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BECOMING A
MEMBER OF
SOCIETY
At the end of the chapter, the students will be able to:
1. explain the development of one's self and others as a product of socialization;
2. identify the context, content, processes, and consequences of socialization;
3. identify examples of agents of socialization and describe their role in socialization;
4. discuss how agents of socialization shaped their individual identities;
5. discuss conformity and its significance to society;
6. discuss deviance and social control and cite examples of each; and
7. promote the protection of human rights and the common good.
1. Socialization and Enculturation
2. Agent of Socialization and
Enculturation
3. Conformity, Deviance, and Social
Control
4. Human Dignity and Human Right
CONTENT
SOCIALIZATION
AND
ENCULTURATION
John Locke, a British Enlightenment. philosopher,
said that the human mind at birth is nothing but a
blank slate, or tabula rasa. As a child grows, various
experiences imprint knowledge on his or her mind.
The human mind, for Locke, acquires information
about the outside world through the senses, and
this information molds and defines a person's
awareness and view of the outside world. Locke
definitely did not believe that the human mind has
innate conceptions. Throughout a person's life,
simple ideas are integrated with more complex
ones, and these define his or her political, economic,
and social affairs.
refers to the lifelong process of social interaction
through which people acquire their identities and
necessary survival skills in society. It prepares new
members of society and trains them to think, feel, and
act in appropriate ways. Socialization is considered the
central process of social life, and is also a process of
member recruitment and replacement. Examples of
socialization include activities like child-rearing, the
orientation of a student to his or her new school, an
initiation to an organization, attendance in Sunday
school, catechism for Catholics, recruitment processes
for political parties, and acquainting an immigrant to
significant aspects of life in his or her new country.
SOCIALIZATION
Political socialization
The process of socialization enables a person to gradually become a self-aware and
knowledgeable human being, and learn the ways, values, rules, and culture of his or
her society. The development of the individual as a member of society is greatly
influenced by the context of his or her respective society, and the social groups
that he or she interacts with. Socialization is also important in politics, and a citizen
develops and acquires political ideas, values, attitudes, beliefs, and opinions
through political socialization, a process which enables the development of
citizens to function effectively within a particular political system.
Education and religion are significant tools of socialization and enculturation.
Three significant aspects of socialization: social
Context, content and process, and results
Social context refers to the particular circumstances of a society and
consists of its culture, language, and the social structures that define
social class, ethnicity, and gender. It also includes social and historical
events, mechanisms of power and control, and institutions and
individuals that engage the person in the socialization process. The
content and process of socialization refer to how socializing activities
are structured. Content refers to ideas, beliefs, behavior, and other
information that are passed on by members of society to the individual;
the process refers to the methods of interaction that enable the
content to be given to the person undergoing socialization.
Socialization is considered a highly interactive process which enables
old and new members to cooperate with and exercise mutual influence
on one another.
Anthropologists view socialization as becoming familiar with one's culture,
termed enculturation. It involves learning cultural symbols, norms, values, and
language through observation and interaction. Enculturation helps individuals
integrate into society by acquiring cultural competence. Examples include
attending school and learning the local language. Enculturation is a lifelong
process according to anthropologists like Margaret Mead, E. Adamson Hoebel,
and Melville Herskovits. It involves both conscious and unconscious conditioning,
leading individuals to internalize their culture and acquire social status, roles, and
identity.
Results refer to the outcomes of socialization, and are evident when
individuals begin to practice the behaviors, attitudes, and values that society
considers necessary for them to function effectively as its members. An example
of a result is the ability of an individual to speak his or her native language, and
understand and comply with basic rules and norms in his or her community. A
significant result of socialization is self-identity, which refers to the
establishment of a unique sense of identity and an awareness of how it relates to
their society and the world.
AGENTS OF
SOCIALIZATION
AND
ENCULTURATION
An important part of the socialization and enculturation processes are
the social groups that people come in contact and interact with throughout
their lives. These groups are called participants or agents of socialization
and enculturation, and consist of persons, groups, and institutions that teach
people essential knowledge to participate successfully in society. An
individual encounters these agents or participants throughout his or her life.
