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Blue Economy“A new emerging concept for sustainable economic deployment in the ocean.”
Course Teacher:
Dr. Wahidul Alam
Assistant Professor
PhD (Maritime Law and Policies)
Institute of Marine Sciences
University of Chittagong.
Course Name: Maritime Law
Group 7
1. Md. Rashedul Islam Asif (14207016)
2. Kajemul Hasan Shahed (14207098)
Introduction
Oceans cover 72% of the surface of our blue planet and constitute more than 95% of the biosphere. Life
originated in the oceans and they continue to support all life today by generating oxygen, absorbing carbon
dioxide, recycling nutrients and regulating global climate and temperature. Oceans provide a substantial portion
of the global population with food and livelihoods and are the means of transport for 80% of global trade.
The world faces one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century: how to feed 9 billion people by 2050
in the face of climate change, economic and financial uncertainty and the growing competition for
natural resources. These multiple challenges require an integrated response and an urgent transition of
the world economy towards a sustainable, inclusive and resource efficient path.
In 2012, the world formulated its Blue Economy strategy to harness the potential of oceans, seas and
coasts for economic growth and jobs. With high unemployment levels and resource crunch, the coastal
countries and Small Island Developing States formulated the blue economy strategy with the objective
to promote smart, sustainable and inclusive growth and employment opportunities through utilization
of the drivers of maritime economy such as seas, coasts and other maritime resources.
Introduction
EarlyConcept
History:
Throughout and subsequent to the Rio +20 process there has been a growing appreciation that the
world’s Oceans and Seas require more in depth attention and coordinated action. This has been
reflected in various initiatives inter alia the UNDESA expert group meeting on Oceans, Seas and
Sustainable Development, the work of the Global Ocean Commission, the Global Partnership for
Oceans and the prominence given to oceans and seas in the UN Action Agenda. Healthy oceans are
essential for global food security, livelihoods and economic growth.
Framework for Sustainable Development
The Blue Economy conceptualizes oceans and seas as “Development Spaces” where spatial planning
integrates conservation, sustainable use of living resources, oil and mineral wealth extraction, bio-
prospecting, sustainable energy production and marine transport. The Blue Economy approach is
founded upon the assessment and incorporation of the real value of the natural (blue) capital into all
aspects of economic activity (conceptualization, planning, infrastructure development, trade, travel,
renewable resource exploitation, energy production/consumption). Every country must take its share of
the responsibility to protect the high seas, which cover 64 % of the surface of our oceans and constitute
more than 90% of their volume.
Introduction
Concept
Framework
Framework for Sustainable Development
1. Balancing Growth and Conservation
2. Balancing private sector growth and equitable benefits for communities
3. Uniting EEZ and Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ)
Introduction
Concept
Framework
Balancing
1. Balancing Growth and Conservation
Governments, policy makers and international institutions keen to boost food
security and eradicate poverty face a careful balancing act between conservation
and growth. While fisheries and aquaculture generate considerable social and
economic benefits for hundreds of millions of people around the world, and have
the potential to increase their contribution to human well-being and growth,
sustainable development, based on the pillars of ecological, social and economic
sustainability, entails reconciling several intersecting agendas.
National governments can play a key role in addressing these challenges, acting in
their own and in concert with others through international treaties including
National/Regional Fisheries Management Organizations and other
regional mechanisms such as the Regional Seas Programme of the United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP).
Introduction
Concept
Framework
Framework for Sustainable Development
2. Balancing private sector growth and equitable benefits for communities
While governments can create legal, regulatory and policy frameworks and
incentives, it is the private sector that is the main driver of economic growth
through investment and entrepreneurial initiatives which range from global
billion-dollar corporations that are vertically integrated to small-scale fishers.
In the Rio+20 outcome documents, The Future We Want, members of the
international community agreed to "encourage the private sector to contribute to
decent work for all and job creation for both women and men, and particularly for
the youth, including through partnerships with small and medium enterprises as
well as cooperatives.
Introduction
Concept
Framework
Framework for Sustainable Development
3. Uniting EEZ and Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ)
There are a number of common issues that have an impact in EEZs and in the
high seas in regard to resource use and conservation. From small-scale artisanal
fisheries to large-scale industrial fisheries, and whether in national waters or
ABNJ, the related issues of who has the right to exploit the fishery's and marine
genetic resources and the nature of that right are a key part of the sustainable
management of the resource. Marine pollution includes, but is not limited to,
plastics, metals, glass, concrete and other construction materials, paper,
polystyrene, rubber, rope, textiles and hazardous materials, such as munitions,
asbestos and medical waste. Marine debris may result from activities on land or at
sea and is a complex cultural and multi-sectoral problem that exacts tremendous
ecological, economic, and social costs around the globe.
1st dispute: The International Tribunal for the Law of the Seas (ITLOS) in
Hamburg, Germany, gave its judgment on the maritime boundary dispute
between Bangladesh & Myanmar (case 16), on 14 March 2012 and Bangladesh
was awarded 111,631 sq km area. The judgment was given according to Article
287 of the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea of 1982 (UNCLOS
III),
2nd dispute: Settling a longstanding India-Bangladesh maritime boundary
dispute, a Hague-based international court has awarded Bangladesh
19,467square kilometers out of 25,602 sq. km disputed area in the Bay of
Bengal. 7 July 2014.
