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International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962
Volume-12, Issue-3 (June 2022)
www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.12.3.23
160 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Effect of Biopesticide from the Stems of Gossypium Arboreum on Pink
Bollworm and Lepidoptera
S.Naguldev1
, Esther Roselin Ramanathan2
, Janani Chellavel3
and V.Saranya4
1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Sethu Institute of Technology, INDIA
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Sethu Institute of Technology, INDIA
3
Department of Chemical Engineering, Sethu Institute of Technology, INDIA
4
Department of Chemical Engineering, Sethu Institute of Technology, INDIA
1
Corresponding Author: naguldev@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Pink bollworm and Lepidoptera development
quickly in numbers which is a typical animal group that
produces around 100 youthful ones inside certain days or
weeks. This assault influences the harvests broadly in the
tropical and sub-tropical temperature areas. Thus, to keep up
with the yield of harvests the vermin ought to be kept away
by utilizing pesticides. The unnecessary measure of the
purpose of pesticides influences the dirt, land, and as well as
human well-being, and contaminates the climate. Thus, an
ozone-accommodating biopesticide is extracted from the
stems of the Gossypium arboreum. Thus, the extraction of
biopesticide from the stems of Gossypium arboreum
demonstrated that the quantity of pink bollworm and
Lepidoptera is diminished step by step in the wake of
showering the arrangement on the impacted region of the
plant because of the presence of the gossypol.
Keywords-- Pink Bollworm, Lepidoptera, Gossypol,
Ozone-Friendly, Extraction
I. INTRODUCTION
Pesticides are a substance that is utilized to keep
the plant from a vermin or for use as a plant development
controller causing a scope of hurtful well-being impacts on
people. Consequently, the most ideal way to keep away
from the synthetic impacts is to utilize biopesticide.
Biopesticides are modest and more secure choices for the
items, people, and the climate too. Biopesticides are
ordered into three sorts, for example, biochemical,
microbial, and plant-integrated protectants. The
Gossypium arboreum is an arborous plant having a place
in the Malvaceae family. It is one of the antiquated yields
developed by individuals and it has been utilized for north
of 4,000 years. It is at first developed for filaments for the
material business and oil from cottonseed. The most
economically significant cotton species is G.hirsutum
which is developed to create 80% of the world's cotton.
The cotton fiber and the oil delivered are wealthy in fats
from oils and protein which are usually utilized for
creature taking care purposes. The cotton plant contains a
harmful substance compound named Gossypol. Gossypol
is a phenolic compound with a substance recipe of
C30H30O8. This name is gotten from the plant variety
logical name Gossypium and since it is a phenol
compound name is finished with 'old. Gossypol's sub-
atomic weight is around 518 and it is a yellow shade and it
is glasslike. It is insoluble in water and hexane however
solvent in chloroform, butanone, and so on.,
The gossypol is created from the color organs in
seeds of Gossypium arboreum. The color organs are little
dark spots around the cotton plant yet the focus is higher in
the seeds of Gossypium arboreum. The seed of Gossypium
arboreum contains around 28g of gossypol/kg. This
substance advances a few harmful impacts and gives
protection from the bug. This substance influences the
respiratory parcel of the bugs. After the extraction, the
gossypol fixation goes from around 0.02 to 6% however
before the grouping of cotton seed might go from more
than 12000 mg/kg of complete gossypol. Gossypol is a
profoundly responsive substance that quickly ties with
minerals and amino acids.
International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962
Volume-12, Issue-3 (June 2022)
www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.12.3.23
161 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Figure 1: Gossypol
The utilization of pesticides in agribusiness is
traced back to the start of farming itself and it turned out to
be more famous with time because of expanded bothers
corresponding with diminishing soil richness. The
principal significant manufactured natural pesticide is
dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). DDT was hailed
as a supernatural occurrence in light of its broadspectrum
action, ingenuity, insolubility, economics, and simplicity
in application. Biopesticides acquired part of significance
given eco-accommodating nature, keeping the climate
spotless and green and less poisonous contrasted with
engineered pesticides
Biopesticides are biochemical pesticides that are
normally happening substances that control bothers by
nontoxic components. Biopesticides are living organic
entities or their items or side effects that can be utilized for
the administration of irritations that are damaging to
plants. They present less danger to the climate and people.
The generally utilized biopesticides are living creatures,
which are pathogenic for the nuisance of interest. These
incorporate bio fungicides, bioherbicides, and
bioinsecticides. There are not many plant items likewise
which can be utilized as a significant biopesticide source.
