Method of Ghusl Method of Ghusl
Method of Ghusl Ahmed@3604
 
Islamic Book in English: Method of Ghusl Hanafi
Islamic Book in English: Method of Ghusl HanafiIslamic Book in English: Method of Ghusl Hanafi
Islamic Book in English: Method of Ghusl HanafiIslamic Library
 
Tadzkirah aug2010 fasting[slideshare]
Tadzkirah aug2010 fasting[slideshare]Tadzkirah aug2010 fasting[slideshare]
Tadzkirah aug2010 fasting[slideshare]Zhulkeflee Ismail
 
Ramadhan 8
Ramadhan 8Ramadhan 8
Ramadhan 8self
 
Ramadan, A date with Dr zakir Naik Episode 5 (acts that invalidate the fast)[...
Ramadan, A date with Dr zakir Naik Episode 5 (acts that invalidate the fast)[...Ramadan, A date with Dr zakir Naik Episode 5 (acts that invalidate the fast)[...
Ramadan, A date with Dr zakir Naik Episode 5 (acts that invalidate the fast)[...Xenia Y
 
Ramadan For Body & mind
Ramadan For Body & mindRamadan For Body & mind
Ramadan For Body & mindrabubakar
 
Ramadan For Body & Mind
Ramadan For Body & MindRamadan For Body & Mind
Ramadan For Body & Mindrabubakar
 

Similar to Fiqh of Fasting Fiqh of Fasting Fiqh of Fasting (20)

tahara-120113014250-phpapp01.pdf
tahara-120113014250-phpapp01.pdftahara-120113014250-phpapp01.pdf
tahara-120113014250-phpapp01.pdf
 
Islamic way of worship week 1,2 & 3
Islamic way of worship week 1,2 & 3Islamic way of worship week 1,2 & 3
Islamic way of worship week 1,2 & 3
 
Taharat(purity)
Taharat(purity)Taharat(purity)
Taharat(purity)
 
Method of Istinja (Cleaning Oneself after Defecation and Urination)
Method of Istinja (Cleaning Oneself after Defecation and Urination)Method of Istinja (Cleaning Oneself after Defecation and Urination)
Method of Istinja (Cleaning Oneself after Defecation and Urination)
 
Menstruation & Bleeding
Menstruation & BleedingMenstruation & Bleeding
Menstruation & Bleeding
 
Method of Wudhu, Ghusal & Salaah (Shafi')
Method of Wudhu, Ghusal & Salaah (Shafi')Method of Wudhu, Ghusal & Salaah (Shafi')
Method of Wudhu, Ghusal & Salaah (Shafi')
 
Clean the environmemt of the home before you begin your ruqyah.
Clean the environmemt of the home before you begin your ruqyah.Clean the environmemt of the home before you begin your ruqyah.
Clean the environmemt of the home before you begin your ruqyah.
 
A simple guide to the description of the ablution of the prophet
A simple guide to the description of the ablution of the prophetA simple guide to the description of the ablution of the prophet
A simple guide to the description of the ablution of the prophet
 
How to clean the stomach from any effect of sihr(magic)
How to clean the stomach from any effect of sihr(magic)How to clean the stomach from any effect of sihr(magic)
How to clean the stomach from any effect of sihr(magic)
 
Tahaarat
TahaaratTahaarat
Tahaarat
 
Method of Ghusl
Method of Ghusl Method of Ghusl
Method of Ghusl
 
Method of ghusl hanafi
Method of ghusl hanafiMethod of ghusl hanafi
Method of ghusl hanafi
 
Islamic Book in English: Method of Ghusl Hanafi
Islamic Book in English: Method of Ghusl HanafiIslamic Book in English: Method of Ghusl Hanafi
Islamic Book in English: Method of Ghusl Hanafi
 
Salah(2) Conditions
Salah(2) ConditionsSalah(2) Conditions
Salah(2) Conditions
 
Tadzkirah aug2010 fasting[slideshare]
Tadzkirah aug2010 fasting[slideshare]Tadzkirah aug2010 fasting[slideshare]
Tadzkirah aug2010 fasting[slideshare]
 
Ramadhan 8
Ramadhan 8Ramadhan 8
Ramadhan 8
 
Ramadan Body and Soul
Ramadan Body and SoulRamadan Body and Soul
Ramadan Body and Soul
 
Ramadan, A date with Dr zakir Naik Episode 5 (acts that invalidate the fast)[...
Ramadan, A date with Dr zakir Naik Episode 5 (acts that invalidate the fast)[...Ramadan, A date with Dr zakir Naik Episode 5 (acts that invalidate the fast)[...
Ramadan, A date with Dr zakir Naik Episode 5 (acts that invalidate the fast)[...
 