Bangladesh win total 118,813 square kilometers sea boundary
Historical win for Bangladesh
The Blue Economy – Opportunities
1) Shipping and Port Facilities
2) Fisheries
3) Aquaculture
4) Tourism
5) Energy
6) Biotechnology and marine genetic resources
7) Submarine mining
Development of Blue Economy in Bangladesh
The Blue economy approach emphasized that ideas, principles, norms of Blue Economy lend
significant contribution towards eradication of poverty, contributing to food and nutrition security,
mitigation and adaptation of climate change and generation of sustainable and inclusive livelihoods.
Even the World Bank explicitly stated that the blue economy includes established ocean industries,
such as fisheries, tourism and marine transport, as well as new and emerging activities such as
offshore renewable energy, aquaculture, seabed extractive activities and marine biotechnology and
bioprospecting.
The World Bank argues that the potential to develop a blue economy is limited by three main
challenges.
Current economic activities and trends that exploit the ocean unsustainably need to be replaced by
altered or even new economic practices and behavior. For this, resistance of established interest
must be overcome and – the second challenge – is necessary to invest in human capital. Individuals
need to be trained to be able to work in the blue economy, thereby harnessing the employment and
development benefits of investing in innovative blue economy sectors.
Maritime trade and shipping
a)Shipping & Sea ports:
More than 90% of the Bangladesh’s external freight trade is seaborne – and on-going
globalization has made this flow ever more important. The long coastline and age old
tradition of sea navigation in Bangladesh have led to a relatively strong development of
maritime services that support the sea trade and sea transport function.
Presently Bangladesh’s value of export and import stands at about USD 78 billion (2017-18)
and are carried by almost 3000 foreign ships visiting our ports21. Against our import and
export value, during last ten years, importers, exporters and buyers has paid USD 95
billion as freight and related charges only to foreign shipping companies, air lines and
freight operators to carry goods in and out of Bangladesh. There are only 42 registered
(2018) Bangladeshi merchant ships which are not sufficient to carry even a fraction of our
cargo. Considering the average import growth rate of 15.79% (last 10 years) and export
growth rate of 15.43% (last 10 years), projected freight value for next ten years would be
around USD 435 billion.
Shipping & Sea ports
B) SHIPBUILDING
Finally, the shipbuilding industry contributes to this function by providing the necessary equipment, which
does not only cover ships but also the marine equipment in which our own industries can play an important
role. There are more than 300 shipyards and workshops in Bangladesh and almost 100% requirement of
inland vessels, fast patrol boats, dredging barges, passenger vessels, landing craft, tug, supply barges, deck
loading barges, speed boat, cargo coasters, troop carrying vessels, hydrographic survey vessels, survey
boat, pilot boats, water taxiand pontoons are being built by these yards.
Ship recycling industries- during 2017, about 7000+ ships were scrapped, which is the highest number in
six years and bangladesh ranked 1st considering number of ships. It provides about 70-75% scrap steel as
raw material for steel and re-rolling mills, saving lot of foreign currency. This industry not only met the
growing needs of furniture, household fittings of all classes, boilers, lifesaving boats, generators etc. But
also employment opportunities. There are about 125 ship breaking yards with annual turnover of about
USD 2.4 billion. Ship recycling must be turned into modern industry with all eco- friendly infrastructure
and compliance of international convention.
Food and livelihood
c) Fishery:
There are about 475 species of fish found in our EEZ compared to 250 species on land. Fish still provides the
much needed protein needs of our people. About 70,000 artisanal mechanized and non-mechanized
wooden boats and about 250 industrial steel body trawlers are engaged in fishing in the coastal waters upto
60 km (within 40m depth) from our coastline having very limited capability in catching pelagic fishing-shoals
closer to surface. A considerable amount of fish are salted and dried, mainly for human consumption. Hilsa
shad (Tenualosa ilisha)is the largest and single most valuable species with annual catch of over 4,96,417 mt
and generates employment and income for 2.5 million people valued at $US 1.3 billion per year (BOBLME
2012, Hossain et al. 2014). At present 50-60% of global hilsa catch takes place in the coastal and marine
waters of Bangladesh, In the Bay of Bengal 8 million tons of fish are caught by other countries where
Bangladesh’s share is only 93,000 tons (2017).
Several Marine Protected Areas (MPA) have also been declared to maintain marine biodiversity and fish stocks
at sustainable levels. Destructive fishing methods and gear (e.g., set bag net) have been completely banned
from operation. Vessel Tracking and Monitoring System (VTMS) with satellite communication links are going
to be installed soon in fishing vessels in phases, in order to monitor and control their manoeuvre at sea for
various management purposes. In the environment sector, several Ecologically Critical Areas (ECA) have been
enforced in various coastal ecosystems to maintain critical habitats, biodiversity, marine turtle breeding and
conservation, and mangrove restoration and growth.
