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Article 22
Introduction
 Article 22 is one the groups of Articles in Part 3
(fundamental Rights) of the constitution of India,
which have been collected together under the sub
heading Right to Freedom.
 The subject matter of the Article is personal liberty.
This Article proceeds to guarantee certain
fundamental rights to every arrested person.
 These rights being guaranteed by the constitution are
of higher status than the rights which are merely
conferred by the ordinary law and have no such
constitutional guarantee.
Article 22 not a complete code
 In the A K Gopalan v. State of Madras case of 1950, the
Supreme Court, taking a narrow view of Article 21 and
22, refused to consider if the procedure established by
law suffered from any deficiencies. It was of the belief
that each article of the constitution was independent of
each other. When the petitioner challenged the validity
of his detention on the grounds that it was violating his
rights under Article 19 and 21, the Supreme Court
disregarded all the contentions considering that the
detention could be justified merely on the ground that it
was carried out according to the ‘procedure established
by law’. The Supreme Court, in this case, followed a
restrictive interpretation of the expression ‘personal
liberty’ and the term ‘law’, rejecting all principles of
natural justice.
 In Maneka Gandhi v. Union Of India, the court
widened the scope of the expression ‘personal
liberty’ considerably and interpreted it in its
widest amplitude. The court observed that
Article 21 does not exclude Article 19 hence any
law depriving a person of personal liberty would
have to stand the test of Article 21 and Article 19
simultaneously.
 Therefore it can be said that Article 22 in
itself is an incomplete code which means
that the legality of the article is limited to be
tested only against it and is not completely
in accord with the fundamental rights of the
constitution
Rights of arrested persons under
ordinary laws
 (a) the right to be informed ‘as soon as
possible’ of ground of arrest
 (b) the right to consult and to be
represented by a lawyer of his own
choice.
 (c) the right to be produced before
magistrate within 24 hours.
 (d) the freedom from detention beyond
the said period except by the order of
the Magistrate.
(a) Right to be informed of the
grounds of arrest
 Section 50 of CrPC states that it is the duty of every police
officer or any other person authorized to arrest any person
without a warrant, to let the person being arrested know the
grounds of arrest immediately. Non-compliance with this
provision renders the arrest illegal.
 Article 22(1) states that any person who is arrested, cannot
be detained in custody without being informed of the
grounds of any such arrest as soon as possible.
 Both these laws clearly portray that no arrest can be made
because it is lawful for the police to do so. Every arrest
requires reason and justification, apart and distinct from the
power to arrest. In view of this, it was held in the case
of Joginder Kumar v. State of U.P. that a detained person
should know the cause of his detention and is entitled to let
any third person know the location of his detention.
 (b) Right to be defended by a lawyer of his
own choice
 Article 22(1) also states that any person who is
arrested has the right to consult at all times and be
defended by a lawyer of his own choice. This right is
expanded right from the moment of the person’s arrest.
 There are a few rights which are not explicitly
mentioned but are interpreted by the Supreme Court in
certain cases. In the case of Hussainara Khatoon &
Ors vs Home Secretary, State Of Bihar the S.C held
that it is constitutional right of every accused person
who is unable to engage a lawyer and secure legal
services on account of reasons such as proverty,
indigences or incommunicado situtaion,to have free
legal services provided to him by State.
(c) Right to be produced before
a Magistrate
 Article 22(2) ensures the right of the accused to be
produced before a magistrate. When a person is
arrested, the person or police officer making the arrest
should bring the arrested person before a magistrate
or judicial officer without any unnecessary delay. This
is also supported by Section 56 of the CrPC.
 The right available to the accused at the first stage of
production before the Magistrate is not stated directly
in Article 22. It is rooted in Section 167 of the
CrPC and states that no magistrate can authorize the
detention of the accused in police custody unless the
accused is produced in person before the magistrate.
This right protects the accused from being detained on
wrong or irrelevant grounds.
(d) No detention beyond 24
hours except by order of the
Magistrate
 Article 22(2) also states that no person who is arrested
should be detained for more than 24 hours without being
produced before a magistrate or judicial authority and
getting the detention authorized. The mentioned 24 hours
exclude the time of travel from the place of arrest to the
magistrate’s court. This provision helps to keep a check
on the investigation of the police regarding the matter at
hand. It protects the accused from being trapped into
wrongful detention.
 In the case of State of Punjab v. Ajaib Singh, this right was
infringed and thus the victim was provided compensation
as constitutional remedy. It was held that cases of arrest
without warrant require greater protection and production
of the accused within 24 hours ensures the legality of the
arrest, not complying with which would deem the arrest
unlawful.
 Exceptions
 Clause 3 of the Article 22 clearly states that none of the rights
mentioned in clause 1 and 2 of the Article would be applicable for a
person who is deemed to be an enemy alien and anybody who is
arrested or detained under the law providing for preventive
detention.