The most prominent agents of socialization include the family, school, peer
groups, mass media, religion, the state, and social and historical events.
AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION AND
ENCULTURATION
The family plays a crucial role in an individual's socialization from birth, providing care and shaping identity. Changes
in family structures, like single-parent households, impact child-rearing. Families transmit values, attitudes, and behaviors,
influencing political views, religious beliefs, and social opportunities. Family dynamics affect gender roles and values,
shaping individuals' perspectives on gender and sexuality.
Schools play a crucial role in shaping students' beliefs, values, and attitudes through academic and social activities. They
teach important values like competitiveness, cooperation, and respect for authority, while also emphasizing self-improvement
and hard work. Schools can be public, private, technical-vocational, or alternative, offering traditional or progressive education.
They influence students' views on society, politics, and their role in it. Education instills core values and political information,
shaping students' sense of identity and belonging. Schools promote political unity by establishing shared identities among
citizens from diverse backgrounds. Students learn about their country's values, history, and language, fostering social awareness
and political participation.
The Family
Schools
Peer groups play a crucial role in reinforcing behaviors learned from family and school, providing independence from
authority figures, and facilitating socialization and involvement in social and political issues. These groups consist of
individuals sharing similar interests or backgrounds. While typically informal and voluntary, some organized groups like Boy
Scouts or political youth organizations also serve as peer groups. Governments often use peer groups to promote their
interests, either fostering unity and civic engagement in democratic states or manipulating attitudes and beliefs in
authoritarian regimes. Historical examples include the Nazi Party and Communist Party of the former Soviet Union using
centrally-controlled peer groups for social and political purposes.
Peer Groups
Social and political events shape generations by influencing values and attitudes. Events like the Great Depression and
civil rights movements impact Western societies. In the Philippines, historical events like World War II and Martial Law define
views and attitudes. Different interpretations of events lead to varied socialization within societies, affecting unity. Countries may
enforce a singular history for cohesion, while multicultural nations face challenges in integrating diverse groups, risking societal
conflicts if differences are not addressed.
Major Social and Historical Events
Religion and state are key sources of authority, influencing socialization. The church plays a role in social and political
change in the Philippines, engaging with the government on various issues. In democratic states, the separation of church and
state is guaranteed, but the state still regulates religion's influence. The state shapes citizen behavior through laws and
regulations, while society also influences the state through its values and enforcement of laws.
Religion and State
Mass media encompasses various communication forms like print materials, TV, radio, and the Internet, serving as a
potent socializing agent. The evolution of media from non-proximate to pervasive has intensified its impact on society,
influencing views, behavior, and attitudes. Mass media acts as a source of information, presents diverse perspectives, and offers
entertainment, shaping political landscapes and societal norms. The complex relationship between mass media and politics is
viewed through pluralist, market, dominant-ideology, and elite-values models. Media's influence varies based on exposure to
other socialization agents and stable political views, with concerns raised about declining political awareness and community
cohesion due to media consumption habits.
Mass media
CONFORMITY,
DEVIANCE, AND
SOCIAL CONTROL
Conformity
Groups exert great influence on an individual’s thoughts, values, attitudes, and behavior. They also provide a sense
of identity and belongingness that enable the person to relate fully with other group members. For an individual to
continue functioning as a member of the group, he or she should conform to the general behaviors and attitudes
prevalent within it.
Conformity refers to the process of altering one’s thoughts and actions to adapt to the accepted behavior within
his or her group or society. Social psychology Considers conformity as a product of pressure exerted by the group on
the individual Herbert Kelman identifies three types of conformity: compliance, identification, and Internalization or
acceptance.
Compliance refers to the outward conformity to social pressure but privately disagreeing with it. This action is
often motivated by the desire to gain rewards or avoid punishment. This is the least enduring type of conformity, since
the motivation provided by rewards and punishments may not always be present, or the authority figure may be unable
to exert his or her influence fully on the group or society at all times.
Identification, on the other hand, refers to the individual adopting a certain behavior because it enables him or
her to have a satisfying relationship with the members of his or her group. The individuals also adopt the opinions and
values of the group, and may strive to emulate an authority figure usually a parent or leader that he or she respects or
admires.
