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nCOVID-19
PREPARED BY :-
BIBEKANANDA SHAH
CONTENTS
 INTRODUCTION
 VIRAL MORPHOLOGY
 HISTORY
 EPIDEMIOLOGY
 VARIANTS
 MEANS OF TRANSMISSION
 COMORBODITIES
 PATHOGENESIS……..
OBJECTIVES CONTINUED
 CLINICAL MANIFESTATION AND SYMPTOMS
 INVESTIGATIONS
 PREVENTION
 VACCINATION
 TREATMENT
 COMPLICATIONS
 ORAL MANIFESTATIONS
 CONCLUSION
 REFERENCES
INTRODUCTION
Coronavirus disease is officially called as
“SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME
CORONAVIRUS 2”
SARS CoV 2
it falls in coronaviridae family
VIRAL MORPHOLOGY
 Its genome has single stranded linear non segmented positive sense RNA
 The genome is largest among all the RNA viruses
HISTORY
 COVID 19 was discovered in December 2019 in
Wuhan China [epicenter]
 In Nepal on 23rd January 2020 the ministry of health
and population (MoHP) officially declared the first
case of covid 19 in Nepal
 Second case was reported on 17th march 2020
 WHO Declared COVID-19 AS PANDEMIC ON 11TH
MARCH 2020
EPIDEMIOLOGY
WORLDWIDE
 ACCORDING TO LAST UPDATE AT 28TH JANUARY 2023 12:21 GMT
WE HAVE TOTAL OF 674638457 (674 millions) CORONAVIRUS CASES
WORLDWIDE
(SORCE: WORLDOMETER)
 AMONG WHICH DEATH COUNT IS 6757356 (6.7 millions)
 TOTAL RECOVERED CASE IS 646761852 ( 646 millions)
 TOTAL ACTIVE CASE IS 21119249 (21 millions) AMONG WHICH
21076884(99.8%) IS IN MILD CONDITION AND 42365(0.2%) IS SERIOUS OR
CRITICAL
EPIDEMIOLOGY
NEPAL
 ACCORDING TO LAST UPDATE AT 28TH JANUARY 2023 12:21 GMT WE
HAVE TOTAL OF 1001092 (1 million) CASES OF COVID IN NEPAL
(SORCE: WORLDOMETER)
 AMONG WHICH THE TOTAL IS DEATH COUNT 12020
 TOTAL RECOVERED CASE IS 989054
 ACTIVE CASE IS ONLY 18 AND ALL IS MILD CONDITION
VARIANTS OF
CORONAVIRUS
Among these all omicron
delta and alphawere more
reported
• Most lethal variant being delta variant
• Cause of different variant is mutation
of viral gene
• (reference : YALE MEDICINE)
MEANS OF
TRANSMISSION
• Aerosol of
contaminated individuals
• Contaminated surfaces
COMORBIDITIES
 AGE
 CHRONIC PULMONARY DISEASE
 DIABETES MELIETUS
 HYPERTENSION
 HEPATIC DYSFUNTION
 CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE (CKD)
 MALIGNANCY
 IMMUNOCOMPROMISED
 NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS
PATHOGENESIS
CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND
SYMPTOMS
INVESTIGATIONS
GROUND GLASS OPACITY
Common radiographic findings of
individuals with COVID-19 include
bilateral, lower-lobe predominate
infiltrates on chest radiographic imaging
and bilateral, peripheral, lower-lobe
ground-glass opacities and/or
consolidation on chest computed
tomographic (CT SCAN) imaging.