3 Major fishing ground of Bay of Bengal
Mari culture
is and will increasingly become an important producer of aquatic food in coastal and deeper waters, as
well as a source of employment and income for many coastal communities. Well-planned and -
managed mariculture can also contribute positively to coastal environmental integrity. Its future
development will have to take place in the coastal waters of the bay, with increasing pressure on coastal
resources caused by rising populations, and increasing competition for resources.
It’s not going to be easy to introduce mariculture but with constant training, technology and feed
depending on the species selected, specific project to build capacity with appropriate technology for the
development of the certain species may be undertaken with the interested fisher folk in appropriate
coastal waters such as grouper, mullet, sea bass and abalone etc.
Seaweed Culture Fish culture in the sea
Marine aquatic products
Marine aquatic products consist of the farming of marine aquatic organisms, mainly for human
consumption and all the associated primary processing activities. While cultivation of aquatic plants and
algae is still to be evolved, farming of aquatic animals composed of three major sub-sectors: marine
shellfish farming (e.g. oysters and mussels), marine finfish farming and freshwater finfish farming (trout,
carp, eel, etc.) could be considered for cultivation. Many people living in the rural areas of developing
countries depend on aquatic resources for their food and livelihood.
Algae extracts are used in cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical markets (macro algae and micro
algae). There are already several products on the market such as PUFA’s (poly unsaturated fatty acids) like
omega-3 and omega-6, but also antioxidants. Macro algae producers can target the human food
market (already happening in Asia) but also the animal feed market. Some interviewees believe that
macro algae will be a valuable source of proteins for human and animal consumption.
Marine Biotechnology
Exploration of the sea biodiversity is now helping us understand for example how organisms that can
withstand extremes of temperature and pressure and grow without light could be used to develop new
industrial enzymes or pharmaceuticals. It can provide bio-sourced products such as coating with anti-fouling
or anticorrosive properties for maritime transport and shipbuilding. Blue biotechnology can also contribute to
the development of specific biopolymers and bio membranes that improve the overall efficiency of the
desalination process.
Bio stimulation can also be used to protect natural habitats by fostering bioremediation after important
pollutions (as for the Exxon Valdez oil spill when bacteria were stimulated to degrade hydrocarbons).
Energy
Oil and gas
Bangladesh is yet to assess the true potential of its offshore oil and gas prospects. Some 26 Tcf (trillion cubic
feet) gas reserve has so far been discovered in Bangladesh, of which only about 1 Tcf is located in the offshore
areas. Until 2014, 19 exploratory wells were drilled in the Bay of Bengal, resulting in only two gas discoveries,
i.e. the Sangu and the Kutubdia, with small reserves. The Sangu reserves of 0.8 Tcf have already depleted,
whereas the Kutubdia reserves 0.04 Tcf are yet to be developed. Moreover, the drilling of the Magnama (3.5
Tcf) and Hatia (1.0 Tcf) yet to produce any commercial volumes of hydrocarbons. Due to close proximity to the
discovered gas fields of Myanmar, some Bangladeshi blocks are likely to have comparable geological
structures and gas/oil prospects.
Oil & Gas production
Sea salt production
Sea salt has been produced traditionally along the Cox’s Bazar coast of Bangladesh for generations. In a
longer dry season, the salt farmers can get about 20 tons/ha production. The annual salt production in the
Cox’s Bazar coastal segment of Bangladesh is 22MT, where the Samut Sakhon of Thailand produces 43MT.
Moreover, formation of salt farmer’s cooperatives can ensure bargaining power and maximize economic
return (i.e., salt price) for their standard of living.
Ocean renewable energy
Marine-based renewable energy such as wind, wave and
tidal range and currents offers a significant potential to
contribute to low-carbon energy supplies for regions with
appropriate coastal features. Off-shore wind covers all
activities related to the development and construction of
wind parks in marine waters, and the exploitation of
wind energy by generating electricity offshore. However,
most suitable onshore locations for wind turbines need to
be identified and the best (windiest) offshore sites have to
be connected to the main transmission grid. Tidal energy,
covering tidal range and tidal current, is the most
advanced, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is
based on the thermodynamic potential between the
warmer upper water layer and the colder deeper water
layer. Activities provide important synergies with ocean
renewable energies, e.g. wave energy converters may help
to attenuate wave attack and generate electricity.
Solar System in Ocean
Turbine by tidal activity
Sea Wind Circulation
Aggregates mining (sand, gravel, etc.)
Beach material commonly known as sand varies in colour ranging from dark-brown, grey, black, light brown,
golden to silvery white. Several investigations have been carried out in the coastal region to find heavy
materials in the sandy beaches of Bangladesh. Sands containing valuable heavy minerals are found
intermittently over the length of a 250 km coastal belt from Patenga to Teknaf. The entire coastal belt has been
explored with the discovery of 17 deposits of potentially valuable minerals such as zircon, rutile, ilmenite,
leucoxene, kyanite, garnet, magnetite and monazite (Alam 2004). Proper extraction and commercialization of
minerals from beach sand may enhance the growth of different industries such as welding electrodes, paper,
glass, chemical and ceramic sectors in the country. So, by installing mineral extracting industries in the coastal
region, it may be possible to create huge employment opportunities for the local community.
Coastal tourism:
Globally, coastal tourism is the largest market segment and represents 5 per cent of world GDP and
contributes to 6-7 per cent of total employment. In 150 countries, it is one of five top export earners and in 60
it is the first. It is the main source of foreign exchange for one-half of Least Developed Countries (LDCs).
Coastal tourism includes a) beach-based recreation and tourism, b) tourist activities in proximity to the sea, and
c) nautical boating including yachting and marinas. Sustainable tourism can create new jobs and reduce
poverty. Tourism is human-resource intensive
Aggregates mining (sand, gravel, etc.)
Coastal tourism
Recreational water sports, yachting and marinas
Introduction of various water sports for recreational activities, construction and servicing of seaworthy
pleasure boats and the required supporting infrastructure including marina ports could encourage growth of
coastal tourism.
Cruise tourism
Tourism based on people travelling by small size cruise ship in among the coastal islands and tourist areas.
Much of this growth is dependent upon the sector’s ability to develop sustainable business models, to invest
in port infrastructure and to address a variety of security concerns. An ageing population and a larger share of
educated citizens will lead to more demand for 'customized experiences'.
DEVELOPMENT OF BLUE ECONOMY
FROM
SEA RESOURCES
Marine fishes (Capture) Demersal (bottom dwelling) fishes, pelagic (free swimming) fishes
Fisheries and other living resources Shrimps, crabs, lobsters, mussels, etc.
Mariculture Sea bass, Grey mullet, Pomfret , Hilsa , Crab breeding and green mussel, oyster ,
Seaweeds, and Marine micro algae cultivation in cages and other
enclosures/grow outs
Non living resources Salt and brine, potable water by desalination, Fuel oil, gas and as other valuable
minerals
Coastal tourism, and marine sports Cruise-ship, yacht, floating hotel and restaurant, surfing, diving, snorkeling,
boating, sport fishing and other water sports etc.
Shipping & port operations and use
of ocean in maritime trade
Trade expansion, fleet expansion, port development, transit and transshipment,
coastal shipping and improvement and use of riverine routes for containers etc
Forest resources development and
Mangrove ecosystem
Mangrove forests, afforestation, canal and creeks for spawning, breeding and
pearl cultivation
Ship building & ship recycling Incentives to be provided. More compliant industries needed.
Renewable Energy development Power generation from current, tide, wave and maritime wind; bio-gas and bio-
fuel from marine alage
Land reclamation Acceleration of char and island formation by engineering interventions
Biotechnology Marine algae, various marine plants & animals as raw materials for
pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries
Maritime professionals Coastal zone planner & manager, coastal forest manager, marine fisheries
manager, tourism manager, maritime lawyer, merchant marine, port manager,
maritime trade analyst, shipping liner & entrepreneur, marine pollution &
environment expert, marine conservationist, hydrographer, surveyor, offshore
engineer, naval architect, marine engineer, aquaculture technologist,
biotechnologist and hatchery technologist, remote sensing & optical, marine
scientist, marine biologist/ecologist, marine fisheries biologist, maritime
meteorologist, climatologist, marine geologist, petroleum geologist, etc.
Marine Scientific Research BORI should be strengthened with a research vessel
Maritime safety and Surveillance Marine unconventional products and services
Maritime safety and Surveillance may be upgraded
Marine Business services Marine R&D; general education and ocean literacy; and private partnership
Maritime safety and surveillance
 Overall maritime safety and surveillance mechanism should be upgraded to improve the
situational awareness of all activities at sea impacting on maritime economic activities.
 Policy makers at national and international levels should look to the financial sector seeking to
involve them in a range of topics, from nature protection and social welfare to social
entrepreneurship towards realizing societal objectives. Any effort to build capacity or transfer of
technology on Blue economy should consider how such efforts best fit the current circumstances
and needs of the partner institutions.
 A science-based approach is essential to the development of the Blue Economy; commencing
with the initial assessment and critically the valuation of the blue capital at our disposal. This will
provide a basis for informed decision-making and adaptive management. This major undertaking
must be addressed and continually refined and upgraded in line with changing circumstances,
evolving technologies and our increasing understanding; or the Blue Economy approach will
founder. This underlines the importance of technical assistance, technology transfer and capacity
building to the pursuit of sustainable development.
Maritime safety and surveillance
 Existing funding instruments/mechanism are not good enough to support the
development of Blue Economy. Lastly, we need to encourage partnerships
between, public authorities and economic players, in order to foster scale
effects and mutually reinforcing learning and investment and to explore market
opportunities worldwide for the international dimension of the blue economy.
 With a view to improving food security, eradicating poverty and delivering
shared prosperity, global leaders, ocean practitioners, scientists, and
representatives from government, business, civil society, national and
international organizations must come together to explore action-oriented
partnerships, governance arrangements, investment frameworks and new
financing vehicles to turn the tide not only on the health of Oceans but also
how the resources of the sea could be used for economic emancipation.
Blue economy

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Blue economy

  • 1. Blue Economy“A new emerging concept for sustainable economic deployment in the ocean.”
  • 2. Course Teacher: Dr. Wahidul Alam Assistant Professor PhD (Maritime Law and Policies) Institute of Marine Sciences University of Chittagong. Course Name: Maritime Law Group 7 1. Md. Rashedul Islam Asif (14207016) 2. Kajemul Hasan Shahed (14207098)
  • 3. Introduction Oceans cover 72% of the surface of our blue planet and constitute more than 95% of the biosphere. Life originated in the oceans and they continue to support all life today by generating oxygen, absorbing carbon dioxide, recycling nutrients and regulating global climate and temperature. Oceans provide a substantial portion of the global population with food and livelihoods and are the means of transport for 80% of global trade. The world faces one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century: how to feed 9 billion people by 2050 in the face of climate change, economic and financial uncertainty and the growing competition for natural resources. These multiple challenges require an integrated response and an urgent transition of the world economy towards a sustainable, inclusive and resource efficient path. In 2012, the world formulated its Blue Economy strategy to harness the potential of oceans, seas and coasts for economic growth and jobs. With high unemployment levels and resource crunch, the coastal countries and Small Island Developing States formulated the blue economy strategy with the objective to promote smart, sustainable and inclusive growth and employment opportunities through utilization of the drivers of maritime economy such as seas, coasts and other maritime resources.
  • 4. Introduction EarlyConcept History: Throughout and subsequent to the Rio +20 process there has been a growing appreciation that the world’s Oceans and Seas require more in depth attention and coordinated action. This has been reflected in various initiatives inter alia the UNDESA expert group meeting on Oceans, Seas and Sustainable Development, the work of the Global Ocean Commission, the Global Partnership for Oceans and the prominence given to oceans and seas in the UN Action Agenda. Healthy oceans are essential for global food security, livelihoods and economic growth. Framework for Sustainable Development The Blue Economy conceptualizes oceans and seas as “Development Spaces” where spatial planning integrates conservation, sustainable use of living resources, oil and mineral wealth extraction, bio- prospecting, sustainable energy production and marine transport. The Blue Economy approach is founded upon the assessment and incorporation of the real value of the natural (blue) capital into all aspects of economic activity (conceptualization, planning, infrastructure development, trade, travel, renewable resource exploitation, energy production/consumption). Every country must take its share of the responsibility to protect the high seas, which cover 64 % of the surface of our oceans and constitute more than 90% of their volume.
  • 5. Introduction Concept Framework Framework for Sustainable Development 1. Balancing Growth and Conservation 2. Balancing private sector growth and equitable benefits for communities 3. Uniting EEZ and Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ)
  • 6. Introduction Concept Framework Balancing 1. Balancing Growth and Conservation Governments, policy makers and international institutions keen to boost food security and eradicate poverty face a careful balancing act between conservation and growth. While fisheries and aquaculture generate considerable social and economic benefits for hundreds of millions of people around the world, and have the potential to increase their contribution to human well-being and growth, sustainable development, based on the pillars of ecological, social and economic sustainability, entails reconciling several intersecting agendas. National governments can play a key role in addressing these challenges, acting in their own and in concert with others through international treaties including National/Regional Fisheries Management Organizations and other regional mechanisms such as the Regional Seas Programme of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
  • 7. Introduction Concept Framework Framework for Sustainable Development 2. Balancing private sector growth and equitable benefits for communities While governments can create legal, regulatory and policy frameworks and incentives, it is the private sector that is the main driver of economic growth through investment and entrepreneurial initiatives which range from global billion-dollar corporations that are vertically integrated to small-scale fishers. In the Rio+20 outcome documents, The Future We Want, members of the international community agreed to "encourage the private sector to contribute to decent work for all and job creation for both women and men, and particularly for the youth, including through partnerships with small and medium enterprises as well as cooperatives.
  • 8. Introduction Concept Framework Framework for Sustainable Development 3. Uniting EEZ and Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ) There are a number of common issues that have an impact in EEZs and in the high seas in regard to resource use and conservation. From small-scale artisanal fisheries to large-scale industrial fisheries, and whether in national waters or ABNJ, the related issues of who has the right to exploit the fishery's and marine genetic resources and the nature of that right are a key part of the sustainable management of the resource. Marine pollution includes, but is not limited to, plastics, metals, glass, concrete and other construction materials, paper, polystyrene, rubber, rope, textiles and hazardous materials, such as munitions, asbestos and medical waste. Marine debris may result from activities on land or at sea and is a complex cultural and multi-sectoral problem that exacts tremendous ecological, economic, and social costs around the globe.
  • 9. 1st dispute: The International Tribunal for the Law of the Seas (ITLOS) in Hamburg, Germany, gave its judgment on the maritime boundary dispute between Bangladesh & Myanmar (case 16), on 14 March 2012 and Bangladesh was awarded 111,631 sq km area. The judgment was given according to Article 287 of the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea of 1982 (UNCLOS III), 2nd dispute: Settling a longstanding India-Bangladesh maritime boundary dispute, a Hague-based international court has awarded Bangladesh 19,467square kilometers out of 25,602 sq. km disputed area in the Bay of Bengal. 7 July 2014. Bangladesh win total 118,813 square kilometers sea boundary Historical win for Bangladesh
  • 10.
  • 11. The Blue Economy – Opportunities 1) Shipping and Port Facilities 2) Fisheries 3) Aquaculture 4) Tourism 5) Energy 6) Biotechnology and marine genetic resources 7) Submarine mining
  • 12. Development of Blue Economy in Bangladesh The Blue economy approach emphasized that ideas, principles, norms of Blue Economy lend significant contribution towards eradication of poverty, contributing to food and nutrition security, mitigation and adaptation of climate change and generation of sustainable and inclusive livelihoods. Even the World Bank explicitly stated that the blue economy includes established ocean industries, such as fisheries, tourism and marine transport, as well as new and emerging activities such as offshore renewable energy, aquaculture, seabed extractive activities and marine biotechnology and bioprospecting. The World Bank argues that the potential to develop a blue economy is limited by three main challenges. Current economic activities and trends that exploit the ocean unsustainably need to be replaced by altered or even new economic practices and behavior. For this, resistance of established interest must be overcome and – the second challenge – is necessary to invest in human capital. Individuals need to be trained to be able to work in the blue economy, thereby harnessing the employment and development benefits of investing in innovative blue economy sectors.
  • 13. Maritime trade and shipping a)Shipping & Sea ports: More than 90% of the Bangladesh’s external freight trade is seaborne – and on-going globalization has made this flow ever more important. The long coastline and age old tradition of sea navigation in Bangladesh have led to a relatively strong development of maritime services that support the sea trade and sea transport function. Presently Bangladesh’s value of export and import stands at about USD 78 billion (2017-18) and are carried by almost 3000 foreign ships visiting our ports21. Against our import and export value, during last ten years, importers, exporters and buyers has paid USD 95 billion as freight and related charges only to foreign shipping companies, air lines and freight operators to carry goods in and out of Bangladesh. There are only 42 registered (2018) Bangladeshi merchant ships which are not sufficient to carry even a fraction of our cargo. Considering the average import growth rate of 15.79% (last 10 years) and export growth rate of 15.43% (last 10 years), projected freight value for next ten years would be around USD 435 billion. Shipping & Sea ports
  • 14. B) SHIPBUILDING Finally, the shipbuilding industry contributes to this function by providing the necessary equipment, which does not only cover ships but also the marine equipment in which our own industries can play an important role. There are more than 300 shipyards and workshops in Bangladesh and almost 100% requirement of inland vessels, fast patrol boats, dredging barges, passenger vessels, landing craft, tug, supply barges, deck loading barges, speed boat, cargo coasters, troop carrying vessels, hydrographic survey vessels, survey boat, pilot boats, water taxiand pontoons are being built by these yards. Ship recycling industries- during 2017, about 7000+ ships were scrapped, which is the highest number in six years and bangladesh ranked 1st considering number of ships. It provides about 70-75% scrap steel as raw material for steel and re-rolling mills, saving lot of foreign currency. This industry not only met the growing needs of furniture, household fittings of all classes, boilers, lifesaving boats, generators etc. But also employment opportunities. There are about 125 ship breaking yards with annual turnover of about USD 2.4 billion. Ship recycling must be turned into modern industry with all eco- friendly infrastructure and compliance of international convention.
  • 15. Food and livelihood c) Fishery: There are about 475 species of fish found in our EEZ compared to 250 species on land. Fish still provides the much needed protein needs of our people. About 70,000 artisanal mechanized and non-mechanized wooden boats and about 250 industrial steel body trawlers are engaged in fishing in the coastal waters upto 60 km (within 40m depth) from our coastline having very limited capability in catching pelagic fishing-shoals closer to surface. A considerable amount of fish are salted and dried, mainly for human consumption. Hilsa shad (Tenualosa ilisha)is the largest and single most valuable species with annual catch of over 4,96,417 mt and generates employment and income for 2.5 million people valued at $US 1.3 billion per year (BOBLME 2012, Hossain et al. 2014). At present 50-60% of global hilsa catch takes place in the coastal and marine waters of Bangladesh, In the Bay of Bengal 8 million tons of fish are caught by other countries where Bangladesh’s share is only 93,000 tons (2017). Several Marine Protected Areas (MPA) have also been declared to maintain marine biodiversity and fish stocks at sustainable levels. Destructive fishing methods and gear (e.g., set bag net) have been completely banned from operation. Vessel Tracking and Monitoring System (VTMS) with satellite communication links are going to be installed soon in fishing vessels in phases, in order to monitor and control their manoeuvre at sea for various management purposes. In the environment sector, several Ecologically Critical Areas (ECA) have been enforced in various coastal ecosystems to maintain critical habitats, biodiversity, marine turtle breeding and conservation, and mangrove restoration and growth. 3 Major fishing ground of Bay of Bengal
  • 16. Mari culture is and will increasingly become an important producer of aquatic food in coastal and deeper waters, as well as a source of employment and income for many coastal communities. Well-planned and - managed mariculture can also contribute positively to coastal environmental integrity. Its future development will have to take place in the coastal waters of the bay, with increasing pressure on coastal resources caused by rising populations, and increasing competition for resources. It’s not going to be easy to introduce mariculture but with constant training, technology and feed depending on the species selected, specific project to build capacity with appropriate technology for the development of the certain species may be undertaken with the interested fisher folk in appropriate coastal waters such as grouper, mullet, sea bass and abalone etc. Seaweed Culture Fish culture in the sea
  • 17. Marine aquatic products Marine aquatic products consist of the farming of marine aquatic organisms, mainly for human consumption and all the associated primary processing activities. While cultivation of aquatic plants and algae is still to be evolved, farming of aquatic animals composed of three major sub-sectors: marine shellfish farming (e.g. oysters and mussels), marine finfish farming and freshwater finfish farming (trout, carp, eel, etc.) could be considered for cultivation. Many people living in the rural areas of developing countries depend on aquatic resources for their food and livelihood. Algae extracts are used in cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical markets (macro algae and micro algae). There are already several products on the market such as PUFA’s (poly unsaturated fatty acids) like omega-3 and omega-6, but also antioxidants. Macro algae producers can target the human food market (already happening in Asia) but also the animal feed market. Some interviewees believe that macro algae will be a valuable source of proteins for human and animal consumption.
  • 18. Marine Biotechnology Exploration of the sea biodiversity is now helping us understand for example how organisms that can withstand extremes of temperature and pressure and grow without light could be used to develop new industrial enzymes or pharmaceuticals. It can provide bio-sourced products such as coating with anti-fouling or anticorrosive properties for maritime transport and shipbuilding. Blue biotechnology can also contribute to the development of specific biopolymers and bio membranes that improve the overall efficiency of the desalination process. Bio stimulation can also be used to protect natural habitats by fostering bioremediation after important pollutions (as for the Exxon Valdez oil spill when bacteria were stimulated to degrade hydrocarbons). Energy Oil and gas Bangladesh is yet to assess the true potential of its offshore oil and gas prospects. Some 26 Tcf (trillion cubic feet) gas reserve has so far been discovered in Bangladesh, of which only about 1 Tcf is located in the offshore areas. Until 2014, 19 exploratory wells were drilled in the Bay of Bengal, resulting in only two gas discoveries, i.e. the Sangu and the Kutubdia, with small reserves. The Sangu reserves of 0.8 Tcf have already depleted, whereas the Kutubdia reserves 0.04 Tcf are yet to be developed. Moreover, the drilling of the Magnama (3.5 Tcf) and Hatia (1.0 Tcf) yet to produce any commercial volumes of hydrocarbons. Due to close proximity to the discovered gas fields of Myanmar, some Bangladeshi blocks are likely to have comparable geological structures and gas/oil prospects. Oil & Gas production
  • 19. Sea salt production Sea salt has been produced traditionally along the Cox’s Bazar coast of Bangladesh for generations. In a longer dry season, the salt farmers can get about 20 tons/ha production. The annual salt production in the Cox’s Bazar coastal segment of Bangladesh is 22MT, where the Samut Sakhon of Thailand produces 43MT. Moreover, formation of salt farmer’s cooperatives can ensure bargaining power and maximize economic return (i.e., salt price) for their standard of living.
  • 20. Ocean renewable energy Marine-based renewable energy such as wind, wave and tidal range and currents offers a significant potential to contribute to low-carbon energy supplies for regions with appropriate coastal features. Off-shore wind covers all activities related to the development and construction of wind parks in marine waters, and the exploitation of wind energy by generating electricity offshore. However, most suitable onshore locations for wind turbines need to be identified and the best (windiest) offshore sites have to be connected to the main transmission grid. Tidal energy, covering tidal range and tidal current, is the most advanced, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is based on the thermodynamic potential between the warmer upper water layer and the colder deeper water layer. Activities provide important synergies with ocean renewable energies, e.g. wave energy converters may help to attenuate wave attack and generate electricity. Solar System in Ocean Turbine by tidal activity Sea Wind Circulation
  • 21. Aggregates mining (sand, gravel, etc.) Beach material commonly known as sand varies in colour ranging from dark-brown, grey, black, light brown, golden to silvery white. Several investigations have been carried out in the coastal region to find heavy materials in the sandy beaches of Bangladesh. Sands containing valuable heavy minerals are found intermittently over the length of a 250 km coastal belt from Patenga to Teknaf. The entire coastal belt has been explored with the discovery of 17 deposits of potentially valuable minerals such as zircon, rutile, ilmenite, leucoxene, kyanite, garnet, magnetite and monazite (Alam 2004). Proper extraction and commercialization of minerals from beach sand may enhance the growth of different industries such as welding electrodes, paper, glass, chemical and ceramic sectors in the country. So, by installing mineral extracting industries in the coastal region, it may be possible to create huge employment opportunities for the local community. Coastal tourism: Globally, coastal tourism is the largest market segment and represents 5 per cent of world GDP and contributes to 6-7 per cent of total employment. In 150 countries, it is one of five top export earners and in 60 it is the first. It is the main source of foreign exchange for one-half of Least Developed Countries (LDCs). Coastal tourism includes a) beach-based recreation and tourism, b) tourist activities in proximity to the sea, and c) nautical boating including yachting and marinas. Sustainable tourism can create new jobs and reduce poverty. Tourism is human-resource intensive
  • 22. Aggregates mining (sand, gravel, etc.)
  • 24. Recreational water sports, yachting and marinas Introduction of various water sports for recreational activities, construction and servicing of seaworthy pleasure boats and the required supporting infrastructure including marina ports could encourage growth of coastal tourism. Cruise tourism Tourism based on people travelling by small size cruise ship in among the coastal islands and tourist areas. Much of this growth is dependent upon the sector’s ability to develop sustainable business models, to invest in port infrastructure and to address a variety of security concerns. An ageing population and a larger share of educated citizens will lead to more demand for 'customized experiences'.
  • 25. DEVELOPMENT OF BLUE ECONOMY FROM SEA RESOURCES
  • 26. Marine fishes (Capture) Demersal (bottom dwelling) fishes, pelagic (free swimming) fishes Fisheries and other living resources Shrimps, crabs, lobsters, mussels, etc. Mariculture Sea bass, Grey mullet, Pomfret , Hilsa , Crab breeding and green mussel, oyster , Seaweeds, and Marine micro algae cultivation in cages and other enclosures/grow outs Non living resources Salt and brine, potable water by desalination, Fuel oil, gas and as other valuable minerals Coastal tourism, and marine sports Cruise-ship, yacht, floating hotel and restaurant, surfing, diving, snorkeling, boating, sport fishing and other water sports etc. Shipping & port operations and use of ocean in maritime trade Trade expansion, fleet expansion, port development, transit and transshipment, coastal shipping and improvement and use of riverine routes for containers etc Forest resources development and Mangrove ecosystem Mangrove forests, afforestation, canal and creeks for spawning, breeding and pearl cultivation
  • 27. Ship building & ship recycling Incentives to be provided. More compliant industries needed. Renewable Energy development Power generation from current, tide, wave and maritime wind; bio-gas and bio- fuel from marine alage Land reclamation Acceleration of char and island formation by engineering interventions Biotechnology Marine algae, various marine plants & animals as raw materials for pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries Maritime professionals Coastal zone planner & manager, coastal forest manager, marine fisheries manager, tourism manager, maritime lawyer, merchant marine, port manager, maritime trade analyst, shipping liner & entrepreneur, marine pollution & environment expert, marine conservationist, hydrographer, surveyor, offshore engineer, naval architect, marine engineer, aquaculture technologist, biotechnologist and hatchery technologist, remote sensing & optical, marine scientist, marine biologist/ecologist, marine fisheries biologist, maritime meteorologist, climatologist, marine geologist, petroleum geologist, etc. Marine Scientific Research BORI should be strengthened with a research vessel Maritime safety and Surveillance Marine unconventional products and services Maritime safety and Surveillance may be upgraded Marine Business services Marine R&D; general education and ocean literacy; and private partnership
  • 28. Maritime safety and surveillance  Overall maritime safety and surveillance mechanism should be upgraded to improve the situational awareness of all activities at sea impacting on maritime economic activities.  Policy makers at national and international levels should look to the financial sector seeking to involve them in a range of topics, from nature protection and social welfare to social entrepreneurship towards realizing societal objectives. Any effort to build capacity or transfer of technology on Blue economy should consider how such efforts best fit the current circumstances and needs of the partner institutions.  A science-based approach is essential to the development of the Blue Economy; commencing with the initial assessment and critically the valuation of the blue capital at our disposal. This will provide a basis for informed decision-making and adaptive management. This major undertaking must be addressed and continually refined and upgraded in line with changing circumstances, evolving technologies and our increasing understanding; or the Blue Economy approach will founder. This underlines the importance of technical assistance, technology transfer and capacity building to the pursuit of sustainable development.
  • 29. Maritime safety and surveillance  Existing funding instruments/mechanism are not good enough to support the development of Blue Economy. Lastly, we need to encourage partnerships between, public authorities and economic players, in order to foster scale effects and mutually reinforcing learning and investment and to explore market opportunities worldwide for the international dimension of the blue economy.  With a view to improving food security, eradicating poverty and delivering shared prosperity, global leaders, ocean practitioners, scientists, and representatives from government, business, civil society, national and international organizations must come together to explore action-oriented partnerships, governance arrangements, investment frameworks and new financing vehicles to turn the tide not only on the health of Oceans but also how the resources of the sea could be used for economic emancipation.