Internalization or acceptance involves both public compliance and internal acceptance of the norms and
standards imposed by the group. This is the most permanent and deeply-rooted response to social influence.
Acceptance or internalization is motivated by the desire to be right, with the authority figure or person of influence
being deemed trustworthy, credible, and of good judgment. Acceptance eventually results to the integration of the
group’s set of beliefs and behavior into the individual’s own framework.
Deviance is defined as a behavior that elicits a strong negative reaction from group
members and involves actions that violate commonly held social norms. What is defined as
deviance, however, varies depending on the context of the group or society. What may be
considered normal behavior in one culture may be considered deviant behavior in others. For
instance, during the Nazi regime in Germany, many individuals were singled out as deviants-
Jews, gypsies, the disabled, homosexuals, and other “non-Aryans.” However, Germany and
the rest of Europe at present officially no longer consider these people as deviants. Another
example is the case of women driving cars. In the Philippines, women drivers are a common
sight, but in Saudi Arabia driving a car is considered an undesirable behavior for women and
is banned by law.
Deviance
Various views on social deviance include:
• Biological and psychological theories have been largely discredited.
• Sociologists believe deviance is learned and influenced by social factors like
socioeconomic status and power dynamics.
• Structural-functionalist framework sees deviance as a result of structural tensions and lack
of moral regulation.
• Robert Merton's structural strain theory links deviance to tensions between societal goals
and means to achieve them.
• The subcultural view points to certain groups being prone to deviant behavior due to their
values.
• The symbolic-interactionist view sees deviance as a socially constructed phenomenon
influenced by labeling.
• The conflict perspective views deviance as reflecting societal inequalities, with minorities
more likely to be considered deviant.
• Control theories suggest that inadequate social controls can lead to deviant behavior, with
the broken windows theory linking social disorder to deviance.
Social Control and Sanctions
Social control is defined as any systematic means and practices used to maintal norms, rules, and laws; regulate
conflict; and discourage deviant behavior. Sanctions are the most common means of social control, and are often
employed to addres conflicts and violations of social norms. Sanctions can be formal or informal.
Formal sanctions are those provided for by laws and other regulations in societ Laws formally designate certain
deviant behaviors as crimes, and prescribe sanctio for such acts. The adoption and enforcement of laws serve to
reinforce accepted social norms, as well as define deviant behaviors that merit punishment in society. Each society has
its own set of definitions regarding crime and the appropriate sanctions be applied. For instance, several states in the
United States impose the death penal on crimes such as murder. Meanwhile, Philippine law provides for the imposition
of the death penalty on certain crimes, but the government has chosen to suspend the imposition of death penalty
since 2006. Other sanctions provided for crimes include imprisonment, banishment, fines, and corporal punishment.
Informal sanctions are most commonly imposed by smaller societies, communities, or groups. There are no set
laws or regulations that define the nature of these sanctions, and these are often arbitrarily agreed upon by members
of the group or society, Ostracism and social stigma are the most common forms of informal sanction. An ostracized
individual is forcibly isolated from the rest of society for a certain time. A stigmatized person, on the other hand, still
remains within society but is subject to isolation and rejection by other members of society, Gossip is considered as
another way of imposing informal sanctions, as it is an informal means of monitoring and censuring the behavior of
certain individuals.
HUMAN DIGNITY
AND HUMAN RIGHTS
Human dignity refers to the idea that a person has the innate right to be valued, respected, and treated
well. Human rights are legal, social, and ethical principles that consider the human person as deserving of liberties
and protections by virtue of his or her human dignity,
Human dignity and human rights are significant concerns when dealing with socialization and issues on
deviance and social control. Socialization primarily aims to instill recognition of and respect for human rights and
dignity. These issues are also legitimate concerns when society deals with deviance and the enforcement of social
control.
Human rights are founded on natural rights, which are universal and inalienable, And are not contingent on
laws, customs, beliefs, or values of a particular culture.Examples of these rights are the right to life and freedom.
Human rights are considered to have the following characteristics:
• They are universal because they belong to all human beings regardless of race, religion, gender, and other
characteristics.