Plant integrated protectants incorporate substances that are
created normally on hereditary alteration of plants.
Different biopesticides are ready from cow pee
separates, matured curd water, Gasparini removes, need
cow pee extricates, blended leaves separate, stew garlic
separate, tobacco with other plant extricates in cow pee,
seed treatment with rhizome powder and cow's pee, papaya
organic product separate, onion bulb separate, and so on.
II. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
Plant Materials
The shells of Gossypium arboreum were poised,
and the shells were sun-dried for 4 days to become dried
and the shells were ground to a reduced fine powder by the
milling processes.
Materials and Solvents
Soxhlet extraction unit, Simple distillation unit.
The solvents used for the extraction process are
Cyclohexane.
Extraction of Biopesticide
The biopesticide is produced from the shells of
Gossypium arboreum through simple grinding and
extraction methods. The Soxhlet extraction is used when
the obtained compound has a confined solubility in a
solvent and the impure substances are insoluble in that
solvent.
The extraction of biopesticide from the shells of
Gossypium arboreum is administrated by using
cyclohexane as solvent using the Soxhlet apparatus as
solvent. 200ml of cyclohexane is crammed in the round
bottom flask. The fine powder is weighed as
10g,15g,20g,25g,30g,35g, and 40g. at first 10g of the fine
powder is charged into a thimble and kept inside the
extractor. The apparatus is kept in the heating mantle and
the solvent is heated at the range of - C, the solvent in
the round bottom flask gets heated and vaporizes, and then
condensed by the water flowing through the inlet and
outlet pipe around the condenser.
International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962
Volume-12, Issue-3 (June 2022)
www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.12.3.23
162 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Figure 2: Experimental setup for extraction of the solution from the raw material
Figure 3: Simple distillation process for extraction of oil
The process is continued for about 2 hours to
obtain the solution containing oil. After extraction, the
sample is filtered out to remove the insoluble solid
substance as residue and filtrate containing oil with
solvent. The filtered solution proceeds to the simple
distillation. Later, the solvent is distilled out and the Oil
remains in the round bottom flask. The same procedure is
followed for the various weights of the sample. The
obtained oil is tested for pesticide properties by standard
methods.
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
In the end, oil was extracted using the soxhlet
apparatus, and then it was separated using a distillation
process. Samples of oil are examined for the perseverance
of oil obtained and yield.
International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962
Volume-12, Issue-3 (June 2022)
www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.12.3.23
163 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Figure 4: yellowish light sample(Cyclohexane)
Figure 5: Oil separated after Simple distillation
The results are shown below.
Ingredient (Weight
in g)
Solvent
(Cyclohexane in ml)
Time(hours) Oil extracted in ml Yield %
10 200 2 1 10
15 200 3 4 26.67
20 200 4 7 35
25 200 5 9 36
30 200 6 13 43.33
35 200 7 15 42.86
40 200 8 17 42.5
To Test its Pesticidal properties we Undergo a
Gas Chromatography Test in which we obtained some
results that are visualized below
International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962
Volume-12, Issue-3 (June 2022)
www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.12.3.23
164 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
S.no Parameters Obtained Results
1. Stearic Acid 1.3
2. Lauric Acid 1.6
3. Palmitic Acid 0.3
It confirms that Fatty Acids are present here.
Stearic Acid, Lauric Acid, and Palmitic Acid are contained
in Gossypium Arboreum oil. With the reference to
pesticide formulation for our product, we can suggest the
liquid formulation because our ingredient has an oil form.
IV. CONCLUSIONS
Pink bollworm, Lepidoptera, and some of the
insect sucking pests have major attacks on the plant and
decrease the production of plants. By, using these
pesticides we can able to increase the maximum yield %
without damage to crops.
The Sem analysis of the raw material are:
y = 4.9361x + 9.0854
R² = 0.7822
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 2 4 6 8 10
Time vs Yield
y = 4.9361x + 14.021
R² = 0.7822
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 2 4 6 8
weight vs yield
International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962
Volume-12, Issue-3 (June 2022)
www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.12.3.23
165 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
1. Presence of Fatty Acids in the oil help us to destroy Pink
bollworm and Lepidoptera on the affected surface of the
plant.
2. Bio-Pesticides are considered Eco-Friendly.
3. Bio-Pesticides will not affect the Earthworm and Soil
Fertility.
4. Appearance of Toxicity present in the Fatty Acid will
resist the Pink bollworm and Lepidoptera.
REFERENCES
[1] Agnihotri, N.P. (2000). Pesticide consumption in
agriculture in India-an update. Pesticide Research Journal,
12(1), 150-155
[2] NaguldevS, SaranyaV, Divya Vellaichamy &
Jabathersini Palanisamy. (2022). Extraction of oil from
Borasaus Flabellifer, (Ice apple) seed and compared with
coconut oil and palm oil.
[3] NaguldevS, Divya Vellaichamy, Jabathersini
Palanisamy & SaranyaV. (2021). Production of bioethanol
from papaya peel.
[4] Mehrotra, K.N. (1999). Pesticide resistance in insect-
pests Indian scenario. Pesticide Research Journal, 1(2),
95-103.
[5] Isman, M.B. (2014). Botanical insecticides and
antifeedants: New sources and perspectives. Pesticide
Research Journal, 6(1), 11-19.
[6] Mohan, M. & Katiyar, K.N. (2010). Impact of different
insecticides used for bollworm control on the population of
jassid and whitefly in cotton. Pesticide Research Journal,
12(1), 99-102.
[7] Madan, V.K., Kumari, B., Singh, R.V., Kumar, R. &
Kathpal, T.S. (2016). Monitoring of pesticides from farms
gets samples of vegetables in Haryana. Pesticide Research
Journal, 8(1), 56-60
[8] Kumari, B., Kumar, R. & Kathpal, T.S. (2011). An
improved multi-residue procedure for the determination of
pesticides in vegetables. Pesticide Research Journal,
13(1), 32-35.
[9] Devakumar, C. & Goswami, B.K. (2020). Nematicidal
principles from neem (Azadirachta Indica A.Juss) Part 111
Isolation and bioassay of some neem medicines. Pesticide
Research Journal, 4(2), 81-86.
[10] Rengasamy, S. & Parmar, B.S. (2015). Azadirachtin-
A content of seeds of neem ecotypes about the
agroecological regions of India. Pesticide Research
Journal.
[11] Chahal, K.K., Singh, B., Kang, B.K., Battu, R.S. &
Joia, B.S. (2017). Insecticide residues in farmgate
vegetable samples in Punjab. Pesticide Research Journal,
9(2), 256-260
[12] Brar, L.S., Walia, U.S. & Dhaliwal, B.K. (2009).
Bioefficacy of new herbicides for the control resistant
phalaris minor in wheat. Pesticide Research Journal,
11(2), 177-180.

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Effect of Biopesticide from the Stems of Gossypium Arboreum on Pink Bollworm and Lepidoptera

  • 1. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962 Volume-12, Issue-3 (June 2022) www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.12.3.23 160 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Effect of Biopesticide from the Stems of Gossypium Arboreum on Pink Bollworm and Lepidoptera S.Naguldev1 , Esther Roselin Ramanathan2 , Janani Chellavel3 and V.Saranya4 1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Sethu Institute of Technology, INDIA 2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Sethu Institute of Technology, INDIA 3 Department of Chemical Engineering, Sethu Institute of Technology, INDIA 4 Department of Chemical Engineering, Sethu Institute of Technology, INDIA 1 Corresponding Author: naguldev@gmail.com ABSTRACT Pink bollworm and Lepidoptera development quickly in numbers which is a typical animal group that produces around 100 youthful ones inside certain days or weeks. This assault influences the harvests broadly in the tropical and sub-tropical temperature areas. Thus, to keep up with the yield of harvests the vermin ought to be kept away by utilizing pesticides. The unnecessary measure of the purpose of pesticides influences the dirt, land, and as well as human well-being, and contaminates the climate. Thus, an ozone-accommodating biopesticide is extracted from the stems of the Gossypium arboreum. Thus, the extraction of biopesticide from the stems of Gossypium arboreum demonstrated that the quantity of pink bollworm and Lepidoptera is diminished step by step in the wake of showering the arrangement on the impacted region of the plant because of the presence of the gossypol. Keywords-- Pink Bollworm, Lepidoptera, Gossypol, Ozone-Friendly, Extraction I. INTRODUCTION Pesticides are a substance that is utilized to keep the plant from a vermin or for use as a plant development controller causing a scope of hurtful well-being impacts on people. Consequently, the most ideal way to keep away from the synthetic impacts is to utilize biopesticide. Biopesticides are modest and more secure choices for the items, people, and the climate too. Biopesticides are ordered into three sorts, for example, biochemical, microbial, and plant-integrated protectants. The Gossypium arboreum is an arborous plant having a place in the Malvaceae family. It is one of the antiquated yields developed by individuals and it has been utilized for north of 4,000 years. It is at first developed for filaments for the material business and oil from cottonseed. The most economically significant cotton species is G.hirsutum which is developed to create 80% of the world's cotton. The cotton fiber and the oil delivered are wealthy in fats from oils and protein which are usually utilized for creature taking care purposes. The cotton plant contains a harmful substance compound named Gossypol. Gossypol is a phenolic compound with a substance recipe of C30H30O8. This name is gotten from the plant variety logical name Gossypium and since it is a phenol compound name is finished with 'old. Gossypol's sub- atomic weight is around 518 and it is a yellow shade and it is glasslike. It is insoluble in water and hexane however solvent in chloroform, butanone, and so on., The gossypol is created from the color organs in seeds of Gossypium arboreum. The color organs are little dark spots around the cotton plant yet the focus is higher in the seeds of Gossypium arboreum. The seed of Gossypium arboreum contains around 28g of gossypol/kg. This substance advances a few harmful impacts and gives protection from the bug. This substance influences the respiratory parcel of the bugs. After the extraction, the gossypol fixation goes from around 0.02 to 6% however before the grouping of cotton seed might go from more than 12000 mg/kg of complete gossypol. Gossypol is a profoundly responsive substance that quickly ties with minerals and amino acids.