GROUND GLASS OPACITY
THE CHARCTERISTIC CHEST X-RAY FINDING
RAPID ANTIGEN TEST
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PCR AND AG TEST
PREVENTION
PREVENTIVE
MEASURES
 USE HAND SANITIZER
WHENEVER YOU TOUCH
THE CONTAMINATED
SURFACE
 VACCINATIONS
TRANSIMMISION POSSIBILITIES
HANDWASHING TECHNIQUE
VACCINATION
WORLDWIDE
 ACCORDING TO THE DATA FROM WHO OUT OF TOTAL POPULATION OF
7,845,261,000

1st dose was administered to
 5,535,501,542 (70.6%)
 Whereas 2nd dose was administered to
 5,085,185,827 (64.8%)
(Updated 29 Jan 2023 )
VACCINATION
NEPAL
 1ST DOSE WAS ADMINISTERED TO
 27,678,479 (95.6%)
24,159,118 (83.4%)
 2ND DOSE WAS ADMINISTERED TO
SOME COVID19 VACCINES
WHAT PEOPLE THINK OF VACCINE
TREATMENT PROTOCOL
DO NOT TAKE
ANTIBIOTICS IN MILD
OR MODERATE
INFECTION
HOWEVER IT CAN BE TAKEN
DURING SEVERE INFECTION
TO PREVENT SUPERADDED
BACTERIAL INFECTION IN
RESPIRATORY TRACT
SYSTEMIC COMLICATIONS
PSYCHOLOGICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH
ORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF COVID19
 ORAL MUCOROMYCOSIS
[BLACK FUNGUS]
 WHITE FUNGUS
[CANDIDIASIS]
 YELLOW FUNGUS
MUCOROMYCOSIS [BLACK FUNGUS]
 It is also called “Black fungus infection” because it is
characterized by black nasal discharges and black
patches of skin around the nose in the initial stages.
 Post-COVID Mucor mycosis has emerged massively due
to:- Use of immunosuppressive drugs like steroids,
tocilizumab And uncontrolled diabetes with DKA.
ORAL MANIFESTATIONS
 Palate( most common),and palatal Mucor mycosis
observed when infection spread through nose and
paranasal sinuses.
 As the disease progressed:-
 Palatal ulceration/necrosis , necrosis extended
to paranasal sinuses and orbital cavity –
development of sinus tracts and sloughing of
tissue, resulting in intraoral sinus, dental pain,
tooth mobility and halitosis.
HISTOLOGICAL
FINDINGS
 Extensive necrosis of the
involved tissue
 Organism appear as large,
non septate hyphae with
branching at obtuse angles
 GROCOTS silver
methenamine stain may use to
confirm diagnose.
RADIOGRAPHIC
FEATURES
Water’s view : it shows
opacification of involved
maxillary sinus with
destruction of sinus wall
and alveolar bone.
CT paranasal sinus with contrast: It shows
mucosal thickening opacification of
involved maxillary sinus with destruction of
its wall and sequestered bone .
MRI :it shows paranasal spread , black
turbinate sign(1st sign) and osseous erosion
.
WHITE FUNGUS
[CANDIDIASIS]
- Fewer cases has been reported
compare to black fungus.
- Mainly it is caused by candida
group of fungus – CANDIDA
ALBICANS
- Also Caused by Aspergillosis
species-A . fumigatus
- Symptoms are similar to COVID’S.
• Cough
• Breathlessness
• Chest pain
• Headache and swelling
• People with low immunity And those
living in unsanitary condition are more
prone to have White fungus.
YELLOW FUNGUS
Also called as Mucor septic.
⚫ Caused by several species in
the mannosidosis is known as
yellow fungus .
⚫ It can be rather fatal and
deadly as it begins internally,
unlike others where symptoms
are available.
⚫ But less commonly occur in
human
PRECAUTIONS
• Keep your home, room, and surroundings clean
• Discard no longer fresh or good to eat food and fecal matter immediately to
avoid bacterial and fungal growth
• If you have had a stem cell transplant or organ transplant talk to your
doctor for antifungal medication to prevent fungal infections.
• Excessive humidity can cause bacteria and fungus growth, watch out the
humidity of the room
• Patients with Coronavirus (COVID-19), viral disease, immunodeficiency
disorders, cancers, chronic disease should watch the symptoms and
incase of any symptoms start medication to prevent the yellow fungus
infection
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
 WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION [WHO]
 WORLDPOMETER
 DREAMSTIME.COM
 YALE MEDICINE
 MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND POPULATION [MoHP]
 MINISTRY OF HEALH AND FAMILY AWARENESS GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
 RADIOPRDIA.ORG
 CDC.GOV
 VECTORSTOCK
 WWW.NURSEINFO.COM
 WWW.CANESTER.COM
REFERENCES CONTINUED
 BBC UK GOVERNMENT REUTERS
 EXPRESS HEALTH BUTANTON INSTITUTE
 MALAYSIAN HEALTH MINISTRY
 STARGRAPHICS
 POSITIVEMED
 AMERICAN RED CROSS SOCIETY
 US DEPATMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CENTRE FOR DISEASE
CONTROL AND PREVENTION
 NEW YORK DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
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COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx

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  • 3. CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION  VIRAL MORPHOLOGY  HISTORY  EPIDEMIOLOGY  VARIANTS  MEANS OF TRANSMISSION  COMORBODITIES  PATHOGENESIS……..