• They are fundamental since they cannot be taken away from any human Being.
• They are indivisible as various rights are interrelated and given equal importance.
• They are absolute since they cannot be qualified and are considered basic necessities for living a genuine life.
A major legal instrument that upholds the recognition of human rights is the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights (UDHR), which was drafted by the United Nations Commission on Human Rights in 1948. This document
was one of the major results of the end of the Second World War. The atrocities committed during the war
convinced many countries of the need to craft an international charter that will ensure that such crimes will no
longer be repeated
HUMAN DIGNITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS
REVIEW
• Socialization refers to the lifelong process of social interaction through which people acquire their identities and all necessary skills
for survival in society. It prepares newcomers to become members of an existing group through the adoption of values and behavior
that are considered appropriate by the group.
• Anthropologists use the term enculturation to refer to the process of being socialized to a particular culture. Through enculturation,
individuals learn the symbols, norms, values, and language of their culture by observing and Interacting with various members of
society.
• Agents of socialization refer to persons, groups, and institutions that interact with individuals and teach them the essential
knowledge needed to participate successfully in society. These agents constantly interact with individuals and influence their
thoughts and behavior.
• Socialization is defined by social context which consists of aspects of society such as culture, language, and the social structures
that define social class, ethnicity, and gender. It also includes social and historical events, mechanisms of power and control, and
institutions and individuals that engage the person in the socialization process.
• The family is considered as the primary agent of socialization from infancy up to childhood. Other agents of socialization include
religion, peer groups, Schools, mass media, and the law, among others.
• Conformity refers to the process of altering one’s behavior to adapt to more Socially-accepted means and goals within a society,
culture, or group.
• Deviance is defined as behavior that elicits a strong negative reaction from others in a particular group or setting. It involves actions
that violate commonly held norms of a group or ssociety
• There are different sociological theories that explain deviance. These are Functionalist theories, interactionist theories, conflict
theories, and control Theories.
• Social control refers to any systematic means and practices used to maintain society’s norms, rules, and laws; regulate conflict; and
discourage deviant behavior. Formal sanctions are those provided by laws and other regulations in society, while informal sanctions
consist of actions such as ostracism, social stigma, and even gossip.
• Human rights are legal, social, and ethical principles to which people are entitled by virtue of their human dignity. They are said to be
universal, fundamental, indivisible, and absolute, Adherence to human rights may differ from one society to another.
THANK YOU!

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Becoming a Member of Society.pptx

  • 2. At the end of the chapter, the students will be able to: 1. explain the development of one's self and others as a product of socialization; 2. identify the context, content, processes, and consequences of socialization; 3. identify examples of agents of socialization and describe their role in socialization; 4. discuss how agents of socialization shaped their individual identities; 5. discuss conformity and its significance to society; 6. discuss deviance and social control and cite examples of each; and 7. promote the protection of human rights and the common good.
  • 3. 1. Socialization and Enculturation 2. Agent of Socialization and Enculturation 3. Conformity, Deviance, and Social Control 4. Human Dignity and Human Right CONTENT
  • 5. John Locke, a British Enlightenment. philosopher, said that the human mind at birth is nothing but a blank slate, or tabula rasa. As a child grows, various experiences imprint knowledge on his or her mind. The human mind, for Locke, acquires information about the outside world through the senses, and this information molds and defines a person's awareness and view of the outside world. Locke definitely did not believe that the human mind has innate conceptions. Throughout a person's life, simple ideas are integrated with more complex ones, and these define his or her political, economic, and social affairs.
  • 6. refers to the lifelong process of social interaction through which people acquire their identities and necessary survival skills in society. It prepares new members of society and trains them to think, feel, and act in appropriate ways. Socialization is considered the central process of social life, and is also a process of member recruitment and replacement. Examples of socialization include activities like child-rearing, the orientation of a student to his or her new school, an initiation to an organization, attendance in Sunday school, catechism for Catholics, recruitment processes for political parties, and acquainting an immigrant to significant aspects of life in his or her new country. SOCIALIZATION
  • 7. Political socialization The process of socialization enables a person to gradually become a self-aware and knowledgeable human being, and learn the ways, values, rules, and culture of his or her society. The development of the individual as a member of society is greatly influenced by the context of his or her respective society, and the social groups that he or she interacts with. Socialization is also important in politics, and a citizen develops and acquires political ideas, values, attitudes, beliefs, and opinions through political socialization, a process which enables the development of citizens to function effectively within a particular political system. Education and religion are significant tools of socialization and enculturation.