  • 2. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962 Volume-12, Issue-3 (June 2022) www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.12.3.23 161 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Figure 1: Gossypol The utilization of pesticides in agribusiness is traced back to the start of farming itself and it turned out to be more famous with time because of expanded bothers corresponding with diminishing soil richness. The principal significant manufactured natural pesticide is dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). DDT was hailed as a supernatural occurrence in light of its broadspectrum action, ingenuity, insolubility, economics, and simplicity in application. Biopesticides acquired part of significance given eco-accommodating nature, keeping the climate spotless and green and less poisonous contrasted with engineered pesticides Biopesticides are biochemical pesticides that are normally happening substances that control bothers by nontoxic components. Biopesticides are living organic entities or their items or side effects that can be utilized for the administration of irritations that are damaging to plants. They present less danger to the climate and people. The generally utilized biopesticides are living creatures, which are pathogenic for the nuisance of interest. These incorporate bio fungicides, bioherbicides, and bioinsecticides. There are not many plant items likewise which can be utilized as a significant biopesticide source. Plant integrated protectants incorporate substances that are created normally on hereditary alteration of plants. Different biopesticides are ready from cow pee separates, matured curd water, Gasparini removes, need cow pee extricates, blended leaves separate, stew garlic separate, tobacco with other plant extricates in cow pee, seed treatment with rhizome powder and cow's pee, papaya organic product separate, onion bulb separate, and so on. II. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS Plant Materials The shells of Gossypium arboreum were poised, and the shells were sun-dried for 4 days to become dried and the shells were ground to a reduced fine powder by the milling processes. Materials and Solvents Soxhlet extraction unit, Simple distillation unit. The solvents used for the extraction process are Cyclohexane. Extraction of Biopesticide The biopesticide is produced from the shells of Gossypium arboreum through simple grinding and extraction methods. The Soxhlet extraction is used when the obtained compound has a confined solubility in a solvent and the impure substances are insoluble in that solvent. The extraction of biopesticide from the shells of Gossypium arboreum is administrated by using cyclohexane as solvent using the Soxhlet apparatus as solvent. 200ml of cyclohexane is crammed in the round bottom flask. The fine powder is weighed as 10g,15g,20g,25g,30g,35g, and 40g. at first 10g of the fine powder is charged into a thimble and kept inside the extractor. The apparatus is kept in the heating mantle and the solvent is heated at the range of - C, the solvent in the round bottom flask gets heated and vaporizes, and then condensed by the water flowing through the inlet and outlet pipe around the condenser.
  • 3. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962 Volume-12, Issue-3 (June 2022) www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.12.3.23 162 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Figure 2: Experimental setup for extraction of the solution from the raw material Figure 3: Simple distillation process for extraction of oil The process is continued for about 2 hours to obtain the solution containing oil. After extraction, the sample is filtered out to remove the insoluble solid substance as residue and filtrate containing oil with solvent. The filtered solution proceeds to the simple distillation. Later, the solvent is distilled out and the Oil remains in the round bottom flask. The same procedure is followed for the various weights of the sample. The obtained oil is tested for pesticide properties by standard methods. III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS In the end, oil was extracted using the soxhlet apparatus, and then it was separated using a distillation process. Samples of oil are examined for the perseverance of oil obtained and yield.