Ramadan For Body & mind
Ramadan For Body & mindRamadan For Body & mind
Ramadan For Body & mind
 
Ramadan For Body & Mind
Ramadan For Body & MindRamadan For Body & Mind
Ramadan For Body & Mind
 

Recently uploaded

What is Vincentian Spirituality? forming a community that shows the Lord’s lo...
What is Vincentian Spirituality? forming a community that shows the Lord’s lo...What is Vincentian Spirituality? forming a community that shows the Lord’s lo...
What is Vincentian Spirituality? forming a community that shows the Lord’s lo...Famvin: the Worldwide Vincentian Family
 
A Tsunami Tragedy ~ Wise Reflections for Troubled Times (Eng. & Chi.).pptx
A Tsunami Tragedy ~ Wise Reflections for Troubled Times (Eng. & Chi.).pptxA Tsunami Tragedy ~ Wise Reflections for Troubled Times (Eng. & Chi.).pptx
A Tsunami Tragedy ~ Wise Reflections for Troubled Times (Eng. & Chi.).pptxOH TEIK BIN
 
Lakshmi Narasimha Karavalamba Stotram.pdf
Lakshmi Narasimha Karavalamba Stotram.pdfLakshmi Narasimha Karavalamba Stotram.pdf
Lakshmi Narasimha Karavalamba Stotram.pdfstockpropredictor
 
empathy map for students very useful.pptx
empathy map for students very useful.pptxempathy map for students very useful.pptx
empathy map for students very useful.pptxGeorgePhilips7
 
Heartfulness Magazine - April 2024 (Volume 9, Issue 4)
Heartfulness Magazine - April 2024 (Volume 9, Issue 4)Heartfulness Magazine - April 2024 (Volume 9, Issue 4)
Heartfulness Magazine - April 2024 (Volume 9, Issue 4)heartfulness
 
Deerfoot Church of Christ Bulletin 2 25 24
Deerfoot Church of Christ Bulletin 2 25 24Deerfoot Church of Christ Bulletin 2 25 24
Deerfoot Church of Christ Bulletin 2 25 24deerfootcoc
 
Mapping out the Female Soul: Lucifer(a) and the Byzantine Prophecy; 6th-8th D...
Mapping out the Female Soul: Lucifer(a) and the Byzantine Prophecy; 6th-8th D...Mapping out the Female Soul: Lucifer(a) and the Byzantine Prophecy; 6th-8th D...
Mapping out the Female Soul: Lucifer(a) and the Byzantine Prophecy; 6th-8th D...Joseph Hargrove
 
Prach Autism AI - Artificial Intelligence
Prach Autism AI - Artificial IntelligencePrach Autism AI - Artificial Intelligence
Prach Autism AI - Artificial Intelligenceprachaibot
 
The April 2024 Good News newsletter to read online
The April 2024 Good News newsletter to read onlineThe April 2024 Good News newsletter to read online
The April 2024 Good News newsletter to read onlineNoHo FUMC
 
Top 5 Ancient Spots for Pind Daan in Gaya
Top 5 Ancient Spots for Pind Daan in GayaTop 5 Ancient Spots for Pind Daan in Gaya
Top 5 Ancient Spots for Pind Daan in GayaPitradev Pandit
 
Lesson 2 - The Choice between the Narrow Gate and the Wide Gate.pptx
Lesson 2 - The Choice between the Narrow Gate and the Wide Gate.pptxLesson 2 - The Choice between the Narrow Gate and the Wide Gate.pptx
Lesson 2 - The Choice between the Narrow Gate and the Wide Gate.pptxCelso Napoleon
 
GPATH - no video edited NEW JOGGPCOLLAB Largescale (1).pptx
GPATH - no video edited NEW JOGGPCOLLAB Largescale (1).pptxGPATH - no video edited NEW JOGGPCOLLAB Largescale (1).pptx
GPATH - no video edited NEW JOGGPCOLLAB Largescale (1).pptxelvis1442
 
Meaningful Pursuits_The Fear of God.pptx
Meaningful Pursuits_The Fear of God.pptxMeaningful Pursuits_The Fear of God.pptx
Meaningful Pursuits_The Fear of God.pptxStephen Palm
 
A MEMORIAL TRIBUTE TO THE FOUR BROTHER BILLS
A MEMORIAL TRIBUTE TO THE FOUR BROTHER BILLSA MEMORIAL TRIBUTE TO THE FOUR BROTHER BILLS
A MEMORIAL TRIBUTE TO THE FOUR BROTHER BILLSRickPatrick9
 
Deerfoot Church of Christ Bulletin 4 7 24
Deerfoot Church of Christ Bulletin 4 7 24Deerfoot Church of Christ Bulletin 4 7 24
Deerfoot Church of Christ Bulletin 4 7 24deerfootcoc
 
PROPHECY-- The End Of My People Forever!
PROPHECY-- The End Of My People Forever!PROPHECY-- The End Of My People Forever!
PROPHECY-- The End Of My People Forever!spy7777777guy
 

Recently uploaded (18)

What is Vincentian Spirituality? forming a community that shows the Lord’s lo...
What is Vincentian Spirituality? forming a community that shows the Lord’s lo...What is Vincentian Spirituality? forming a community that shows the Lord’s lo...
What is Vincentian Spirituality? forming a community that shows the Lord’s lo...
 
A Tsunami Tragedy ~ Wise Reflections for Troubled Times (Eng. & Chi.).pptx
A Tsunami Tragedy ~ Wise Reflections for Troubled Times (Eng. & Chi.).pptxA Tsunami Tragedy ~ Wise Reflections for Troubled Times (Eng. & Chi.).pptx
A Tsunami Tragedy ~ Wise Reflections for Troubled Times (Eng. & Chi.).pptx
 
Lakshmi Narasimha Karavalamba Stotram.pdf
Lakshmi Narasimha Karavalamba Stotram.pdfLakshmi Narasimha Karavalamba Stotram.pdf
Lakshmi Narasimha Karavalamba Stotram.pdf
 
empathy map for students very useful.pptx
empathy map for students very useful.pptxempathy map for students very useful.pptx
empathy map for students very useful.pptx
 
Heartfulness Magazine - April 2024 (Volume 9, Issue 4)
Heartfulness Magazine - April 2024 (Volume 9, Issue 4)Heartfulness Magazine - April 2024 (Volume 9, Issue 4)
Heartfulness Magazine - April 2024 (Volume 9, Issue 4)
 
Deerfoot Church of Christ Bulletin 2 25 24
Deerfoot Church of Christ Bulletin 2 25 24Deerfoot Church of Christ Bulletin 2 25 24
Deerfoot Church of Christ Bulletin 2 25 24
 
Mapping out the Female Soul: Lucifer(a) and the Byzantine Prophecy; 6th-8th D...
Mapping out the Female Soul: Lucifer(a) and the Byzantine Prophecy; 6th-8th D...Mapping out the Female Soul: Lucifer(a) and the Byzantine Prophecy; 6th-8th D...
Mapping out the Female Soul: Lucifer(a) and the Byzantine Prophecy; 6th-8th D...
 
Prach Autism AI - Artificial Intelligence
Prach Autism AI - Artificial IntelligencePrach Autism AI - Artificial Intelligence
Prach Autism AI - Artificial Intelligence
 
The April 2024 Good News newsletter to read online
The April 2024 Good News newsletter to read onlineThe April 2024 Good News newsletter to read online
The April 2024 Good News newsletter to read online
 
Top 5 Ancient Spots for Pind Daan in Gaya
Top 5 Ancient Spots for Pind Daan in GayaTop 5 Ancient Spots for Pind Daan in Gaya
Top 5 Ancient Spots for Pind Daan in Gaya
 
English - The Dangers of Wine Alcohol.pptx
English - The Dangers of Wine Alcohol.pptxEnglish - The Dangers of Wine Alcohol.pptx
English - The Dangers of Wine Alcohol.pptx
 
Lesson 2 - The Choice between the Narrow Gate and the Wide Gate.pptx
Lesson 2 - The Choice between the Narrow Gate and the Wide Gate.pptxLesson 2 - The Choice between the Narrow Gate and the Wide Gate.pptx
Lesson 2 - The Choice between the Narrow Gate and the Wide Gate.pptx
 
GPATH - no video edited NEW JOGGPCOLLAB Largescale (1).pptx
GPATH - no video edited NEW JOGGPCOLLAB Largescale (1).pptxGPATH - no video edited NEW JOGGPCOLLAB Largescale (1).pptx
GPATH - no video edited NEW JOGGPCOLLAB Largescale (1).pptx
 
Meaningful Pursuits_The Fear of God.pptx
Meaningful Pursuits_The Fear of God.pptxMeaningful Pursuits_The Fear of God.pptx
Meaningful Pursuits_The Fear of God.pptx
 
A MEMORIAL TRIBUTE TO THE FOUR BROTHER BILLS
A MEMORIAL TRIBUTE TO THE FOUR BROTHER BILLSA MEMORIAL TRIBUTE TO THE FOUR BROTHER BILLS
A MEMORIAL TRIBUTE TO THE FOUR BROTHER BILLS
 
Deerfoot Church of Christ Bulletin 4 7 24
Deerfoot Church of Christ Bulletin 4 7 24Deerfoot Church of Christ Bulletin 4 7 24
Deerfoot Church of Christ Bulletin 4 7 24
 
PROPHECY-- The End Of My People Forever!
PROPHECY-- The End Of My People Forever!PROPHECY-- The End Of My People Forever!
PROPHECY-- The End Of My People Forever!
 
English - The Lost Books of the Bible.pdf
English - The Lost Books of the Bible.pdfEnglish - The Lost Books of the Bible.pdf
English - The Lost Books of the Bible.pdf
 

Fiqh of Fasting Fiqh of Fasting Fiqh of Fasting

  • 2.
  • 5. Qurʾānic Command ‫َب‬‫ِت‬ ‫ُك‬ ‫ا‬‫َم‬‫َك‬ ‫ُم‬‫ا‬‫َي‬ ‫ِّص‬‫ٱل‬ ‫ُم‬‫ُك‬‫ْي‬‫َل‬‫َع‬ ‫َب‬‫ِت‬ ‫ُك‬ ‫و‬‫َمُن‬‫ا‬‫َء‬ ‫َن‬‫ي‬‫ِذ‬ ‫َّل‬ ‫ٱ‬ ‫ا‬‫َه‬‫ُّي‬‫َأ‬ ‫ٰٓـ‬‫َي‬ ‫َن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ُق‬‫َّت‬‫َت‬ ‫ْم‬‫ُك‬‫َّل‬‫َع‬‫َل‬ ‫ْم‬‫ُك‬ ‫ِل‬ ‫ْب‬‫َق‬ ‫ِمن‬ ‫َن‬‫ي‬‫ِذ‬ ‫َّل‬ ‫ٱ‬ ‫ى‬ ‫َل‬‫َع‬ O you who believe, fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you, so that you may be mindful of God. (Sūrah al-Baqarah, 1:183)
  • 6. Prophetic Ḥadīth ‫َّن‬‫َأ‬‫َو‬ ‫ُه‬‫َّل‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫َّل‬ ‫إ‬ ‫َه‬‫َل‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫َل‬ ‫ْن‬‫َأ‬ ‫ِة‬‫َد‬ ‫ا‬‫َه‬‫َش‬ ‫ٍس‬ ‫ْم‬‫َخ‬ ‫ى‬ ‫َل‬‫َع‬ ‫ُم‬‫ا‬ ‫َل‬‫ْس‬ ‫ِإ‬ ‫ْل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫َي‬‫ِن‬‫ُب‬ ‫ِّج‬ ‫َح‬‫َو‬ ‫ِة‬‫ا‬ ‫َك‬‫َّز‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ِء‬‫ا‬‫َت‬‫ي‬‫ِإ‬ ‫َو‬ ‫ِة‬‫ا‬ ‫َل‬ ‫َّص‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ِم‬‫ا‬ ‫َق‬ ‫ِإ‬ ‫َو‬ ‫ِه‬ ‫َّل‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ُل‬ ‫و‬‫ُس‬‫َر‬ ‫ا‬‫ًد‬‫َّم‬‫ُمَح‬ ‫َن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫َض‬‫َم‬‫َر‬ ‫ِم‬‫ْو‬ ‫َص‬‫َو‬ ‫ِت‬‫ْي‬‫َب‬‫ْل‬ ‫ا‬ Islam has been built on five [pillars]: testifying that there is no god but Allah and that Muḥammad is the Messenger of Allah, establishing Ṣalāh, paying the Zakāh, making the pilgrimage to the House [of Allah, i.e, Kaʿbah], and fasting in Ramaḍān. (Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim)
  • 8. Fasting (Ṣawm) Linguistic Meaning Legal Meaning to abstain “... to abstain from eating, drinking, and sexual intercourse during the daylight hours, with an intention of fasting, performed by one capable and required to do so.”
  • 9. “... to abstain from eating, drinking, and sexual intercourse during the daylight hours, with an intention of fasting, performed by one capable and required to do so.”
  • 10. something nutritious something not food or drink but in the ruling of food and drink something customarily eaten
  • 11. “... to abstain from eating, drinking, and sexual intercourse during the daylight hours, with an intention of fasting, performed by one capable and required to do so.”
  • 12. Dawn (Fajr Start) Sunrise (Fajr End) Ẓuhr ʿAṣr Maghrib (Sunset) daylight hours
  • 13. “... to abstain from eating, drinking, and sexual intercourse during the daylight hours, with an intention of fasting, performed by one capable and required to do so.”
  • 14. intention: not required to say anything with the tongue firm resolve in your heart to perform an act of worship
  • 15. “... to abstain from eating, drinking, and sexual intercourse during the daylight hours, with an intention of fasting, performed by one capable and required to do so.”
  • 16. Upon Whom is Fasting Obligatory if they are: 1. physically able to fast 2. free from menstruation and lochia (post-natal bleeding) 3. resident, i.e., not traveling Muslim Sane (ʿĀqil) Mature (Bāligh) 1 2 3
  • 18. principle intention has to be made before each fast for it to count
  • 19. too busy and forgot to eat or drink from dawn to sunset fast because no intention of worship
  • 21. Islamic Midday (Ḍaḥwatal-Kubrā) midway time between dawn (Fajr start time) and sunset (Maghrib)
  • 22. Dawn (Fajr Start) Sunrise (Fajr End) Ẓuhr ʿAṣr Maghrib (Sunset) 4:00 AM 12:00 PM 8:00 PM 8 hrs 8 hrs Ḍaḥwat al-Kubrā
  • 23. Makeup (qaḍāʾ) fasts of Ramaḍān Fasts of expiation (kaffārah)
  • 24. Fasts of Ramaḍān in its month (adāʾ ) Optional fasts (nafl)
  • 25. from Maghrib of the night before till midday (ḍaḥwat al-kubrā) of the following day intention of a Ramaḍān fast:
  • 27. To partake of suḥūr (the meal eaten prior to beginning the fast in the morning) 1 “Eat suḥūr, for indeed there is blessing in it.” (Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī)
  • 28. To partake of dates in suḥūr 2 “How excellent are dates as the believer’s suḥūr.” (Abū Dāwūd)
  • 29. To delay the suḥūr up to a little before dawn (ṣubḥ ṣādiq) 3 “Verily, we the group of prophets, have been commanded to delay our suḥūr.” (Ibn Ḥibbān)
  • 30. To end one’s fast immediately after the sunset by consuming something, and not to delay in doing so 4 “The people will remain on goodness as long as they hasten the opening of the fast.” (Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī)
  • 31. To break one’s fast with dates (fresh or dry) if available; if dates are not available, then water is the alternative. 5 “The Messenger of Allah used to open his fast with some fresh dates before he prayed. If there were no fresh dates, then with some dry dates. If there were no (dry dates), then he would drink a few sips of water.” (Abū Dāwūd)
  • 33. To chew gum, rubber, etc. To taste any food or drink and then to spit it out. To collect one’s saliva in the mouth and then to swallow it, trying to quench thirst. To intentionally delay an obligatory bath (ghusl) until after dawn. To use toothpaste to clean one’s teeth. (It is permitted to clean using a miswāk.) 1 2 3 4 5
  • 34. To complain of hunger and thirst. To take water up the nostrils more than necessary when cleaning the nose. To gargle more than necessary. To quarrel, argue, or use filthy language. To backbite, tell a lie, and swear, etc. (These are sinful acts even when one is not fasting. Therefore, they entail greater sin if done when fasting.) 6 7 8 9 10
  • 37.
  • 38.
  • 39. intercourse ejaculation due to a physical stimulus Qaḍāʾ & Kaffārah Qaḍāʾ Only
  • 40.
  • 42. What is meant by food & drink? substance entry point/cavity place it reached excuse Look at 4 things:
  • 43. Substances of Consequence 1. Solid Liquid Gas Should have a perceptible body that can be seen, like smoke of an inhaler, a cigarette, etc.
  • 44. 2. Entry Points/Cavities of Consequence Mouth Thus, other entry points, such as the ears, eyes, etc., are NOT cavities of consequence. Nose Back Passage Only those entry points are considered that are medically established to have a connection to the digestive system.
  • 45. Masʿalah Therefore, ear drops will not invalidate the fast. However, if someone has a perforated eardrum (the eardrum is broken), it will invalidate the fast.
  • 46. The fast will be invalidated when... a substance of consequence, enters through a cavity of consequence...
  • 47. 3. Places of Consequence Digestive System Throat Stomach Intestines
  • 48. The fast will be invalidated when... a substance of consequence, enters through a cavity of consequence, reaches a place of consequence...
  • 49. 4. Excuse Forgetfulness (details later) Food stuck in the teeth if smaller than a chickpea (details later) Things that one is not able to guard oneself against, and if one were to do so, then it would entail unbearable hardship, such as: Water that remains in the mouth and nose from wuḍūʾ Possible damp when one is showering Mucus, Snot, and Saliva Saliva that may end up on the lips from talking Bugs and flies entering your mouth involuntarily
  • 50. 4. Excuse Examples of Invalid Sharʿī Excuses Accidents Invalidating the fast out of necessity Unawareness or not having knowledge Sleeping Unconsciousness Insanity Being forced
  • 51. a substance of consequence, In conclusion, when: 1. 2. enters through a cavity of consequence, 3. reaches a place of consequence, and 4. there is no excuse... the fast will be invalidated.
  • 52. How do we know what is necessary?
  • 54. Eating, drinking or breaking the fast in any other manner, deliberately without a valid reason Qaḍāʾ and Kaffārah Necessary 1
  • 55. To take any type of medicine intentionally (i.e., through the mouth or applied through the nose) without a valid reason (Note: intravenous or intramuscular injections do not break the fast) Qaḍāʾ and Kaffārah Necessary 2
  • 56. To have sexual intercourse intentionally while remembering that one is fasting Qaḍāʾ and Kaffārah Necessary 3
  • 57. Eating, drinking or breaking the fast in any other manner, deliberately without a valid reason To take any type of medicine intentionally (i.e., through the mouth or applied through the nose) (Note: intravenous or intramuscular injections do not break the fast) To have sexual intercourse intentionally while remembering that one is fasting Qaḍāʾ and Kaffārah Necessary 1 2 3
  • 58. know you are fasting eat/drink something on purpose Deliberate Forgetful Accidental forget you are fasting eat/drink something on purpose know you are fasting eat/drink something accidentally (something goes down your throat) No Consequence Qaḍāʾ & Kaffārah only Qaḍāʾ
  • 62. Intentionally swallowing a pebble, paper, or any item that isn’t normally used as food or medicine (things that fall under the category of ‘effective’ food & drink)
  • 63. Thinking Fajr hasn’t started and continuing to eat (due to a faulty watch, for example)
  • 64. Breaking the fast before the time of Maghrib, thinking sunset already happened
  • 66. Swallowing water by accident when gargling for wuḍūʾ or ghusl (with the exception of water that remains in the mouth)
  • 67. Anything put by force into the mouth of a fasting person which is consequently swallowed (it came previously that being forced is not a sharʿī excuse)
  • 68. To purposely inhale smoke or steam, or anything with a perceptible body
  • 70. Swallowing the blood from the gums, if the blood is more than the saliva with which it is mixed