  • 8. Three significant aspects of socialization: social Context, content and process, and results Social context refers to the particular circumstances of a society and consists of its culture, language, and the social structures that define social class, ethnicity, and gender. It also includes social and historical events, mechanisms of power and control, and institutions and individuals that engage the person in the socialization process. The content and process of socialization refer to how socializing activities are structured. Content refers to ideas, beliefs, behavior, and other information that are passed on by members of society to the individual; the process refers to the methods of interaction that enable the content to be given to the person undergoing socialization. Socialization is considered a highly interactive process which enables old and new members to cooperate with and exercise mutual influence on one another.
  • 9. Anthropologists view socialization as becoming familiar with one's culture, termed enculturation. It involves learning cultural symbols, norms, values, and language through observation and interaction. Enculturation helps individuals integrate into society by acquiring cultural competence. Examples include attending school and learning the local language. Enculturation is a lifelong process according to anthropologists like Margaret Mead, E. Adamson Hoebel, and Melville Herskovits. It involves both conscious and unconscious conditioning, leading individuals to internalize their culture and acquire social status, roles, and identity. Results refer to the outcomes of socialization, and are evident when individuals begin to practice the behaviors, attitudes, and values that society considers necessary for them to function effectively as its members. An example of a result is the ability of an individual to speak his or her native language, and understand and comply with basic rules and norms in his or her community. A significant result of socialization is self-identity, which refers to the establishment of a unique sense of identity and an awareness of how it relates to their society and the world.
  • 11. An important part of the socialization and enculturation processes are the social groups that people come in contact and interact with throughout their lives. These groups are called participants or agents of socialization and enculturation, and consist of persons, groups, and institutions that teach people essential knowledge to participate successfully in society. An individual encounters these agents or participants throughout his or her life. The most prominent agents of socialization include the family, school, peer groups, mass media, religion, the state, and social and historical events. AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION AND ENCULTURATION
  • 12. The family plays a crucial role in an individual's socialization from birth, providing care and shaping identity. Changes in family structures, like single-parent households, impact child-rearing. Families transmit values, attitudes, and behaviors, influencing political views, religious beliefs, and social opportunities. Family dynamics affect gender roles and values, shaping individuals' perspectives on gender and sexuality. Schools play a crucial role in shaping students' beliefs, values, and attitudes through academic and social activities. They teach important values like competitiveness, cooperation, and respect for authority, while also emphasizing self-improvement and hard work. Schools can be public, private, technical-vocational, or alternative, offering traditional or progressive education. They influence students' views on society, politics, and their role in it. Education instills core values and political information, shaping students' sense of identity and belonging. Schools promote political unity by establishing shared identities among citizens from diverse backgrounds. Students learn about their country's values, history, and language, fostering social awareness and political participation. The Family Schools Peer groups play a crucial role in reinforcing behaviors learned from family and school, providing independence from authority figures, and facilitating socialization and involvement in social and political issues. These groups consist of individuals sharing similar interests or backgrounds. While typically informal and voluntary, some organized groups like Boy Scouts or political youth organizations also serve as peer groups. Governments often use peer groups to promote their interests, either fostering unity and civic engagement in democratic states or manipulating attitudes and beliefs in authoritarian regimes. Historical examples include the Nazi Party and Communist Party of the former Soviet Union using centrally-controlled peer groups for social and political purposes. Peer Groups
  • 13. Social and political events shape generations by influencing values and attitudes. Events like the Great Depression and civil rights movements impact Western societies. In the Philippines, historical events like World War II and Martial Law define views and attitudes. Different interpretations of events lead to varied socialization within societies, affecting unity. Countries may enforce a singular history for cohesion, while multicultural nations face challenges in integrating diverse groups, risking societal conflicts if differences are not addressed. Major Social and Historical Events Religion and state are key sources of authority, influencing socialization. The church plays a role in social and political change in the Philippines, engaging with the government on various issues. In democratic states, the separation of church and state is guaranteed, but the state still regulates religion's influence. The state shapes citizen behavior through laws and regulations, while society also influences the state through its values and enforcement of laws. Religion and State Mass media encompasses various communication forms like print materials, TV, radio, and the Internet, serving as a potent socializing agent. The evolution of media from non-proximate to pervasive has intensified its impact on society, influencing views, behavior, and attitudes. Mass media acts as a source of information, presents diverse perspectives, and offers entertainment, shaping political landscapes and societal norms. The complex relationship between mass media and politics is viewed through pluralist, market, dominant-ideology, and elite-values models. Media's influence varies based on exposure to other socialization agents and stable political views, with concerns raised about declining political awareness and community cohesion due to media consumption habits. Mass media
  • 15. Conformity Groups exert great influence on an individual’s thoughts, values, attitudes, and behavior. They also provide a sense of identity and belongingness that enable the person to relate fully with other group members. For an individual to continue functioning as a member of the group, he or she should conform to the general behaviors and attitudes prevalent within it. Conformity refers to the process of altering one’s thoughts and actions to adapt to the accepted behavior within his or her group or society. Social psychology Considers conformity as a product of pressure exerted by the group on the individual Herbert Kelman identifies three types of conformity: compliance, identification, and Internalization or acceptance. Compliance refers to the outward conformity to social pressure but privately disagreeing with it. This action is often motivated by the desire to gain rewards or avoid punishment. This is the least enduring type of conformity, since the motivation provided by rewards and punishments may not always be present, or the authority figure may be unable to exert his or her influence fully on the group or society at all times. Identification, on the other hand, refers to the individual adopting a certain behavior because it enables him or her to have a satisfying relationship with the members of his or her group. The individuals also adopt the opinions and values of the group, and may strive to emulate an authority figure usually a parent or leader that he or she respects or admires. Internalization or acceptance involves both public compliance and internal acceptance of the norms and standards imposed by the group. This is the most permanent and deeply-rooted response to social influence. Acceptance or internalization is motivated by the desire to be right, with the authority figure or person of influence being deemed trustworthy, credible, and of good judgment. Acceptance eventually results to the integration of the group’s set of beliefs and behavior into the individual’s own framework.
  • 16. Deviance is defined as a behavior that elicits a strong negative reaction from group members and involves actions that violate commonly held social norms. What is defined as deviance, however, varies depending on the context of the group or society. What may be considered normal behavior in one culture may be considered deviant behavior in others. For instance, during the Nazi regime in Germany, many individuals were singled out as deviants- Jews, gypsies, the disabled, homosexuals, and other “non-Aryans.” However, Germany and the rest of Europe at present officially no longer consider these people as deviants. Another example is the case of women driving cars. In the Philippines, women drivers are a common sight, but in Saudi Arabia driving a car is considered an undesirable behavior for women and is banned by law. Deviance
  • 17. Various views on social deviance include: • Biological and psychological theories have been largely discredited. • Sociologists believe deviance is learned and influenced by social factors like socioeconomic status and power dynamics. • Structural-functionalist framework sees deviance as a result of structural tensions and lack of moral regulation. • Robert Merton's structural strain theory links deviance to tensions between societal goals and means to achieve them. • The subcultural view points to certain groups being prone to deviant behavior due to their values. • The symbolic-interactionist view sees deviance as a socially constructed phenomenon influenced by labeling. • The conflict perspective views deviance as reflecting societal inequalities, with minorities more likely to be considered deviant. • Control theories suggest that inadequate social controls can lead to deviant behavior, with the broken windows theory linking social disorder to deviance.