  • 4. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962 Volume-12, Issue-3 (June 2022) www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.12.3.23 163 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Figure 4: yellowish light sample(Cyclohexane) Figure 5: Oil separated after Simple distillation The results are shown below. Ingredient (Weight in g) Solvent (Cyclohexane in ml) Time(hours) Oil extracted in ml Yield % 10 200 2 1 10 15 200 3 4 26.67 20 200 4 7 35 25 200 5 9 36 30 200 6 13 43.33 35 200 7 15 42.86 40 200 8 17 42.5 To Test its Pesticidal properties we Undergo a Gas Chromatography Test in which we obtained some results that are visualized below
  • 5. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962 Volume-12, Issue-3 (June 2022) www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.12.3.23 164 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. S.no Parameters Obtained Results 1. Stearic Acid 1.3 2. Lauric Acid 1.6 3. Palmitic Acid 0.3 It confirms that Fatty Acids are present here. Stearic Acid, Lauric Acid, and Palmitic Acid are contained in Gossypium Arboreum oil. With the reference to pesticide formulation for our product, we can suggest the liquid formulation because our ingredient has an oil form. IV. CONCLUSIONS Pink bollworm, Lepidoptera, and some of the insect sucking pests have major attacks on the plant and decrease the production of plants. By, using these pesticides we can able to increase the maximum yield % without damage to crops. The Sem analysis of the raw material are: y = 4.9361x + 9.0854 R² = 0.7822 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time vs Yield y = 4.9361x + 14.021 R² = 0.7822 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 2 4 6 8 weight vs yield
  • 6. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research e-ISSN: 2250-0758 | p-ISSN: 2394-6962 Volume-12, Issue-3 (June 2022) www.ijemr.net https://doi.org/10.31033/ijemr.12.3.23 165 This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 1. Presence of Fatty Acids in the oil help us to destroy Pink bollworm and Lepidoptera on the affected surface of the plant. 2. Bio-Pesticides are considered Eco-Friendly. 3. Bio-Pesticides will not affect the Earthworm and Soil Fertility. 4. Appearance of Toxicity present in the Fatty Acid will resist the Pink bollworm and Lepidoptera. REFERENCES [1] Agnihotri, N.P. (2000). Pesticide consumption in agriculture in India-an update. Pesticide Research Journal, 12(1), 150-155 [2] NaguldevS, SaranyaV, Divya Vellaichamy & Jabathersini Palanisamy. (2022). Extraction of oil from Borasaus Flabellifer, (Ice apple) seed and compared with coconut oil and palm oil. [3] NaguldevS, Divya Vellaichamy, Jabathersini Palanisamy & SaranyaV. (2021). Production of bioethanol from papaya peel. [4] Mehrotra, K.N. (1999). Pesticide resistance in insect- pests Indian scenario. Pesticide Research Journal, 1(2), 95-103. [5] Isman, M.B. (2014). Botanical insecticides and antifeedants: New sources and perspectives. Pesticide Research Journal, 6(1), 11-19. [6] Mohan, M. & Katiyar, K.N. (2010). Impact of different insecticides used for bollworm control on the population of jassid and whitefly in cotton. Pesticide Research Journal, 12(1), 99-102. [7] Madan, V.K., Kumari, B., Singh, R.V., Kumar, R. & Kathpal, T.S. (2016). Monitoring of pesticides from farms gets samples of vegetables in Haryana. Pesticide Research Journal, 8(1), 56-60 [8] Kumari, B., Kumar, R. & Kathpal, T.S. (2011). An improved multi-residue procedure for the determination of pesticides in vegetables. Pesticide Research Journal, 13(1), 32-35. [9] Devakumar, C. & Goswami, B.K. (2020). Nematicidal principles from neem (Azadirachta Indica A.Juss) Part 111 Isolation and bioassay of some neem medicines. Pesticide Research Journal, 4(2), 81-86. [10] Rengasamy, S. & Parmar, B.S. (2015). Azadirachtin- A content of seeds of neem ecotypes about the agroecological regions of India. Pesticide Research Journal. [11] Chahal, K.K., Singh, B., Kang, B.K., Battu, R.S. & Joia, B.S. (2017). Insecticide residues in farmgate vegetable samples in Punjab. Pesticide Research Journal, 9(2), 256-260 [12] Brar, L.S., Walia, U.S. & Dhaliwal, B.K. (2009). Bioefficacy of new herbicides for the control resistant phalaris minor in wheat. Pesticide Research Journal, 11(2), 177-180.