 Preventive Detention Laws
 A person can be put in jail/custody for two reasons. One is that he
has committed a crime. Another is that he has the potential to
commit a crime in the future. The custody arising out of the latter is
preventive detention and in this, a person is deemed likely to
commit a crime. Thus Preventive Detention is done before the
crime has been committed.
Necessity of such provision
 The aim of the constitution framers to bring such
provision into existence was to prevent people from
disrupting the peace and stability of the society.
People were detained to prevent them from
undermining the sanctity of the constitution,
endangering the security of the state, disturbing
relations of India with foreign powers or hindering
maintenance of public order.
 India follows preventive detention even in times of
peace, when there is no threat posed to the national
security of the state, which is one of the main reasons
of imposing and implementing provisions of
preventive detention. While, no other civilized nation
has this proposition during peacetime.
What are grounds for
Preventive detention?
 It can be made only on four grounds which are as
follows –
 security of state,
 maintenance of public order,
 maintenance of supplies and essential services and
defence,
 foreign affairs or security of India
 This article states that if a person is arrested
or detained under a law providing for
preventive detention, then the protection
against arrest and detention under Article 22
(1) and 22 (2) shall not be available
Constitutional safeguards against
Preventive Detention Laws
 (a) Review by Advisory Board: Clause 4 of the article states
that no law framed for preventive detention gives authority to
detain any person for more than 3 months unless; an advisory
board reports a sufficient cause for such detention. The people
on the advisory board should be equally qualified as that of a
judge of the high court. The report needs to be submitted before
the expiration of said 3 months.
 (b) Communication of grounds of detention to
detenu: Clause 5 of the article states that any authority while
detaining any person under law providing for preventive
detention shall communicate the grounds of detention to the
person as soon as possible. The ground of detention should
have a rational connection with the object which the detenu is
prevented from attaining. The communication should provide
all the material facts related to the ground and should not be a
mere statement of facts.
 No obligation of authority: The detaining authority is
under no obligation to provide the grounds of detention to
detenu prior to his arrest, but is advised to do so at the
earliest thereby providing an opportunity of representation
to the detenu as well.
 A person already in custody can be detained when there
are reasonable and sufficient causes to do so. The focal
problem being that in cases of preventive detention there is
no way to check whether the cause of detention is just and
reasonable until it is presented to the advisory board which
is applicable after the stretch of 3 months.
 (c) Detenue’s Right of representation: Clause 5 of the
article also states that the grounds of the detention should
be communicated as soon as possible in order to enable the
right of representation to the person. The authority
providing the detention order shall afford to the person the
earliest opportunity of making a representation against the
order

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Article 22 made by praveen

  • 2. Introduction  Article 22 is one the groups of Articles in Part 3 (fundamental Rights) of the constitution of India, which have been collected together under the sub heading Right to Freedom.  The subject matter of the Article is personal liberty. This Article proceeds to guarantee certain fundamental rights to every arrested person.  These rights being guaranteed by the constitution are of higher status than the rights which are merely conferred by the ordinary law and have no such constitutional guarantee.
  • 3. Article 22 not a complete code  In the A K Gopalan v. State of Madras case of 1950, the Supreme Court, taking a narrow view of Article 21 and 22, refused to consider if the procedure established by law suffered from any deficiencies. It was of the belief that each article of the constitution was independent of each other. When the petitioner challenged the validity of his detention on the grounds that it was violating his rights under Article 19 and 21, the Supreme Court disregarded all the contentions considering that the detention could be justified merely on the ground that it was carried out according to the ‘procedure established by law’. The Supreme Court, in this case, followed a restrictive interpretation of the expression ‘personal liberty’ and the term ‘law’, rejecting all principles of natural justice.
  • 4.  In Maneka Gandhi v. Union Of India, the court widened the scope of the expression ‘personal liberty’ considerably and interpreted it in its widest amplitude. The court observed that Article 21 does not exclude Article 19 hence any law depriving a person of personal liberty would have to stand the test of Article 21 and Article 19 simultaneously.  Therefore it can be said that Article 22 in itself is an incomplete code which means that the legality of the article is limited to be tested only against it and is not completely in accord with the fundamental rights of the constitution
  • 5. Rights of arrested persons under ordinary laws  (a) the right to be informed ‘as soon as possible’ of ground of arrest  (b) the right to consult and to be represented by a lawyer of his own choice.  (c) the right to be produced before magistrate within 24 hours.  (d) the freedom from detention beyond the said period except by the order of the Magistrate.
  • 6. (a) Right to be informed of the grounds of arrest  Section 50 of CrPC states that it is the duty of every police officer or any other person authorized to arrest any person without a warrant, to let the person being arrested know the grounds of arrest immediately. Non-compliance with this provision renders the arrest illegal.  Article 22(1) states that any person who is arrested, cannot be detained in custody without being informed of the grounds of any such arrest as soon as possible.  Both these laws clearly portray that no arrest can be made because it is lawful for the police to do so. Every arrest requires reason and justification, apart and distinct from the power to arrest. In view of this, it was held in the case of Joginder Kumar v. State of U.P. that a detained person should know the cause of his detention and is entitled to let any third person know the location of his detention.
  • 7.  (b) Right to be defended by a lawyer of his own choice  Article 22(1) also states that any person who is arrested has the right to consult at all times and be defended by a lawyer of his own choice. This right is expanded right from the moment of the person’s arrest.  There are a few rights which are not explicitly mentioned but are interpreted by the Supreme Court in certain cases. In the case of Hussainara Khatoon & Ors vs Home Secretary, State Of Bihar the S.C held that it is constitutional right of every accused person who is unable to engage a lawyer and secure legal services on account of reasons such as proverty, indigences or incommunicado situtaion,to have free legal services provided to him by State.
  • 8. (c) Right to be produced before a Magistrate  Article 22(2) ensures the right of the accused to be produced before a magistrate. When a person is arrested, the person or police officer making the arrest should bring the arrested person before a magistrate or judicial officer without any unnecessary delay. This is also supported by Section 56 of the CrPC.  The right available to the accused at the first stage of production before the Magistrate is not stated directly in Article 22. It is rooted in Section 167 of the CrPC and states that no magistrate can authorize the detention of the accused in police custody unless the accused is produced in person before the magistrate. This right protects the accused from being detained on wrong or irrelevant grounds.
  • 9. (d) No detention beyond 24 hours except by order of the Magistrate  Article 22(2) also states that no person who is arrested should be detained for more than 24 hours without being produced before a magistrate or judicial authority and getting the detention authorized. The mentioned 24 hours exclude the time of travel from the place of arrest to the magistrate’s court. This provision helps to keep a check on the investigation of the police regarding the matter at hand. It protects the accused from being trapped into wrongful detention.  In the case of State of Punjab v. Ajaib Singh, this right was infringed and thus the victim was provided compensation as constitutional remedy. It was held that cases of arrest without warrant require greater protection and production of the accused within 24 hours ensures the legality of the arrest, not complying with which would deem the arrest unlawful.
  • 10.  Exceptions  Clause 3 of the Article 22 clearly states that none of the rights mentioned in clause 1 and 2 of the Article would be applicable for a person who is deemed to be an enemy alien and anybody who is arrested or detained under the law providing for preventive detention.  Preventive Detention Laws  A person can be put in jail/custody for two reasons. One is that he has committed a crime. Another is that he has the potential to commit a crime in the future. The custody arising out of the latter is preventive detention and in this, a person is deemed likely to commit a crime. Thus Preventive Detention is done before the crime has been committed.
  • 11. Necessity of such provision  The aim of the constitution framers to bring such provision into existence was to prevent people from disrupting the peace and stability of the society. People were detained to prevent them from undermining the sanctity of the constitution, endangering the security of the state, disturbing relations of India with foreign powers or hindering maintenance of public order.  India follows preventive detention even in times of peace, when there is no threat posed to the national security of the state, which is one of the main reasons of imposing and implementing provisions of preventive detention. While, no other civilized nation has this proposition during peacetime.
  • 12. What are grounds for Preventive detention?  It can be made only on four grounds which are as follows –  security of state,  maintenance of public order,  maintenance of supplies and essential services and defence,  foreign affairs or security of India  This article states that if a person is arrested or detained under a law providing for preventive detention, then the protection against arrest and detention under Article 22 (1) and 22 (2) shall not be available
  • 13. Constitutional safeguards against Preventive Detention Laws  (a) Review by Advisory Board: Clause 4 of the article states that no law framed for preventive detention gives authority to detain any person for more than 3 months unless; an advisory board reports a sufficient cause for such detention. The people on the advisory board should be equally qualified as that of a judge of the high court. The report needs to be submitted before the expiration of said 3 months.  (b) Communication of grounds of detention to detenu: Clause 5 of the article states that any authority while detaining any person under law providing for preventive detention shall communicate the grounds of detention to the person as soon as possible. The ground of detention should have a rational connection with the object which the detenu is prevented from attaining. The communication should provide all the material facts related to the ground and should not be a mere statement of facts.
  • 14.  No obligation of authority: The detaining authority is under no obligation to provide the grounds of detention to detenu prior to his arrest, but is advised to do so at the earliest thereby providing an opportunity of representation to the detenu as well.  A person already in custody can be detained when there are reasonable and sufficient causes to do so. The focal problem being that in cases of preventive detention there is no way to check whether the cause of detention is just and reasonable until it is presented to the advisory board which is applicable after the stretch of 3 months.  (c) Detenue’s Right of representation: Clause 5 of the article also states that the grounds of the detention should be communicated as soon as possible in order to enable the right of representation to the person. The authority providing the detention order shall afford to the person the earliest opportunity of making a representation against the order