  • 18. Social Control and Sanctions Social control is defined as any systematic means and practices used to maintal norms, rules, and laws; regulate conflict; and discourage deviant behavior. Sanctions are the most common means of social control, and are often employed to addres conflicts and violations of social norms. Sanctions can be formal or informal. Formal sanctions are those provided for by laws and other regulations in societ Laws formally designate certain deviant behaviors as crimes, and prescribe sanctio for such acts. The adoption and enforcement of laws serve to reinforce accepted social norms, as well as define deviant behaviors that merit punishment in society. Each society has its own set of definitions regarding crime and the appropriate sanctions be applied. For instance, several states in the United States impose the death penal on crimes such as murder. Meanwhile, Philippine law provides for the imposition of the death penalty on certain crimes, but the government has chosen to suspend the imposition of death penalty since 2006. Other sanctions provided for crimes include imprisonment, banishment, fines, and corporal punishment. Informal sanctions are most commonly imposed by smaller societies, communities, or groups. There are no set laws or regulations that define the nature of these sanctions, and these are often arbitrarily agreed upon by members of the group or society, Ostracism and social stigma are the most common forms of informal sanction. An ostracized individual is forcibly isolated from the rest of society for a certain time. A stigmatized person, on the other hand, still remains within society but is subject to isolation and rejection by other members of society, Gossip is considered as another way of imposing informal sanctions, as it is an informal means of monitoring and censuring the behavior of certain individuals.
  • 20. Human dignity refers to the idea that a person has the innate right to be valued, respected, and treated well. Human rights are legal, social, and ethical principles that consider the human person as deserving of liberties and protections by virtue of his or her human dignity, Human dignity and human rights are significant concerns when dealing with socialization and issues on deviance and social control. Socialization primarily aims to instill recognition of and respect for human rights and dignity. These issues are also legitimate concerns when society deals with deviance and the enforcement of social control. Human rights are founded on natural rights, which are universal and inalienable, And are not contingent on laws, customs, beliefs, or values of a particular culture.Examples of these rights are the right to life and freedom. Human rights are considered to have the following characteristics: • They are universal because they belong to all human beings regardless of race, religion, gender, and other characteristics. • They are fundamental since they cannot be taken away from any human Being. • They are indivisible as various rights are interrelated and given equal importance. • They are absolute since they cannot be qualified and are considered basic necessities for living a genuine life. A major legal instrument that upholds the recognition of human rights is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), which was drafted by the United Nations Commission on Human Rights in 1948. This document was one of the major results of the end of the Second World War. The atrocities committed during the war convinced many countries of the need to craft an international charter that will ensure that such crimes will no longer be repeated HUMAN DIGNITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS
  • 21. REVIEW • Socialization refers to the lifelong process of social interaction through which people acquire their identities and all necessary skills for survival in society. It prepares newcomers to become members of an existing group through the adoption of values and behavior that are considered appropriate by the group. • Anthropologists use the term enculturation to refer to the process of being socialized to a particular culture. Through enculturation, individuals learn the symbols, norms, values, and language of their culture by observing and Interacting with various members of society. • Agents of socialization refer to persons, groups, and institutions that interact with individuals and teach them the essential knowledge needed to participate successfully in society. These agents constantly interact with individuals and influence their thoughts and behavior. • Socialization is defined by social context which consists of aspects of society such as culture, language, and the social structures that define social class, ethnicity, and gender. It also includes social and historical events, mechanisms of power and control, and institutions and individuals that engage the person in the socialization process. • The family is considered as the primary agent of socialization from infancy up to childhood. Other agents of socialization include religion, peer groups, Schools, mass media, and the law, among others. • Conformity refers to the process of altering one’s behavior to adapt to more Socially-accepted means and goals within a society, culture, or group. • Deviance is defined as behavior that elicits a strong negative reaction from others in a particular group or setting. It involves actions that violate commonly held norms of a group or ssociety • There are different sociological theories that explain deviance. These are Functionalist theories, interactionist theories, conflict theories, and control Theories. • Social control refers to any systematic means and practices used to maintain society’s norms, rules, and laws; regulate conflict; and discourage deviant behavior. Formal sanctions are those provided by laws and other regulations in society, while informal sanctions consist of actions such as ostracism, social stigma, and even gossip. • Human rights are legal, social, and ethical principles to which people are entitled by virtue of their human dignity. They are said to be universal, fundamental, indivisible, and absolute, Adherence to human rights may differ from one society to another.

Editor's Notes

  1. Hi everyone