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Evidence for climate change
PRAAG DOGRA
Climate
 Climate is defined as the average temperature over a 30 year period of time
Geomorphological evidence
 Glacial troughs- ‘U’-shaped valleys
 Erratic Boulders- different rocks to their surroundings
 Eustatic sea level- changes up to 20m of sea level rise
Tidal gauges
 Evidence of the sea level being up to 20 metres higher or lower than average
 Post glacial re-bound
Shrinking glaciers
 Evident reduction in the size of glaciers
Dendrochronology
 You can stitch data from old living trees to date over 11,000 years
 With tree ring growth:
 Wider rings have warm, wet springs
 Narrower rings have cool, dry springs
 1816 “Year without a Summer” from Tambora Aerosols
Cloptera (old bugs entrapped)
 Ecological Niches: radiometric dating of a C14  C12 (half life is 5730 years)
Ice cone analysis
Summer grit
Winter SnowIsotopes of oxygen
Put air bubbles through a
mass spectrometer to get:
CO2 concentrations, SO2,
CH4 and dust
Ice (H20) O16 + O12
-Warm inter-glacials
-More 018 evaporates
Breugels paintings
 Breugel painted frost fares 1500’s/1600’s
Mann’s Hockey Stick Graph
 This shows proxy indicators

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Evidence for climate change