  • 71. Vomit no consequence qaḍāʾ necessary no qaḍāʾ unless swallowed deliberately hence, if swallowed involuntarily, no consequence
  • 74. principle For a fast to get invalidated, a substance of consequence [solid, liquid, or discernible gas] enters through an opening of consequence [nose, throat, or back passage] reaches a place of consequence [throat, stomach, or intestines] and there is no excuse.
  • 75. easy for us to identify the non-invalidators:
  • 76. Eyedrops do not invalidate the fast because the eyes are not an opening of consequence
  • 77. do not invalidate the fast because the ears are not an opening of consequence (unless the ears are perforated) Eardrops
  • 78. Injections do not invalidate the fast because they are not given through an opening of consequence (insulin injections injected directly into the stomach will invalidate the fast)
  • 79. Mosquito, fly, dirt, dust, etc. going down the throat unintentionally do not invalidate the fast because there is an excuse
  • 80. Blood Tests & Withdrawing Blood do not invalidate the fast because nothing of consequence is entering any opening of consequence if the person will become extremely weak due to the blood test, it will be disliked (makrūh) to take the test
  • 81. Nicotine Patches do not invalidate the fast because it is not entering any opening of consequence
  • 82. Taking a bath to keep cool Vomiting unintentionally Brushing the teeth without toothpaste do not invalidate the fast
  • 83. in principle does not invalidate the fast however, there is a strong possibility of some substance, such as water from the cleaning dispenser, going down the throat, thus invalidating the fast. Therefore, it is advisable to postpone the tooth extraction. (If there is severe need, one should try his best that blood does not enter the throat. If blood enters the throat, the fast will be nullified if the amount of blood exceeds the amount of saliva or if both are equal.) Tooth Extraction
  • 84. Note: what has been mentioned is the general rule, simplified for easy understanding for specific cases, refer to local, reliable ʿulamāʾ
  • 86. Fast 60 days consecutively. If one day is missed in- between, you will have to start over again. However, if a woman experiences menstruation during these days, due to which she was unable fast, it will not be regarded as discontinuity.
  • 87. If one is unable to do this, due to an unrecoverable and continuous illness or old age, then: Feed 60 poor people two meals for a day Feed one poor person two meals for sixty days 1 2 Give 60 poor people 3½ lbs. of wheat, or its value in cash, rice, or food grains, etc. Give one poor person 3½ Ibs. of wheat, or its value in cash, rice or food grains, etc., for sixty days 3 4
  • 88. Along with fasting the 60 consecutive days, the person will also have to fast one more day as qaḍāʾ for the broken fast. 60 Days + 1 Day = 61 Days Expiation (Kaffārah) Makeup (Qaḍāʾ) Total
  • 89. Kaffārah is only for breaking a Ramaḍān fast. Breaking a nafl fast necessitates qaḍāʾ only.
  • 92. fasting will make them more sick fasting will delay their recovery will make up the fast later (if unable to do so due to a chronic illness, he will give fidyah)
  • 93. fasting will make them more sick fasting will significantly delay their recovery How will this be determined?
  • 94.
  • 95. if it is a non-Muslim doctor, or non-religious Muslim doctor, or the doctor is scared to give a judgement for fear of being liable, then the patient will take his word but will also use his own judgement and look at his past experience the doctor will be asked for his medical opinion and not for a fatwā
  • 96. the person is aware that every single year, in this certain season that Ramaḍān happened to fall in this year, he gets very sick...
  • 97. it is very obvious that the person is extremely ill and unable to fast that day
  • 98. Masʿalah If a person suffers from an illness or has an asthma attack, and there is no option but to take medicine or use an inhaler, it will be permissible to break the fast. However, he will have to do Qaḍāʾ.
  • 99. Woman in Menses or Postnatal Bleeding will make up the fast later
  • 100. Ramaḍān has begun while she is in the state of menstruation. Menstruation starts during the day. Menstruation stops during the day. 1 2 3 She should eat in a manner that no fasting person sees her eating. She should break her fast and eat, but in a manner that no fasting person sees her eating. She should conduct herself like a fasting person and abstain from eating and drinking for the rest of the day.
  • 101. Pregnant or Nursing Women expected to fast if there is legitimate harm for herself or the baby, she can miss/break the fast (same criteria for establishing harm as above) will make up the fast later