  • 4. OBJECTIVES CONTINUED  CLINICAL MANIFESTATION AND SYMPTOMS  INVESTIGATIONS  PREVENTION  VACCINATION  TREATMENT  COMPLICATIONS  ORAL MANIFESTATIONS  CONCLUSION  REFERENCES
  • 5. INTRODUCTION Coronavirus disease is officially called as “SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME CORONAVIRUS 2” SARS CoV 2 it falls in coronaviridae family
  • 6. VIRAL MORPHOLOGY  Its genome has single stranded linear non segmented positive sense RNA  The genome is largest among all the RNA viruses
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  • 8. HISTORY  COVID 19 was discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan China [epicenter]  In Nepal on 23rd January 2020 the ministry of health and population (MoHP) officially declared the first case of covid 19 in Nepal  Second case was reported on 17th march 2020  WHO Declared COVID-19 AS PANDEMIC ON 11TH MARCH 2020
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  • 11. EPIDEMIOLOGY WORLDWIDE  ACCORDING TO LAST UPDATE AT 28TH JANUARY 2023 12:21 GMT WE HAVE TOTAL OF 674638457 (674 millions) CORONAVIRUS CASES WORLDWIDE (SORCE: WORLDOMETER)  AMONG WHICH DEATH COUNT IS 6757356 (6.7 millions)  TOTAL RECOVERED CASE IS 646761852 ( 646 millions)  TOTAL ACTIVE CASE IS 21119249 (21 millions) AMONG WHICH 21076884(99.8%) IS IN MILD CONDITION AND 42365(0.2%) IS SERIOUS OR CRITICAL
  • 12. EPIDEMIOLOGY NEPAL  ACCORDING TO LAST UPDATE AT 28TH JANUARY 2023 12:21 GMT WE HAVE TOTAL OF 1001092 (1 million) CASES OF COVID IN NEPAL (SORCE: WORLDOMETER)  AMONG WHICH THE TOTAL IS DEATH COUNT 12020  TOTAL RECOVERED CASE IS 989054  ACTIVE CASE IS ONLY 18 AND ALL IS MILD CONDITION
  • 13. VARIANTS OF CORONAVIRUS Among these all omicron delta and alphawere more reported • Most lethal variant being delta variant • Cause of different variant is mutation of viral gene • (reference : YALE MEDICINE)
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  • 16. MEANS OF TRANSMISSION • Aerosol of contaminated individuals • Contaminated surfaces
  • 17. COMORBIDITIES  AGE  CHRONIC PULMONARY DISEASE  DIABETES MELIETUS  HYPERTENSION  HEPATIC DYSFUNTION  CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE (CKD)  MALIGNANCY  IMMUNOCOMPROMISED  NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS
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  • 27. GROUND GLASS OPACITY Common radiographic findings of individuals with COVID-19 include bilateral, lower-lobe predominate infiltrates on chest radiographic imaging and bilateral, peripheral, lower-lobe ground-glass opacities and/or consolidation on chest computed tomographic (CT SCAN) imaging.