  • 102. Hunger & Thirst if there is severe hunger or thirst that may lead to extreme illness or death, can miss/break the fast will make up the fast later
  • 104. journey is more than 54 miles does not intend to stay for more than 14 days will make up the fast later if he doesn't fasting highly recommended
  • 105. City Boundary City Boundary Current Time: 5:00 Dawn (Fajr Start): 5:00 even though he intends to travel later in the day, or he has already started his journey, because he is still in his hometown when Fajr enters: has to fast
  • 106. City Boundary City Boundary Current Time: 5:00 Dawn (Fajr Start): 5:00 because he is on his journey and outside his hometown when Fajr enters: fasting highly recommended
  • 108. A very old person who does not have the strength to fast, or a very sickly or diseased person who has no hope of recovering after Ramaḍān, should pay an expiation (fidyah) for each fast missed in Ramaḍān.
  • 109. 3½ lbs of wheat or 7 lbs of barley or the equivalent of the above in cash Fidyah Amount Note: This can also be identified as the amount given in Ṣadaqat al-Fiṭr.
  • 110. If the person paid the fidyah, then recovers, the missed fasts would have to made up and the expiation paid would be considered ṣadaqah. Masʿalah
  • 112. When should qaḍāʾ fasts be performed? Question: They should be performed as soon as possible, as they must be completed before we die. Answer:
  • 113. I haven't fasted all my life; do I need to keep both qaḍāʾ and kaffārah? Question: No, only qaḍāʾ of the missing fasts is necessary. Answer:
  • 114. What is the ruling for smoking while fasting? Question: Smoking will break the fast and necessitate qaḍāʾ and kaffārah. Answer:
  • 115. Should children fast? Question: Minor (non-bāligh) children are not obligated to fast, but should be encouraged to fast from a young age. Answer:
  • 116. What should a person do if he has to break his fast (due to a reason mentioned above)? Question: It is wājib to abstain from eating and drinking for the rest of the day and act like a fasting person. Answer:
  • 117. What happens if a person eats or drinks forgetting that he is fasting? Question: The fast will not break and no harm is done. Answer:
  • 118. Can I brush my teeth while fasting? Question: It is makrūh as there is a possibility it mixes with the saliva and enters the throat. Answer:
  • 119. While gargling during wuḍūʾ, some water reached my throat by mistake; did my fast break? Question: Yes, the fast has broken as this was accidental and not out of forgetfulness (because you were aware you were fasting). You will be required to perform qaḍāʾ. Answer:
  • 121. The Following Do Not Invalidate the Fast Eating or drinking forgetfully (whilst not conscious of fast) Swallowing one’s own saliva Ear drops Eye drops Sniffing up mucus Inhaling smoke or dust unintentionally Inhaling oxygen as long as not combined with another substance Using nicotine patches, creams, deodorant, makeup or oil Kissing or touching one’s spouse Involuntary ejaculation or engaging in sexual intercourse forgetfully Backbiting or lying
  • 122. The Following Do Not Invalidate the Fast Starting the fast in the state of major ritual impurity Injection, blood transfusion, or kidney dialysis Blood test or any form of blood extraction Tooth extraction subject to not swallowing the blood or medicine Swimming without swallowing water Miswāk or toothbrush (toothpaste should be avoided for risk of being swallowed) Vomiting unintentionally or vomiting intentionally less than a mouthful Swallowing vomit that emerges unintentionally even if it is a mouthful
  • 123. The Following Do Invalidate the Fast Eating or drinking deliberately or accidentally (whilst conscious of fast) Swallowing toothpaste or mouthwash Swallowing blood from the gums or toothpaste or mouthwash if they dominate over the saliva Swallowing the saliva of one’s spouse This includes: Swallowing what is between the teeth if it is the size of a small chickpea or larger Nasal spray if the medication passes the throat Medicine inhalers such as an asthma inhaler
  • 124. The Following Do Invalidate the Fast Inhaling smoke deliberately; Sexual intercourse deliberately Ejaculation caused by physical stimulation; Vomiting a mouthful deliberately Returning a mouthful vomit down the throat deliberately Menstruation or post-natal bleeding this includes smoking cigarettes this includes masturbation
  • 125. May Allāh subḥānahū wa-taʿālā accept our actions, grant us all the tawfīq and ability to act upon what we learn, and carry out those actions that are pleasing to Him. If you have any questions or comments, or notice any errors in the presentation, please feel free to . contact us
  • 126.