  • 28. GROUND GLASS OPACITY THE CHARCTERISTIC CHEST X-RAY FINDING
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  • 33. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PCR AND AG TEST
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  • 38. PREVENTIVE MEASURES  USE HAND SANITIZER WHENEVER YOU TOUCH THE CONTAMINATED SURFACE  VACCINATIONS
  • 41. VACCINATION WORLDWIDE  ACCORDING TO THE DATA FROM WHO OUT OF TOTAL POPULATION OF 7,845,261,000  1st dose was administered to  5,535,501,542 (70.6%)  Whereas 2nd dose was administered to  5,085,185,827 (64.8%) (Updated 29 Jan 2023 )
  • 42. VACCINATION NEPAL  1ST DOSE WAS ADMINISTERED TO  27,678,479 (95.6%) 24,159,118 (83.4%)  2ND DOSE WAS ADMINISTERED TO
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  • 53. WHAT PEOPLE THINK OF VACCINE
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  • 62. DO NOT TAKE ANTIBIOTICS IN MILD OR MODERATE INFECTION HOWEVER IT CAN BE TAKEN DURING SEVERE INFECTION TO PREVENT SUPERADDED BACTERIAL INFECTION IN RESPIRATORY TRACT
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  • 68. ORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF COVID19  ORAL MUCOROMYCOSIS [BLACK FUNGUS]  WHITE FUNGUS [CANDIDIASIS]  YELLOW FUNGUS
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  • 70. MUCOROMYCOSIS [BLACK FUNGUS]  It is also called “Black fungus infection” because it is characterized by black nasal discharges and black patches of skin around the nose in the initial stages.  Post-COVID Mucor mycosis has emerged massively due to:- Use of immunosuppressive drugs like steroids, tocilizumab And uncontrolled diabetes with DKA.
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  • 73. ORAL MANIFESTATIONS  Palate( most common),and palatal Mucor mycosis observed when infection spread through nose and paranasal sinuses.  As the disease progressed:-  Palatal ulceration/necrosis , necrosis extended to paranasal sinuses and orbital cavity – development of sinus tracts and sloughing of tissue, resulting in intraoral sinus, dental pain, tooth mobility and halitosis.
  • 74. HISTOLOGICAL FINDINGS  Extensive necrosis of the involved tissue  Organism appear as large, non septate hyphae with branching at obtuse angles  GROCOTS silver methenamine stain may use to confirm diagnose.
  • 75. RADIOGRAPHIC FEATURES Water’s view : it shows opacification of involved maxillary sinus with destruction of sinus wall and alveolar bone. CT paranasal sinus with contrast: It shows mucosal thickening opacification of involved maxillary sinus with destruction of its wall and sequestered bone . MRI :it shows paranasal spread , black turbinate sign(1st sign) and osseous erosion .
  • 76. WHITE FUNGUS [CANDIDIASIS] - Fewer cases has been reported compare to black fungus. - Mainly it is caused by candida group of fungus – CANDIDA ALBICANS - Also Caused by Aspergillosis species-A . fumigatus - Symptoms are similar to COVID’S. • Cough • Breathlessness • Chest pain • Headache and swelling • People with low immunity And those living in unsanitary condition are more prone to have White fungus.
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  • 79. YELLOW FUNGUS Also called as Mucor septic. ⚫ Caused by several species in the mannosidosis is known as yellow fungus . ⚫ It can be rather fatal and deadly as it begins internally, unlike others where symptoms are available. ⚫ But less commonly occur in human
  • 80. PRECAUTIONS • Keep your home, room, and surroundings clean • Discard no longer fresh or good to eat food and fecal matter immediately to avoid bacterial and fungal growth • If you have had a stem cell transplant or organ transplant talk to your doctor for antifungal medication to prevent fungal infections. • Excessive humidity can cause bacteria and fungus growth, watch out the humidity of the room • Patients with Coronavirus (COVID-19), viral disease, immunodeficiency disorders, cancers, chronic disease should watch the symptoms and incase of any symptoms start medication to prevent the yellow fungus infection
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  • 87. REFERENCES  WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION [WHO]  WORLDPOMETER  DREAMSTIME.COM  YALE MEDICINE  MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND POPULATION [MoHP]  MINISTRY OF HEALH AND FAMILY AWARENESS GOVERNMENT OF INDIA  RADIOPRDIA.ORG  CDC.GOV  VECTORSTOCK  WWW.NURSEINFO.COM  WWW.CANESTER.COM
  • 88. REFERENCES CONTINUED  BBC UK GOVERNMENT REUTERS  EXPRESS HEALTH BUTANTON INSTITUTE  MALAYSIAN HEALTH MINISTRY  STARGRAPHICS  POSITIVEMED  AMERICAN RED CROSS SOCIETY  US DEPATMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CENTRE FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION  NEW YORK DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH